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Man in a manager, man in the worker is primarily a spiritual and mental being,
or in other words a soul and a mind, and only instrumentally a vital and a physical
being or a mere life and a body. In a similar way, the long term viability and progress
or the sustainable all round development of a nation depend not so much on its
material, ecological or technological resources but primarily on its human resources
having ample potential energies spiritual and psychological resources of our
Fortunately, in India we have the immense potential of our insight, and culture
for motivating, managing and leading of our abundant human resources. Values and
ideas in our ethos and culture are based on and evolved form the deepest truth of
Man, Life and Nature, i.e., on holistic approach.
Human and ethical values constitute the wealth of character. Values express
dharma or divine nature as understood in the East, particularly in the Indian ethos
and insight, and the ideas of integrity as understood in the west.
Moreover, values provide a common language for aligning a companys
leadership and its people.

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Philosophical ideas on value enquiry were directed towards finding the nature,
meaning and purpose of human existence. In the present century search for a theory
of values has become a separate branch of modern philosophy and has been called
In the Indian tradition absolute values are related to the absolute reality whose
nature is described as Sat, Chit and Anand. Attainment of a state of eternal bliss by
the realization of identity of the individual self with the universal Self of this absolute
reality is the highest and ultimate object of human striving.
Closely related to this absolutist perception is the theistic view which may be
called a sub-group of the idealistic-normative approach. It is based on a
metaphysical belief system which accepts the reality of a divine cosmic order and
faith in the authority of a creator God who is also the upholder of all values. The
basis of all ethical, social and other human values is sought in the enduring truths,
either revealed or obtained through super conscious insights of sages, contained in
the sacred religious literature.
Many leaders of the Indian renaissance, e.g. Swami Vivekananda, Sri
Aurobindo, Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi, were inspired by the
absolutist-theistic value system and used it as the basis for their efforts towards the
spiritual, social and political rejuvenation of the Indian society.
This is perhaps because of the need to highlight the universal humanistic
aspects of this value approach, as against the merely speculative, mystical, or lifedenying ascetic aspects. In the modern interpretation of theistic value approach the
authors have shown its relevance and significance to the managers and other
professionals. Another reason for the use of adjective human before these values
may be to distinguish this value approach from the modern, so-called scientific,
approach to human phenomena and associated values.
Interpreted in its narrow sense this scientific approach robs man of the dignity
of his divine association, his spiritual nature and reduces him to a biological
organism of a random collection of atoms. It denies any meaning and purpose to life
and rejects all considerations of faith, belief, feeling and intuitive religious
perceptions. This mechanistic, deterministic interpretation makes man merely a
malleable automaton, to be programmed to meet the demands of the existing sociotechnological order, through manipulation of his lower order needs and desires.
The factors influencing a pure mind are discussed in terms of higher and
lower self, disidentification and re-identification with the latter and the former
respectively the guna, karma, samskaras, nishkam karma and other theories.

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Our effectiveness at work is tied to exercising intrinsic human values i.e.,
moral and ethical values. These human values support established business values
such as service, communication, innovation, creativity, excellence, credibility and coordination. The human values help self- development. Managerial functions such as
direction, control, supervision and communication, integration and co-ordination are
much easier. These values help good interpersonal interactions. They reduce
conflicts and disputes. They are the part and parcel of achieving accelerated process
improvement, customer, workers and citizen satisfaction. They enhance reputation
and goodwill of the organization.
We seek fulfillment, happiness and success. It is a combination of inner and
outer achievement. Inner fulfillment is related to our spiritual, mental, emotional and
physical enrichment. The outer achievement is related to achieving set goals, using
one's talent and experience for the benefit of others (employees, customers, clients
and public). Self- development is the development of the whole being.

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To 'become' we need values. To 'do' we need skills.
'Becoming ' (needing values) must preceed 'doing' (needing skills) in valueoriented management. Values act as base of skills.
Values are the means of perfection. Skills must have sound system of values as
the base. Otherwise one can manipulate skills e.g. communication. Skills may be
misused for manipulating men, money and materials if management ignores
Values are internal; dealing with internal development of a person, purifying mind
and heart. The person becomes good in thought, in speech, in action, job or
work. Skills only make a person proficient. Values are the means of perfection of
The field of values is governed by union, holism and relatedness. The area ruled
by skills is division, fragmentation and separation.
Values bring about excellence and universal good i.e. soft-ware aspect. Skills see
us through mechanics of management i.e., hard- ware aspect. Both means and
ends must have values.
Skills are not enduring due to fatigue. Values are enduring.
Skills change with passage of time. Policy is flexible. Principles and values are not.
We have permanent fundamental values.

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The question of interest to us is can human values can be taught to modern
managers in any systematic way and, if so, to what effectiveness? This is clearly
depicted from the following three companies which have taken the step of educating
their employees about the values and its relevance in the society as well as the
The author Sarosh J. Ghandy shares his thoughts and his experience on the
value system prevailing in the TELCO. He starts with the most important value of
the organization which is the trust and the belief which the Tata leaders have held in
their men. They believe the best can be achieved only through this mode. Here the
author presents an encounter where J. R. D. Tata confers full trust on Mr. Charles
Perin, a geological surveyer. J. R. D. Tata entrusted full responsibility of site
selection of steel plant on Mr. Perin. This was the trust J. R. D. Tata held on Mr.
Perin thus reflecting the value system of the organization.
And thus the leaders at Tata allow their men to act on their own and thus
providing them immense opportunities to become leaders and thus give scope to
their creative impulses.
One of the values that Tata's have inculcated among their men is that of
environmental protection. They have constantly adopted villages for the purpose
and thus staying with the commitment of social responsibility.
Tata's also encouraged workshops to help their men search for their own
values as well as help them augment their knowledge about the value system of
Tatas. Thus the values of the organization and the values of the individuals were
homogenized. After the program the employees were surveyed and the values were
ranked according to the significance the employee attach to them.

Those values were:

1. Growth
2. Commitment to productivity
3. Development of personnel
4. Corporate ethics
5. Customer affection
6. Environment development

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And thus it can be said that world class modernization, high sales turnover is
supported by a strong value system. Therefore rightly said in the words of Robert D.
Hass of Levi Strauss,
"Values provide a common language for aligning a company's leadership and
its people."


A large number of business & industrial enterprises, in India & abroad tend to
disregard the importance of ethical & moral values which effects the quality of work
life in an organization.
The educated & cultured person appears to have accepted & quite often
redefine it as success. In todays world cheating is considered a necessary
condition for winning. Result- Orientation' is often used as a justification for unethical
& amoral practices.
Human happiness is one of the ultimate objectives for which a business
exists. Although economies in the world have achieved material progress during the
last hundred years, but still are unable to achieve this target of human happiness i.e
why business schools in U.S have started educating BUSINESS ETHICS a
Irrespective of religious diversity, there exist a remarkable degree of
agreement about values like Honesty, Integrity, Comparison, Tolerance &
Selflessness. People at various levels within the organization derive inspiration at
the workplace if they perceive such qualities in their leaders.
IPCL, which came into being in 1969 is today the established leader in the
field of petrochemicals in the country, with its workforce of about 12,000. IPCL
believed that people are central to the organization & had given rise to philosophy
where the development of people becomes an end in itself. This philosophy has led
to include employee as a whole & not confine ourselves to the development of
management power only.

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IPCL therefore has been exercising subordinate self interest to organizational

interest. In IPCL a diagnostic survey was conducted by professional institutions in
the field, such as Tata Management Training Centre, Administrative Staff College of
India and Human & Natural Resources research society , covering all levels of
After the survey IPCL has arranged one workshop for employees on Value
System and Mind Stilling Program. Middle and Senior management personnel in
six groups attended this programme. For each of the six groups the programme was
conducted in the three modules of three half days each. This made a total of fifty
four half days. The content included - theories of leadership, motivation and teambuilding, developed for a Indian setting and based on the values ingrained in the
Indian psyche. Practical mind- stilling exercise also formed a part of the programme.
However afterwards when the response was collected it was seen that this
workshop proved to be effective for the participants.

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Bilwaras value-system efforts began in 1980, when the author MR.L.N.
Jhunjhunwala was introduced to this subject by a monk of the famous Ramakrishna
mission. Mr. Jhunjhunwala had spoken to Ramakrishna about the disturbing trends
in industry today; he narrated that today the atmosphere was such that honesty
could not co-exist with industrial & business prosperity. He has also given examples
of lot of people who had reached the peak of prosperity through wrong ways.
The monk has narrated the story of Jamshedji & Swami Vivekananda, that
once J.R.D. TATA & Swami Vivekananda was together travelling on ship from India
to Japan. J.R.D. Tata talked to his companion about the necessity of science &
technology in India & his ambition for creating a big research institute in Bangalore.
He wanted Swamiji to implement this vision in order to build up our backward
country. But Swamiji told that he could not join him, but influenced him to go ahead &
complete his vision. Which brings Mr. Jhunjhunwala the light of inspired value
system & character of Tata Empire, which is still surviving.
With few meetings with monk, the author has experienced instances of house
of Ambalal Sarabhai & house of Birlas.
Also, Swami Buddhananda tried to explain that businessman was not an
exception to the law of truth & that the prosperity of the span of house depends on
the Tapasya of the founder & the team which creates the organization.
In 1983, the first corporate experiment on INDIAN INSIGHTS FOR VALUES
seminar was organized in the forest of Siriska in the atmosphere similar to that of

Details about the Workshop

The workshop was a full-fledged residential course.
The workshop lasted for two nights & three days with 7 hours of expositions &
discussions in 3 sessions each day followed by intensive
practice sessions.
The workshop was attended by Bilwaras top ten people, including Mr. L.N.
Jhunjhunwala & his three family members.
Everybody was spellbound by the end of seminar & found themselves better
human beings than what they had stated. In this way the seminar continued, 3-4
times in a year & non- residential courses for four years till the end of 1986.
The second session was taken very lightly by three profit center heads. whereas
the third session was ignored by the profit center heads. But there was atleast 3 out
of ten who were serious about it.

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The three profit center heads hint that all these talks of INDIAN INSIGHTS
FOR VALUES were for those who could not deliver the goods. They have no
relevance to corporate life. The programme did not seem to be valued by the
At this, the workshop was resumed from 1987 onwards where other
colleagues were asked to initiate the particular subject. The workshop was based on
three pillars of Indian ethos doctrine of karma, the theory of samskars and the
dynamism of guna system. This is how the efforts continued on limited scale. This
has helped in the last two years. Their centers of operation are now much more
profitable. All this had happened for the best.
In a nutshell it can be said that the values & dedication automatically brings
skill & raises employees efforts & improve their behavior.

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The objective of the workshops is to enhance in course participants the
sensitivity to and sustenance of the value-system, which Chakraborty has distilled
from what he calls The Indian ethos, based on studies of Buddhist, Vedantic and
Yogic literature together with Indian epics and Pauranic literature. It is claimed that
Indian values are found in the deep-structure of the Indian psyche, as reflected in
these sources.
The basic idea is purification of the mind, partly through a mind-stilling
technique, and partly through practice of nourishing noble thoughts (e.g.
compassion, friendliness, humbleness), and rejecting wicked ones (e.g. greed,
jealousy, arrogance). Such practice will reveal the divine, or A higher self, within the
individual and she/he will be able to perceive the same in others.

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The concept of Self-management is based on nurturing human values to
assure perfect coordination of head (mind), heart (emotions) and hands (actions,
i.e., and expression of your thoughts and emotions). In this way you enjoy health
(body/mind), harmony and happiness in your life and work. So in order to achieve
this we have to pay equal attention to all the aspects of human personality and
consider him as a whole or complete being, having practically unlimited potential
energy and power to develop himself and acquire perfection so that he can enjoy all
round internal and external harmony and progress. This is called hostile approach in
self management and management of any enterprise.
There are two levels of human consciousness:
1) Lower consciousness operating through our five senses in contact with the
external world. This is called Lower mind also. It is extravert.
2) Higher consciousness or higher mind which is the door to get the vision of the
spirit or our consciousness. This is also called the Inner mind. We are in touch of
this inner mind only in silence.
This higher consciousness or the inner mind is the right instrument or medium
to have the experience of the soul, the portion of the Divine, which enables one to
lead a much better life, much more qualitatively superior life. This will give a greater
happiness when it is translated in the form of running an organisation or in other field
one is engaged in.

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Managerial Effectiveness


Pure Mind
Four traditional methods of

1. Janna

2. Raja

In a still mind intuition

3. Bhakti

4. Karma



For Intellectual Being know thyself
Discrimination enables to distinguish lower self from higher self and find out
(rediscover) our Real Nature God reveal thyself in my heart and actions.
2) Raja Yoga :- (Path of Mind Control)
For Mental Being
It operates with the Mind, aims at performing of mind control. Then enter into
concentration and trance or samadhi.

3) Bhakti Yoga :- (Path of Devotion)

For Emotional Man
Self surrender to the Lord and emotionally one can reach the goal of pure
consciousness or Divinity. For e.g. Patanjalis Yoga.
4) Karma Yoga :- ( Path of Action)
For man of action

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Selfless action purifies our mind/intellect. Pure mind can concentrate,

contemplate and meditate to approach perfection or divinity, i.e. pure
Pure MindValues emerge effectively only from a purified mind i.e. from the inner mind or
higher consciousness. And Pure Mind is the origin of the all values.
Value OrientationCenter for Managerial Effectiveness
Managerial EffectivenessManagerial Effectiveness is based on holistic value based management
which can solve many problems harassing economy in all countries. Such
management offers human welfare, nature welfare, nature welfare, the quality of
life and the quality of work.

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Business need not be regarded evil, tainted and unethical. Business is
sacred. It is a matter of attitude, approach and level of management consciousness.
The right approach towards management can only be carried out when decisions are
made with pure and purified mind. Here we study few methods of mind purification


The western management resorts to brain- storming to solve managerial

problems. The Indian insight advocates a better alternative in the form of brainstilling. For rational and enduring decisions, silent mind is much more effective
medium to get sound and lasting solution to all management problems.
A perfect calmness is necessary. It indicates absence of any thought flow in
the mind. Preferably manager should have a small room of silence attached to his
office where he may retire from busy life to meditate in silence over the burning
problems in case of need.
By the method, the manager and the employees come into contact with the
inner mind or higher consciousness for arriving at proper solutions to their problems.


This is an another method to solve problems by remaining quiet and calling on

the inner consciousness for getting an answer. Peacefulness is the only way out
here to solve all problems. Once we enter into inner consciousness, we know what
true behaviour would be, what true solution to a problem is, what true action is.
Stepping back form a situation for a while enables to control and even master
the situation.


A dynamic meditation is meditation of transformation of lower consciousness

into higher consciousness. Hence we call it transforming meditation.
We may meditate to open ourselves to the Divine Force to receive its
guidance to discover the points to be transformed, to trace the weaknesses and to
trace out the line of progress.

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The goal is that in a management setting these practices will have :

Repercussions on business life

More specifically in respect of the individual

Improved cooperation

Non-attachment to the selfish rewards of the work

Increased creativity

Service to the customer

Improved quality

Creating an ethico-moral soundness

Cultivating self-discipline and self-restraint, and

Enhancing generosity

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The responses/data which constitute the plans of action, however, have
certain built in limitations :
1. We can only make inferences from the immediate time at the end of the
2. We can only study the managers' responses to, and expectations of human
values, not how they are reflected in their behaviour.
3. We do not know whether there has occured any changes in the managers'
attitudes towards human values, as we don't have data from them prior to the
4. We do not know how honest their attitudes are due to perceived group pressure
from peers, super/subordinates, from the course leader, desire to give a good (or
bad) impression or other possible factors.
5. The answers are given spontaneously without forewarning and therefore may not
be well thought out ideas.
The analysis of the plans of action meant to understand the intentions of the
participants, and make inferences from their statements the extent to which these
workshops have influenced human values in managers.

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Chakraborty's innovative approach to value education for practising managers
is impressive. He has culled out selected psycho-spiritual values from the traditional
wisdom literature of India, suitably reinterpreted them and woven them together to
form a coherent theory of human values. This theory is then utilised to explain the
problems and tensions of both personal and work life of modern professionals and to
indicate the way for a better quality of life. That this approach finds deep resonance
in the hearts and minds of Indian managers is evident from our observations of the
course participants' enthusiastic, and at times deeply moving, articulations at the
conclusion of the workshops.
"At the beginning of section II we raised the question whether human values
can be taught and with what degree of effectiveness". Judging from the course
participant's responses, Chakraborty's approach seems to have met with mostly
deep appreciation. Such response undoubtably provides a fertile soil for reexamining
and developing one's human values. To that extent it is evident that the workshops
have been effective in influencing the human values of the course participants.
However, it is difficult to reach any conclusion as to what extent the course
objectives have been interiorised by the course participants and the general learning
effects of the workshops in the daily lives of the participants. What are the effects in
the managers' work and family lives, and do their decisions reflect an increased
awareness of human values? Neither can we draw any conclusions about the
duration of the effects, i.e. whether it will last for a day or week and then vanish, or if
the effects are stable and enduring.
It is also evident from the responses and the stated objectives of the course
that the main focus is on the self; self-awareness, self-analysis and selfdevelopment. It is consistent with the view that the individual is the cornerstone of
all changes and transformations at the organizational as well as the societal levels.
While the necessity of this self-development as a precondition for the value
transformation in society may not be in doubt, the emphasis on it may convey the
message that it is also sufficient for all the value problems of today's living. At the
organizational level the difficulty may be posed in terms of two distinct, though
related, categories of intra-personal and inter-personal values. The latter are of vital
significance to managers' organizational role of a team leader, a change agent or a
member of a work group. A heightened sensitivity to personal virtues, which is very
effective at the intra-personal level, in itself may not be sufficient for values needed
for effectiveness at the inter-personal level. Additional emphasis on humanistic
values like human warmth, friendliness, acceptance of the other person as she/he is,
trusts, empathy etc., may help bring about a better value balance. As indicated in our
study, the emphasis on the inter- and intra-personal levels, as also the extent to
which other approaches to human values should be emphasized, may have to be
adjusted depending on the type of organization that is approached.
The manager significantly affects, and is affected by, the value culture of the
society, through the mediating agency of organizations and other social institutions.
Proper appreciation of this value dynamics requires understanding, and
interiorisation, of the operation of human values at the societal and ecological levels
of our categorization. It is not clear as to what extent values at these levels can be

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developed and nourished through the present structure and approach of the human
value workshops. An evaluation of the impact of the workshops, including long-term
effects and effects on different levels of human values, may help clarify the position
and lead to suggestions for expansions and alterations in the course contents as well
as the methodology of the workshops.