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Experiment 2: Torsion of Round Wire and Bar

Objective :
To investigate the deformation and fracture of wire subjected to torsion.

Abstract :
The following experiment outlines the proper procedure for determining the deformation
and fracture of wire subjected to torsion when torque is applied to the bar until the bar
fracture. During this experiment, four type of sample specimens with different length and
diameter were used to conduct the experiment which are aluminum bar, steel bar, copper
bar, and brass bar. All of the specimens were used as sample to demonstrate how material
behave during the testing condition. Before the experiment, the diameter and length of
each specimen were measured for comparing purpose. Moreover, the data was recorded
to determine the characteristics of the materials whether it would fail in a brittle or a
ductile manner. Graph of diameter versus angle of twist, and length versus angle of twist
are plotted.

Methodology
In this experiment, sample specimen of metals with different length, diameter and
material were used to investigate the relationship between diameter and angle of twist,
and the relationship of length and angle of twist. The angle of twist was determined by
using the wire torsion testing machine.
At first, the initial length and diameter of the specimen were measured by using a
vernier caliper and readings were recorded. According to the specimen, suitable clip was
selected. The specimen was clamped together with the clip and to be inserted into the
machine.
The installation of work pieces involved few steps. The clamping screws at the
both sides were adjusted by using wrench in order to fit the work pieces. The specimen
and the clip were fitted into the square hole. The clamping screw was then adjusted to
make them aligning with the center line of chuck. After that, the clamping screw was
tighten and same steps were repeated for the other side. Appling of excess force during
clamping process should be avoided.
The weight was installed to the left side of the machine at about 50mm from the
table. The magnet was moved close to the sensor and sensor spacing was adjusted. When
the specimen is fractured, the weight will be dropped, the distance between the magnet

and sensor increased and motor will stop immediately. Speed selection was based on the
table shown in below:

Apparatus :
1. Sample specimen of
a. Steel bar
b. Aluminum bar
c. Brass bar
d. Copper bar
2. Vernier caliper
3. Wrench
4. Weight
5. Clamping clips
6. Wire Torsion Testing Machine

Results

Figure 1: Wire Torsion Testing Machine

Table 1: The diameter, length and angle of twist for steel


Material
Steel

Diameter
(mm)
3.30
4.00
4.10

Length
(mm)
180
182
147

Torsion speed
(r/s)
0.5
0.5
0.5

Angle of twist
(rev)
64.0
46.5
39.0

Table 2: The diameter, length and angle of twist for copper


Material
Copper

Diameter
(mm)
4.00
4.80
4.95

Length
(mm)
247
247
180

Torsion speed
(r/s)
1
1
1

Angle of twist
(rev)
86.4
73.3
59.3

Table 3: The diameter, length and angle of twist for aluminum


Material
Aluminu
m

Diameter
(mm)
3.00
4.45
4.80

Length
(mm)
168
175
180

Torsion speed
(r/s)
1
1
1

Angle of twist
(rev)
17.1
16.4
16.1

Table 4: The diameter, length and angle of twist for brass


Material

Diameter (mm)

Brass

3.10
3.20
3.25

Length
(mm)
178
175
180

Torsion speed
(r/s)
1
1
1

Angle of twist (rev)


12.7
13.5
14.0

100.0
90.0
80.0
70.0
60.0
50.0

Steel

Copper

Aluminum

Brass

40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
2.4

2.6

2.8

3.0

3.2

3.4

3.6

3.8

4.0

4.2

4.4

4.6

4.8

5.0

5.2

100.0
90.0
80.0
70.0
60.0
50.0

Steel

Copper

Aluminum

Brass

40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

240

250

Discussion
1. After carrying out the experiment, we recorded the results. These results were then
tabulated and used to plot graphs so that are able to compare the various lengths,
diameters and materials.
2. This experiment is based on the formula,
TL
=
JG
This is will be the basis of the conclusions made in the following discussion. As the
angle of twist increases, the modulus of rigidity decreases. Torsional rigidity is
essentially a bodys resistance to twisting forces.
3. When comparing lengths, we choose rods of the same material, approximately same
diameters and a significant difference in length. From Table 1 and Table 2, we see that
as the length of copper and steel increases, the angle of twist increases. This is proven
in the formula as the angle of twist is directly proportional to length. This is because
as the length increases, it increases the resistance of the section to rotate on its weak
axis. In this experiment, the weak axis of the beam is along its length.
4. To compare the effects of diameters, we choose rods of the same material,
approximately same lengths and a notable difference in diameters. Based on Table 1,
Table 2 and Table 3, we can conclude that as dimeters increase, angles of twist
decrease. To study the relationship between the angle of twist and dimeter
mathematically, we include a new formula,

[ ]

D
J=
2 2

As the diameter increases, the torsion constant. As torsion constant increases, the
angle of twist decreases.
5. When comparing different materials, we choose rods of approximately the same
dimensions; length and diameter. Due to the lack of diversity in the rods, we decided
that only two pairs of rods were ideal to compare the effects of material. The first pair
was between the steel rod (Diameter: 3.30mm, Length: 180mm) and brass rod
(Diameter: 3.25mm, Length: 180mm). Steel needed a much higher angle of twist to
break while brass needed a considerably lower angle of twist. Both of these metals
are alloys; brass an alloy of copper and zinc and steel an alloy of iron. The
composition of an alloy determines if the alloy behaves as a brittle or ductile material.
From the results obtained we conclude that brass is more ductile than steel. This is

because ductile materials handle shear stresses less efficiently than brittle, harder
materials. Ductile materials break along a plane of maximum shear while brittle
materials break along planes perpendicular to the direction in which tension is at its
maximum, that is, along the surfaces 45 degrees to the shaft axis. As brass needs a
smaller angle of twist, we say that it is a ductile material.
6. The second pair of rods are the copper rod (Diameter: 4.95mm, Length: 180mm) and
the aluminum rod (Diameter: 4.80mm, Length: 180mm). Both these materials are
ductile however, copper required a significantly larger angle of twist to fracture
compared to aluminum.
7. When conducting the experiment, we noticed that if we clamped the rod too hard, it
breaks at the clamped sections and if we did not clamp the rod tight enough, the rod
loses its grip and rotates. To combat this problem, the ends of the ends should be
made rectangular so that we do need to clamp the rod with excessive force.
8. Correct alignment of the grips and the rod when clamped in the grips is important.
Offsets in alignment will create unwanted stress and affect the reading. It may even
cause the specimen to fracture outside the ideal section.
9. Possible errors might have also occurred because the rod was slightly bent even
before the start of the experiment. This affected the forces on the rod and thus,
affected the angle of twist. To correct this, we should straighten the rod before starting
the experiment, or use a new rod.
10. Minute differences in the diameter of the rod along its length also contribute to error.
Although these differences have little impact on the overall results, the diameter
should be ideally the same for the whole length of the rod. Impurities in the rod affect
the materials behavior. These problems can be overcome by using rods that have
been though strict quality checks.
11. Parallax error should always be considered when discussing errors. When measuring
the length and diameters of the rod, parallax error may have occurred. To solve this, a
digital Vernier caliper should be used and repeated readings taken to calculate the
average.

Conclusion
To conclude this experiment, we see that ductile material do not handle torsion as
efficiently as less ductile material. As length increases, angle of twist increase. As
modulus of rigidity and torsion constant increases, angle of twist decreases. From these,
we conclude that steel has the highest angle of twist and aluminum the lowest.
The experiment was a success.