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# Gases

force ( F)
area( A)
2. Celsius to Kelvin: Kelvin=Celsius+273.15
9
3. Celsius to Fahrenheit: Fahrenheit=( Celsius)+32
5
5
4. Fahrenheit to Celsius: ( Fahrenheit−32)
9
5. Pressure units:
1. 1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 101325 Pa = 760 mmHg = 760 torr
kg
2. 1 pascal = 1
ms2
V
6. Compression factor: Z = m, actual
V m ,ideal
• Vm, actual = Measured molar volume
• Vm, ideal = Calculated molar volume from ideal gas law
7. Boyle's Law: P1V1 = P2V2
• P = Pressure, V = Volume
V1 V2
8. Charles's Law:
=
T1 T2
• T = Temperature
P P
9. Gay-Lussac's Law: 1 = 2
T1 T 2
10. Combined Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT
L∗atm
• R = 0.08206
, n = moles (6.02 x 1023 molecules or atoms)
K∗mol
mass
RT
• Variation 1: PV =
molar mass
molar mass∗P
• Variation 2: density=
RT
J
L∗atm
11. Universal Gas Constant (R) = 8.314
= 0.08206
K∗mol
K∗mol
3 RT
12. Root mean squared velocity (Vrms) = (
)
molar mass
J
• R = 8.314
, T = temperature in Kelvin, molar mass in kilograms
K∗mol
MW B
MW B
time B
rate A
=
=
13. Graham's Law:
Or
time A
MW A
rate B
MW A
• MW = molar mass
14. Dalton's Law: Ptot =P1 + P2+...+ P n
15. Pressure of an individual gas within a mixture of gases: P1=X 1∗P tot
n1

where X = molar fraction, n1 = moles of individual gas, total mol = total number
X 1=
total mol
of moles of gas in mixture
16. Internal energy: U = KE + PE or Δ U = Q + W
• KE = Kinetic Energy, PE = Potential Energy, Q = Heat, W = Work

1. Pressure Formula: Pressure( P)=

3
17. Change in internal energy for a monatomic gas: Δ U =( ) n∗R∗Δ T
2
J
• R = 8.314
, ΔT = Change in Temperature
K∗mol
18. Work done by gas in an isobaric process: W =P(V f −V i)
• Vf = Final Volume, Vi = Initial volume

Thermodynamics
1. Enthalpy: Δ H=q=nCm Δ T =mC s Δ T

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

m = mass, Cs = Specific heat capacity (

J
J
J
or
), Cm = Molar Heat Capacity (
or
o
o
g∗ C
g∗ K
mol∗o C

J
)
mol∗o K
ΔH reaction equation: ΔHrxn = ∑ n H of products−∑ n H of reactants
• Hof = Enthalpy of formation
Bond Enthalpy equation: Δ H rxn=∑ ( H bonds broken−H bonds formed )
Entropy units: J/K
J
Standard Molar Entropy (Som) units:
K∗mol
Standard reaction entropy: Sorxn = ∑ n Som products−∑ n S om reactants
Gibbs free energy equation: Δ G=Δ H orxn−T Δ S orxn
• T must be in units of kelvin
Gibbs free energy of reaction: ( Δ Gorxn) = ∑ n G of products−∑ n G of reactants
Δ Gof = standard Gibbs free energy of the reaction forming 1 mole of a substance from its

elements in their standard state.

Equilibrium
c

1.
2.

3.

4.

d

(aC ) (a D )
Law of Mass action: K =
a
b
( a A ) (a B )
• a = activity, K = equilibrium constant
Relationship between Gibbs free energy and the equilibrium constant: Δ G=−RT ln K T
J
• R = 8.314
and KT = Equilibrium constant at the given temperature T
mol∗K
Q
Gibbs to equilibrium equation: Δ Gtoeq =−RTln( )
K
J
• Q = reaction quotient, R = 8.314
mol∗K
o
K 2 Δ H rxn 1
1
( − )
Quantitative changes in K with T: ln =
K1
R
T1 T2
J
• R = 8.314
, Temperatures in units of kelvin.
mol∗K

Solutions
mass of solute
x 100
mass of solution
moles of solute
2. Molarity: M =
volume of solution (liters)
moles solute
3. Molality: m=
mass of solvent (kilograms)
moles of A
4. Mole Fraction: X A =
molesof A+moles of B+ moles of C+ ...
5. Henry's law: S = kHP
• KH = Henry's constant, P = partial pressure of gas, S = solubility
6. Enthalpy of solution equation: ΔHsol = ΔHL + Δhhyd
• ΔHL = lattice enthalpy, ΔHhyd = enthalpy of hydration
7. Vapor pressure: K=P H O in the reaction H 2 O(l ) ←→H 2 O(g)
8. Raoult's Law: Psolution=XsolventPosolvent
9. Boiling point elevation equation: Δ T B=iK B m
mol particles
• i = van't hoff factor ( i=
)
mol solute
10. Freezing point depression equation: Δ T f =iK f m
11. Osmotic pressure equation: Π=iRTc
L∗atm
• c = concentration in mol/L (molarity), R = 0.08206
K∗mol
P2, vap Δ H vap , m 1 1
12. Clausius-claperyon equation: ln
=
( − )
P1, vap
R
T1 T2
J
• R = 8.314
mol∗K
1. Percent by mass: %mass=

2

Acids and Bases
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

pH: pH=−log [H 3 O+ ]
pOH: pOH=−log[OH − ]
pH/pOH relationship: pH + pOH = 14
DAT math formulas to estimate logs:
−n

−log (m∗10 )≈n−1 .10−m

log(m∗10−n)≈(−n)+1 .10−m
ln( x )≈2.3( log(x))

log(m∗10n )≈n . 1+m
pKa = pKa=−log( K a )
• Ka = equilibrium constant for a weak acid donating a proton in water to form its conjugate base
pKb = pKb=−log( K b )
• Kb = equilibrium constant for a weak base accepting a proton from water to form its conjugate acid
Kw/Ka/Kb relationship = K w =K a∗K b and at 25oC, 1∗10−14 =K a∗K b

H
HB +
Henderson-hasselbach equation: pH= pKa+ log[
] or pOH= pKb+ log [
]
HA
B
• [A-] or [HB+] and [HA] or [B] must be within a factor of 10 of one another (ratio must be less than
10).

9. Titration equation: M1V1 = M2V2

Electrochemistry
1. Full Cell Potential: ΔEo = ΔEored + ΔEoox
• ΔEored = Oxidizing half cell potential, ΔEoox = Reducing half cell potential
2. Relationship between Gibbs free energy and Full cell potential: ΔGo = -nFΔEo
• n = moles of electrons transferred, F = Faraday's constant (96485 coloumbs/mol e-)
RT
ln K 298 or
3. Relationship between Full cell potential and the equilibrium constant: ΔE o =
nF
0. 0592
ΔE o =
log K 298
n
J
• R = 8.314
, n = moles of electrons
K∗mol
RT
ln Q
4. Nernst equation: ΔE=ΔE o −
nF
J
• R = 8.314
, n = moles of electrons
K∗mol
Q nF
5. Current: I= =
t
t
• Q = charge (in Coloumbs), t = time in seconds, n = moles of electrons

Nuclear Chemistry
1. First-order half life equation: t 1 /2 =

ln [2]
0.693
or t 1 /2 =
k
k

k = rate constant

1
k[A]
[A]
3. Zero-order half life equation: t 1 /2 =
2k
4. Nuclear binding energy: Ebind =| Δ m| c2
• Δm = change in mass in kilograms , c = speed of light (3 x 108 m/s)
• A proton is ~ 1 mu (1.00728 mu = 1.673x10-27 kg)
• A neutron is ~ 1 mu (1.00866 mu = 1.675x10-27 kg)
• An electron is ~ 0 mu (0.00055 mu = 9.11x10-31 kg)
5. The wave equation: c=f λ
• c = speed of the wave (meters/second)
• f = frequency in hertz (Hz)

λ = wavelength in meters
2. Second-order half life equation: t 1 /2 =

Kinetics
1. Arrhenius Law: k =Ae

−E A
RT

EA = activation energy, R = 8.314

J
, A = pre-exponential factor, k = rate constant
K∗mol

2. Average rate of a reaction:

Δ[C] [C ]final−[C]initial
=
ΔT
t final−t initial

3. Rate law: rate=k [ A ]x [ B] y
• x and y = usually integers that may or may not equal the stoichiometric coefficient
1
4. General formula for finding unit of rate constant:
n−1
M ∗s
• n = the order of the reaction

Bonding
total number of bonds
pibonds +sigma monds
=
number of individual atoms number of individual atoms
BE
2. Formal Charge: Formal Charge=VE−NE−
2
• VE = valence electrons, NE = nonbonding electrons, BE = bonding electrons
1. Bond order: Bond order=

Lab Techniques
1. Percent change of heating a hydrated salt:
mass of salt after heating−mass of salt before heating
%change=
∗100
mass of salt before heating
• % change can be a negative value
| observed measurement−actual measurement |
2. Percent error:
∗100
actual measurement
3. Beer's law: Absorbance=ϵ Lc
• L = path length of cell holder, c = concentration of solution (molarity), ϵ = molar extinction
coefficient