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force ( F)

area( A)

2. Celsius to Kelvin: Kelvin=Celsius+273.15

9

3. Celsius to Fahrenheit: Fahrenheit=( Celsius)+32

5

5

4. Fahrenheit to Celsius: ( Fahrenheit−32)

9

5. Pressure units:

1. 1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 101325 Pa = 760 mmHg = 760 torr

kg

2. 1 pascal = 1

ms2

V

6. Compression factor: Z = m, actual

V m ,ideal

• Vm, actual = Measured molar volume

• Vm, ideal = Calculated molar volume from ideal gas law

7. Boyle's Law: P1V1 = P2V2

• P = Pressure, V = Volume

V1 V2

8. Charles's Law:

=

T1 T2

• T = Temperature

P P

9. Gay-Lussac's Law: 1 = 2

T1 T 2

10. Combined Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT

L∗atm

• R = 0.08206

, n = moles (6.02 x 1023 molecules or atoms)

K∗mol

mass

RT

• Variation 1: PV =

molar mass

molar mass∗P

• Variation 2: density=

RT

J

L∗atm

11. Universal Gas Constant (R) = 8.314

= 0.08206

K∗mol

K∗mol

3 RT

12. Root mean squared velocity (Vrms) = (

)

molar mass

J

• R = 8.314

, T = temperature in Kelvin, molar mass in kilograms

K∗mol

MW B

MW B

time B

rate A

=

=

13. Graham's Law:

Or

time A

MW A

rate B

MW A

• MW = molar mass

14. Dalton's Law: Ptot =P1 + P2+...+ P n

15. Pressure of an individual gas within a mixture of gases: P1=X 1∗P tot

n1

•

where X = molar fraction, n1 = moles of individual gas, total mol = total number

X 1=

total mol

of moles of gas in mixture

16. Internal energy: U = KE + PE or Δ U = Q + W

• KE = Kinetic Energy, PE = Potential Energy, Q = Heat, W = Work

1. Pressure Formula: Pressure( P)=

√

√

√

3

17. Change in internal energy for a monatomic gas: Δ U =( ) n∗R∗Δ T

2

J

• R = 8.314

, ΔT = Change in Temperature

K∗mol

18. Work done by gas in an isobaric process: W =P(V f −V i)

• Vf = Final Volume, Vi = Initial volume

Thermodynamics

1. Enthalpy: Δ H=q=nCm Δ T =mC s Δ T

•

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

m = mass, Cs = Specific heat capacity (

J

J

J

or

), Cm = Molar Heat Capacity (

or

o

o

g∗ C

g∗ K

mol∗o C

J

)

mol∗o K

ΔH reaction equation: ΔHrxn = ∑ n H of products−∑ n H of reactants

• Hof = Enthalpy of formation

Bond Enthalpy equation: Δ H rxn=∑ ( H bonds broken−H bonds formed )

Entropy units: J/K

J

Standard Molar Entropy (Som) units:

K∗mol

Standard reaction entropy: Sorxn = ∑ n Som products−∑ n S om reactants

Gibbs free energy equation: Δ G=Δ H orxn−T Δ S orxn

• T must be in units of kelvin

Gibbs free energy of reaction: ( Δ Gorxn) = ∑ n G of products−∑ n G of reactants

Δ Gof = standard Gibbs free energy of the reaction forming 1 mole of a substance from its

•

elements in their standard state.

Equilibrium

c

1.

2.

3.

4.

d

(aC ) (a D )

Law of Mass action: K =

a

b

( a A ) (a B )

• a = activity, K = equilibrium constant

Relationship between Gibbs free energy and the equilibrium constant: Δ G=−RT ln K T

J

• R = 8.314

and KT = Equilibrium constant at the given temperature T

mol∗K

Q

Gibbs to equilibrium equation: Δ Gtoeq =−RTln( )

K

J

• Q = reaction quotient, R = 8.314

mol∗K

o

K 2 Δ H rxn 1

1

( − )

Quantitative changes in K with T: ln =

K1

R

T1 T2

J

• R = 8.314

, Temperatures in units of kelvin.

mol∗K

Solutions

mass of solute

x 100

mass of solution

moles of solute

2. Molarity: M =

volume of solution (liters)

moles solute

3. Molality: m=

mass of solvent (kilograms)

moles of A

4. Mole Fraction: X A =

molesof A+moles of B+ moles of C+ ...

5. Henry's law: S = kHP

• KH = Henry's constant, P = partial pressure of gas, S = solubility

6. Enthalpy of solution equation: ΔHsol = ΔHL + Δhhyd

• ΔHL = lattice enthalpy, ΔHhyd = enthalpy of hydration

7. Vapor pressure: K=P H O in the reaction H 2 O(l ) ←→H 2 O(g)

8. Raoult's Law: Psolution=XsolventPosolvent

9. Boiling point elevation equation: Δ T B=iK B m

mol particles

• i = van't hoff factor ( i=

)

mol solute

10. Freezing point depression equation: Δ T f =iK f m

11. Osmotic pressure equation: Π=iRTc

L∗atm

• c = concentration in mol/L (molarity), R = 0.08206

K∗mol

P2, vap Δ H vap , m 1 1

12. Clausius-claperyon equation: ln

=

( − )

P1, vap

R

T1 T2

J

• R = 8.314

mol∗K

1. Percent by mass: %mass=

2

**Acids and Bases
**

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

pH: pH=−log [H 3 O+ ]

pOH: pOH=−log[OH − ]

pH/pOH relationship: pH + pOH = 14

DAT math formulas to estimate logs:

−n

•

−log (m∗10 )≈n−1 .10−m

•

log(m∗10−n)≈(−n)+1 .10−m

ln( x )≈2.3( log(x))

•

•

log(m∗10n )≈n . 1+m

pKa = pKa=−log( K a )

• Ka = equilibrium constant for a weak acid donating a proton in water to form its conjugate base

pKb = pKb=−log( K b )

• Kb = equilibrium constant for a weak base accepting a proton from water to form its conjugate acid

Kw/Ka/Kb relationship = K w =K a∗K b and at 25oC, 1∗10−14 =K a∗K b

−

H

HB +

Henderson-hasselbach equation: pH= pKa+ log[

] or pOH= pKb+ log [

]

HA

B

• [A-] or [HB+] and [HA] or [B] must be within a factor of 10 of one another (ratio must be less than

10).

9. Titration equation: M1V1 = M2V2

Electrochemistry

1. Full Cell Potential: ΔEo = ΔEored + ΔEoox

• ΔEored = Oxidizing half cell potential, ΔEoox = Reducing half cell potential

2. Relationship between Gibbs free energy and Full cell potential: ΔGo = -nFΔEo

• n = moles of electrons transferred, F = Faraday's constant (96485 coloumbs/mol e-)

RT

ln K 298 or

3. Relationship between Full cell potential and the equilibrium constant: ΔE o =

nF

0. 0592

ΔE o =

log K 298

n

J

• R = 8.314

, n = moles of electrons

K∗mol

RT

ln Q

4. Nernst equation: ΔE=ΔE o −

nF

J

• R = 8.314

, n = moles of electrons

K∗mol

Q nF

5. Current: I= =

t

t

• Q = charge (in Coloumbs), t = time in seconds, n = moles of electrons

Nuclear Chemistry

1. First-order half life equation: t 1 /2 =

•

ln [2]

0.693

or t 1 /2 =

k

k

k = rate constant

1

k[A]

[A]

3. Zero-order half life equation: t 1 /2 =

2k

4. Nuclear binding energy: Ebind =| Δ m| c2

• Δm = change in mass in kilograms , c = speed of light (3 x 108 m/s)

• A proton is ~ 1 mu (1.00728 mu = 1.673x10-27 kg)

• A neutron is ~ 1 mu (1.00866 mu = 1.675x10-27 kg)

• An electron is ~ 0 mu (0.00055 mu = 9.11x10-31 kg)

5. The wave equation: c=f λ

• c = speed of the wave (meters/second)

• f = frequency in hertz (Hz)

•

λ = wavelength in meters

2. Second-order half life equation: t 1 /2 =

Kinetics

1. Arrhenius Law: k =Ae

•

−E A

RT

EA = activation energy, R = 8.314

J

, A = pre-exponential factor, k = rate constant

K∗mol

2. Average rate of a reaction:

Δ[C] [C ]final−[C]initial

=

ΔT

t final−t initial

**3. Rate law: rate=k [ A ]x [ B] y
**

• x and y = usually integers that may or may not equal the stoichiometric coefficient

1

4. General formula for finding unit of rate constant:

n−1

M ∗s

• n = the order of the reaction

Bonding

total number of bonds

pibonds +sigma monds

=

number of individual atoms number of individual atoms

BE

2. Formal Charge: Formal Charge=VE−NE−

2

• VE = valence electrons, NE = nonbonding electrons, BE = bonding electrons

1. Bond order: Bond order=

Lab Techniques

1. Percent change of heating a hydrated salt:

mass of salt after heating−mass of salt before heating

%change=

∗100

mass of salt before heating

• % change can be a negative value

| observed measurement−actual measurement |

2. Percent error:

∗100

actual measurement

3. Beer's law: Absorbance=ϵ Lc

• L = path length of cell holder, c = concentration of solution (molarity), ϵ = molar extinction

coefficient

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