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Soils and Foundations 2013;53(3):462–468

The Japanese Geotechnical Society

Soils and Foundations
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A new laboratory apparatus for studying dynamic compaction grouting
into granular soils
S.Y. Wanga,n, D.H. Chanb,1, K.C. Lamc,2, S.K.A. Aud,3
a

ARC Centre of Excellence for Geotechnical Science and Engineering, Department of Civil, Surveying and Environmental
Engineering, The University of Newcastle Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
b
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2
c
Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong
d
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong
Received 25 May 2010; received in revised form 25 June 2012; accepted 15 July 2012
Available online 2 May 2013

Abstract
As granular soils may be compressible or have inadequate strength, compaction is particularly useful when soils are subjected to dynamic loading or
cyclic loading. A new laboratory apparatus for investigating dynamic compaction has been designed and fabricated. The basic principle of this new
technique is to introduce vibrations during the expansion process in static compaction grouting. In these tests, the injection pressure, the excess pore water
pressure, and the change in void ratio of the specimens are measured. The main focus is to investigate the development of the injection pressure, the void
ratio, and the excess pore water pressure due to dynamic compaction and the subsequent consolidation of the soils. In addition, the relative density of the
soils is used to evaluate the dynamic compaction efficiency. Scaled laboratory experiments are conducted to study the effect of this dynamic compaction
frequency on compaction efficiency. The experimental results show that the change in void ratio in the dynamic compaction tests is about four times greater
than that in the static compaction tests. Dynamic compaction frequency plays an important role in soil densification due to dynamic compaction.
& 2013 The Japanese Geotechnical Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Dynamic compaction; Frequency; Soil densification; Compaction efficiency

1. Introduction
During the past decades, with the development of building
construction and geotechnical engineering, soil improvement by
n

Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 2 4921 5745; fax: +61 2 4921 6991.
E-mail addresses: Shanyong.Wang@newcastle.edu.au,
bcwangsy@126.com (S.Y. Wang), dave.chan@ualberta.ca (D.H. Chan),
bckclam@cityu.edu.hk (K.C. Lam), skau@hkucc.hku.hk (S.K.A. Au).
1
Tel.: +1 780 492 4725; fax: +1 780 492 0249/+1 780 492 8198.
2
Tel.: +852 2788 7238; fax: +852 2788 7238.
3
Tel.: +852 2857 8552; fax: +852 2559 5337.
Peer review under responsibility of The Japanese Geotechnical Society.

densification has shown much growth in the world, and more and
more poor or unstable soils are encountered in many projects.
If granular soils are compressible or have inadequate strength,
compaction is particularly useful when soils are subjected to
dynamic loading or cyclic loading. Both dynamic compaction
and vibro-compaction are capable of achieving significant densification of loose granular deposits (Greenwood and Kirsch, 1984).
The effects of vibrations on granular soils are changes in density
and in the state of the pore pressure in the material. The use of the
vibratory method, therefore, is an effective means of compacting
soils (Mitchell and Jardine, 2002).
Compaction grouting is a traditional technology for soil
improvement; it is performed by injecting highly viscous grout
under high pressure to compact a compressible soil (Graf, 1969;
Warner and Brown, 1974). Many researchers have created physical

0038-0806 & 2013 The Japanese Geotechnical Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sandf.2013.04.007

(2004) used modified consolidometers to investigate compaction efficiency by measuring the deformation of clay specimens under axi-symmetrical conditions.Y. the injection pressure. 2(a) shows the schematics of the experimental setup for the dynamic compaction grouting tests. Injection of grout with pressure pulse Injection Needle Loose Soil Membrane of injection needle Loose Soil Membrane of injection needle Cell Pressure Transducer Pore Pressure Transducer O ring Soil is densified by expansion of cavity Soil is densified by waves and vibration Fig. 3. which in turn results in a denser material. Since granular soil is most effectively compacted using vibrations. but the vibrations of the membrane generate waves in the soil. Experimental setup and procedures Fig. 4: Back pressure transducer. the void ratio. 9: Tap. and the assembly of the new laboratory apparatus are presented to investigate the fundamental behavior of dynamic compaction grouting. pressure. 8: O ring. Wang et al. An injection needle is placed in the middle of each specimen. Au (2001) and Soga et al. The current investigation focuses on the laboratory study of dynamic compaction grouting in completely decomposed granite soils of Hong Kong. Schematic of experimental setup 463 Specimen device Carbon dioxide supplier Fig. 1. (b) Part of the laboratory tests setup. . 7: Porous stone. (a) Schematic layout of dynamic compaction grouting experimental tests. the fabrication. However. 1(b)). Schematic static compaction and dynamic compaction. Unlike static compaction grouting (Fig. The new technique introduces vibrations to the membrane of the grouting bag during the expansion/compaction process (Fig. the effect of the dynamic compaction frequency on compaction efficiency is examined by experimental tests. 10: LVDT. Both static and dynamic compaction tests are conducted to compare these two methods in the densification of granular soils. (2010) designed and fabricated a new laboratory apparatus to investigate the behavior of compaction grouting under triaxial conditions. 1 (a)). 6: Soil specimen. Modified triaxial cell base. Younis (1994) conducted laboratory compaction grouting tests to study grout bulb development and soil densification. 5: Balloon. 2: Pore water pressure transducer. In addition. This injection needle is firstly placed in the center of the base plate of the 10 Data Log System 8 Personal computer Pressure/volume Controller Injection of grout under high pressure 6 7 1 4 2 Pressure Pulse Device 3 9 Air Compressor Loading Frame Cast Iron Weights Personal Computer De-Air Water Supply Device Volume Gauge GDS controller Pressure Pulsing Device 2. and the excess pore water pressure were measured during the process of compaction grouting and the subsequent consolidation of the soils. the back 7 5 Specimen device 2. and the change in volume of the specimens. / Soils and Foundations 53 (2013) 462–468 models to study the mechanism of compaction grouting. Injection Pressure Transducer Back Pressure Transducer Fig. 75 mm in diameter and 150 mm in height. For instance. 3: Injection pressure transducer. The design. injection needle and transducers.S. Using this laboratory apparatus. Notes: 1: Confining pressure transducer. all of these laboratory tests were limited to static compaction grouting. The basic concept of dynamic compaction grouting is shown in Fig. moving the surrounding soil particles. 2. The setup consists of a standard triaxial cell with an electronic data logger connected to a computer to record and control the cell pressure. vibrations are introduced in the compaction grouting in the current laboratory tests.1. 1. it is not only the membrane due to internal pressure that can compact the surrounding soils. the injection pressure. Wang et al.

using the moist tamping method (Ladd. 6. a motor is connected to the pressure pulsing device to control the frequency of the pressure pulses. the needle is dipped into the solution again. 2010). which rotates about point O. and Wang et al. The confining pressure and the pore water pressure are measured by transducers 1 and 2. 5). the needle should be dried at room temperature until the latex solution is about 80% dried. Injection needle design. It is noted that the confining (cell) pressure and the back pressure in the tests were 250 kPa and 50 kPa.. Thus. The latex membrane is made by dipping the copper injection needle into the latex solution. in order to guarantee no bleeding or solid leakage into the soil during the grouting process. and movements of water cause vibrations of the membrane inside the soil. attached to the piston at point p and to the crank at point C. approximately 1. The vibrations of the membrane generate waves which are transferred to the soil and move the surrounding soil particles into a denser state. A Geotechnical Digital Systems (GDS) controller is used to control the injection rate and the volume of the water injected into the needle. respectively (Fig. With the consolidation of the soil.464 S. A motor speed controller is used to control the speed of the movement of the piston (Fig. If the crank is assumed to rotate at a constant angular velocity ϖ. which in turn controls the frequency of the vibrations. The process is repeated until a membrane.5 mm in thickness. Then. The mechanics of the pressure pulsing is similar to a combustion engine that transfers the rotary motion to an up and down movement of the piston. (2010) used this method to simulate the ideal compaction grouting in laboratory tests. 4). Au (2001). Wang et al. On the other hand.Y. 3 shows the four transducers and the injection needle setup. The basic crank mechanism of the pressure pulsing device is shown in Fig.4mm Hole 0. Wang et al. Two specimens can be tested at the same time. Pressure pulsing device The pressure pulsing device is a critical piece of equipment. As for the technique of the membrane/balloon. The GDS controller and the dynamic compact device. 1978. the same as in the static compaction grouting tests (Wang et al. crank pin C follows a circular path.. Fig. has been produced. Motor Pressure Pulsing Device Fig. A pressure pulsing device is connected to the injection tube to generate pressure pulses. As a result. / Soils and Foundations 53 (2013) 462–468 modified triaxial apparatus (Fig. Fig. 3). Soga et al.2. 2010). the needle is put into a vacuum chamber for de-airing. in twelve layers. In preparation of the dynamic compaction grouting tests. energy is transferred to the surrounding soil and densifies it. The latex solution should be cured in air for 1 h and the air bubbles on the top layer of the solution should be removed. and a connecting rod of length L. Pressure pulses are generated by a pulsing device connected to the injection tube. The tip of the needle is covered by an expandable latex membrane. Points on the connecting rod between C and P follow elliptical paths. while wrist pin P oscillates along a linear path. . Strong wire is wound around the needle. Tie Wire GDS Controller 80mm long and 2. it performs two functions: one is to control the back pressure during the saturation of the soils and the other is to use this channel to measure the change in volume during the drained tests when the back pressure transducer is turned off. the volume of the drained water is measured using transducer 4. 5. After the first dipping. 2(a). As for the design of the injection needle.5mm ID Copper needle Motor Speed Controller Fig.2mm Track experiment using a latex membrane attached to the end of a brass tube (Fig. 2(b) shows a photograph of the laboratory test setup. In order to ensure that no air has been trapped in the needle. respectively. 2. the soil is compacted in the triaxial apparatus to obtain the desired initial relative density. The injection pressure is measured by transducer 3 in Fig. It consists of a piston that moves vertically within a guiding cylinder with a crank radius r. and then the needle is dipped into the solution again until the latex membrane reaches a thickness of about 3 mm. Water can be injected into the injection needle to compact and expand the membrane into a balloon at the top of the injection needle. As for transducer 4. Movements of the piston force water to move in and out of the cylinder. 4. compaction grouting is simulated in the 3mm thick Latex Balloon 2. (2004). The injection pressure is measured using transducer 3. 2(a)). A 2-mm steel rod is inserted into the needle to prevent the latex solution from clogging up the needle before the needle is dipped into the solution. Each soil specimen is then prepared in a split mold. we may evaluate the acceleration of the piston along its axis of translation.

. Definition of compaction effect by relative density The mechanical compaction of soil can be defined as the packing of the soil particles by reducing their void space. Fig. The current fines content of the soil is about 8%. In order to achieve optimal soil densification. The fourth step is the application of the pressure pulsing device to introduce vibrations into the membrane of the injection needle and then to compact the surrounding soil.. The permeability of CDG in Hong Kong is about 1.Y. 2010). The third step is the injection of water into the injection needle to expand the membrane into a balloon inside the specimen. 8 shows the saturated soil element with a solid 100 Percentage Passing (%) C The testing procedure has a total of five steps. 1982). 2. The total motion of the piston can be calculated as follows:     r2 r ð1Þ żp ¼ r þ −r cos ϖt þ cos 2ϖt 4L 4L   r żp ¼ rϖ sin ϖt þ sin 2ϖt 2L   r z€p ¼ rϖ 2 cos ϖt þ cos 2ϖt L ð2Þ ð3Þ where zp is the vertical displacement. the energy transferred from the piston to the water. Wang et al. it is assumed that the soil is completely saturated. A detailed description can be found in Wang (2006) and Wang et al.02 m. Certainly. and then to the surrounding soil. The first step is the saturation of the specimen by flushing it with carbon dioxide before introducing water.3. The above three steps are the same as for the static compaction grouting tests (Wang et al.01 0.. respectively. Then.1 Particle Size (mm) 1 Fig.05 m. and m in Fig. is Z ut   Z ut r 2 E¼P du ¼ rω cos ϖt þ cos 2ϖt du ð5Þ L u0 u0 where u0 and ut are the initial displacement and the displacement of the piston. which means that firstly the static compaction (third step) is carried out and then the vibrations are introduced to the injection needle to densify the surrounding soil. In order to compare the results of the dynamic compaction tests and the static compaction tests. Table 1 summarizes the basic properties of CDG in Hong Kong (Wang et al. the grain size distribution of the soil is measured three times for Samples 1. / Soils and Foundations 53 (2013) 462–468 465 2. 6. The second step is the consolidation of the specimen to the desired initial void ratio and effective confining pressure. Schematic diagram of the pressure pulsing device. (2010). 6 are 0. A detailed description of the crank mechanism can be found in Richart (1970). As the fines content of the soil is very important for the densification of the soil. respectively. 2010).S. when it is subjected to dynamic loads (Chang et al. The soil used in this study was completely decomposed granite (CDG) soil in Hong Kong. and 3 in Fig. the same soils were used for these two tests. it is possible that the first static compaction may densify the surrounding soils first. the dynamic compaction method is the combination of static compaction and dynamic compaction. Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 80 60 40 20 0 0. Grain size distribution curves for Hong Kong CDG. as follows:   r ð4Þ P ¼ m€z ¼ mrω2 cos ϖt þ cos 2ωt L The unbalanced dynamic load consists of a primary harmonic component with angular velocity ϖ and a secondary harmonic component with twice this velocity. The values for L. In this present research. 2ϖ. 0. 7. r. 3. The fifth and final step is the consolidation of the soil. and z€p is the acceleration of the piston. it is important to use a compaction process whereby energy is transferred most effectively.12 kg.. The expressions for acceleration provide the inertia forces for the piston after multiplying by its mass. żp is the vertical velocity.16  10−6 m/s. Experimental procedures and properties of soils P φ L D r ω B O Fig. 7. and 0. In fact.

and the consolidation time is 30 min. 9. the dynamic compaction period is 1 min.Y.3 min. due to dynamic compaction.95 0. Wang et al. then e¼ Vw Vw ¼ Vw ¼ Vs 1 ð7Þ Since the soil is completely saturated. It is noted that. as shown in Table 1. due to the loss during the Volume Static Compaction (0Hz) Dynamic Compaction (6Hz) 1. .18 mm 0. (a) Saturated soil element with solid volume =1 and (b)Volume Gauge. the relative density (compaction efficiency) of the soil. (9). 4. In addition. the injection rate in the tests is controlled by the GDS controller at 30 ml/min. Saturated soil element and volume gauge to measure volume change of soils. Normalized void ratio e/e0 versus time for static and dynamic compaction. Δe ¼ ΔV w ð8Þ Hence e ¼ e0 −Δe ¼ e0 −ΔV w ð9Þ In the present dynamic compaction grouting tests. e¼ normalized void ratio is given from Eq. the relationship between void ratio change (Δe) and Dr is Dr ¼ emax −e0 þ Δe emax −e0 Δe ¼ þ emax −emin emax −emin emax −emin ð12Þ In fact. the initial void ratio of the soil can be measured before the test.493 e=e0 ¼ 1−ΔV w =e0 ð10Þ For each test. 8(b)) during the test. the injection volume of each cycle is 9 ml.75 VS =1 0. 9 shows the normalized void ratio e/e0 versus time for static and dynamic compaction tests. the relative density of soil is selected for determining the compaction efficiency after dynamic compaction grouting. based on Eqs. (2010). thus. In the present study. the Table 1 Physical properties of Hong Kong CDG (Wang et al.00 Δ VW 0. namely.70 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time (Mins) Fig.466 S. Vw Vs ð6Þ where Vw is the volume of water in the voids and Vs is the volume of soil solids. Properties Value Natural water content Gravel Sand Fine particles D10 D30 D60 Coefficient of uniformity (D60/D10) Liquid limit Plastic limit Plasticity index Maximum dry density Optimum moisture content emax emin 8% 30% 64% 6% 0. the term relative density is commonly used to indicate the denseness of a granular soil. 8. The static injection time is kept constant at 0. and the change in volume of the water can be measured using a volume gauge (Fig. The relative density is defined as emax −e Dr ¼ ð11Þ emax −emin where Dr is the relative density.. Fig.8 mm 10 36% 25% 11% 1820 kg/m3 11% 1. emax is the void ratio of the soil in the loosest condition. However. 2010). / Soils and Foundations 53 (2013) 462–468 volume of 1. (9). the change in void ratio of the soil should be equal to the change in volume of the water.3 min. (9) and (11).80 Δ VW Solid 0. In addition. the dynamic compaction frequency is 6 Hz. the injected volume of each cycle is 8 ml. and emin is the void ratio of the soil in the densest condition. If the injection time is kept at 0. in order to avoid the difference in initial void ratio for each test. From the definition of void ratio (e).7 mm 1. If Vs is equal to 1. Experimental results Based on Eq. section Δe/(emax−emin) has been defined as compaction efficiency in Wang et al. can be determined by calculating the void ratio (e) based on Eq. Since the maximum void ratio (emax) and the minimum void ratio (emin) can be measured beforehand.90 Vw e/e0 Water V0 0. Fig.85 0.096 0. (9).

namely. 0. due to internal pressure (static compaction). 13. This is probably because the soil has been more densified by dynamic compaction than that by static compaction alone. 30 min. the initial and the final relative densities are provided as indicators of compaction efficiency. (11). but the vibrations of the membrane generate waves in the soil and move the surrounding soil particles into a denser state. In comparison. the detailed time histories for the dynamic loading stage could not be shown. while the change in total normalized void ratio for the dynamic compaction tests is 0. considering the fact that the change in void ratio of soils is the most important parameter for determining the compaction effect of static/dynamic compaction. the pore water pressure does not decrease to the value for static compaction during the consolidation state.0155. the relative densities after dynamic compaction are also much higher than those after static compaction alone. which is about four times that of the static compaction tests. the smallest (15 Hz) dynamic compaction tests. Nevertheless.0610.0644. at the end of 30 min. and accordingly. due to cyclic loading. and the largest (6 Hz) dynamic compaction tests are 0. dynamic compaction tests combine both static and dynamic compaction. From Fig. 12 shows the plots of normalized void ratio versus time. Not only can the membrane density the surrounding soil.S. for dynamic compaction. 1493. especially during the period of soil consolidation. the excess pore water pressure in the static compaction tests decreases very fast and becomes steady. 0. 13. the consolidation time for the dynamic compaction method (combined static and dynamic compaction) and solely the static compaction is the same. 11. the excess pore water pressure decreases gradually. respectively. Based on Eq. it needs a much longer period of time to complete this process. although the injection conditions for each cycle are the same. For instance. a total of 19 tests have been carried out with different dynamic compaction frequencies varying from 0 Hz to 18 Hz. in Fig. it is found that the injection pressure for the dynamic compaction tests is lower than that of the static compaction tests. and third cycles of dynamic compaction are 0. / Soils and Foundations 53 (2013) 462–468 500 Static Compaction (0Hz) Dynamic Compaction (6Hz) Injection Pressure (kPa) 400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 Time (Mins) 80 100 Fig. 10 and 11 show the injection pressure and pore water pressure versus time for static and dynamic compaction. Pore water pressures versus time for static and dynamic compaction. under the combined effect of static and dynamic compaction. For example. the change in total normalized void ratio for the static compaction tests is 0. Granular soils are more effectively densified by cyclic loading than by static loading. Figs. is much higher for the dynamic compaction tests than for the static compaction tests for the entire testing process (Fig. From Fig. . This is because the soil has been densified after the first dynamic compaction. For example. For instance. 260 Static Compaction (0Hz) Dynamic Compaction (6Hz) 240 220 Pore Water Pressure (kPa) grouting process. it is not easy for excess pore water pressure to dissipate after dynamic compaction. It is apparent that the changes in void ratio for all the dynamic tests are much larger than those for the static tests denoted by a dynamic compaction frequency of zero. From Fig. Furthermore. 11). 467 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time (Mins) Fig. In addition. due to the low sampling rate. second. it is clear that the change in void ratio for each cycle is much larger than that in static compaction.Y. the consolidation is not yet completely finished. however. In the current tests. after cyclic loading in the dynamic compaction tests. based on Eq. the injection volume in the injection needle after the calibration is about 8 ml. it is more difficult for the soils to be densified further. In order to compare the results of different dynamic compaction frequencies. In fact. Actually. the pore water pressure. after the first injection cycle.0252. the change in void ratio of the specimens after static/dynamic compaction is accurate. changes in the normalized void ratio for the first. it should be mentioned that in the current research. In addition. In order to study the effect of the dynamic compaction frequency on compaction efficiency. 9. Injection pressures versus time for static and dynamic compaction. 11. (10). both the injection pressure and the pore water pressure in the consolidation period of the soils are remarkably different than those of the static compaction tests alone. However. the change in void ratio for dynamic compaction tests is much larger than that for solely static compaction tests. The permeability of the soil is much lower after dynamic compaction.2554. As a comparison. the changes in normalized void ratio for the static compaction tests (0 Hz). Accordingly. Accordingly.0440. respectively. Wang et al. Fig. it is worthy to note that changes in the normalized void ratio decrease gradually in subsequent cycles of dynamic compaction.0389 and 0. 10. 10. and 0. as shown in Fig.

Preparing test specimens using undercompaction. Frequency is an important parameter in dynamic soil compaction.. for which the authors are very grateful. 1969. Greenwood. Younis. In: Proceedings of the Bengt B.Y. 1978.D.. 9040593 and CityU 1178/03E) of the Government of Hong Kong. 1984.D. This is best achieved if the membrane of the injection needle is vibrating at or close to the resonant frequency of the soil. F. such as the mass of the vibrating device. In: Proceedings of International Conference.965 0. Vibrations of Soil and Foundations. Ladd. MD. Planning and performing compaction grouting. 0. the density of the soil. 1151–1158. Yeh. F.980 0. Laboratory investigation of multiple grout injections into clay. S.. Geotechnique 54 (2). K. NJ.. By comparing the laboratory tests for dynamic compaction frequencies from 0 Hz to 18 Hz.. 12. 1995. vol.K.R. Broms Symposium in Geotechnical Engineering. Westerberg. This indicates that under the conditions of such dynamic compaction frequency. M. A Guide to Ground Treatment. The active design concept applied to soil compaction. Division.K. pp.. Liquefaction potential of clean and silty sands. Compaction grouting technique. City University of Hong Kong. 1982.468 S. Chan. 2010. Singapore.Y.. Soga. Normalized relative densities versus dynamic compaction frequency. 2. S.44 0..D.43 Initial Relative Density Final Relative Density 0.Y. Moreover. the relative density of the soil reaches a peak value at a dynamic compaction frequency of 6 Hz. 81–90.41 0. Richart. 2006. S. dynamic compaction tests combined both static and dynamic compaction... Kirsch. In fact. Soils and Foundations 50 (3). Jafari. Wang et al. the boundary conditions.. the relative density of the soils is selected to determine the compaction efficiency after static and dynamic compaction. Wang.D. “Specialist ground treatment by vibratory and dynamic methods”. Mitchell. Not only can the membrane densify the surrounding soils. Grant CE110001009 of ARC CoE Early Career Award. 5. Lam. K.000 0. pp..42 References 0. 653–666. 441–445. For these cases. M.995 1Hz 2Hz 3Hz 4Hz 5Hz 6Hz 7Hz 8Hz 9Hz 10Hz 11Hz 12Hz 13Hz 14Hz 15Hz 16Hz 17Hz 18Hz 0 Hz 0. M. / Soils and Foundations 53 (2013) 462–468 1. the size of the membrane... 2002. Fundamental Study of Compensation Grouting in Clay. Fundamental Study of Static and Dynamic Compaction Grouting in Completely Decomposed Granite. K. ASCE 100 (GT6) Proceedings Paper 10606. N. R. USA (Master’s Thesis). . resonant frequency depends on several factors. CIRIA C573. Massarsch. K.. London. Thesis). M. Wang. London.. J. During the compaction phase.46 Financial support for this project was partly provided by RGC grants (Project no.R. in advances in piling and ground treatment. 17–45. a triaxial apparatus was designed and fabricated. and the wave velocities in the soil (Massarsch and Westerberg. London Thomas Telford.A. the relative density of the soil reaches a peak value when the dynamic compaction frequency is about 6 Hz.970 0.. Jardine. 1970. due to internal pressure (static compaction). S. The characteristic of this technique is that a pressure pulsing device has been invented to introduce pulsing waves into the surrounding soil through the vibrations of a membrane at the Au. Laboratory experimental results show that the change in void ratio in dynamic compaction tests is about four times that in the static compaction tests.985 0.975 0. Bolton. E. resulting in the highest densification of the soil. 0. Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs. The above analyses of the experimental results indicate that the optimum dynamic compaction frequency can be given if the properties of the vibrating device. E. D. D.. the energy from the pressure pulsing device is transferred most effectively to the surrounding soil..A. 16–23. In: Proceedings of Third International Earthquake Microzonation Conference. Au. University of Cambridge.990 e/e0 0.45 0.S. Chang. Graf. PR China (Ph. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division. In addition. 2001. Cambridge. and the boundary conditions are determined.R. Brown. United Kingdom (Ph. J.47 Acknowledgments Relative Density 0.960 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time (Mins) Fig.C. 262–276. Normalized void ratio e/e0 versus time for different dynamic compaction frequencies.. 13–15 December. 13. the optimum frequency is about 6 Hz. the soils. In addition. USA. Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation.. The University of Maryland. 1017–1032. M. S. pp. ASCE 95 (5). Kaufman L.. 1995). Warner.. but the vibrations of the membrane generate waves to the soil and move the surrounding soil particles into a denser state. Geotechnical Testing Journal 1 (1). Seattle. Effect of lateral earth pressure coefficient on pressure controlled compaction grouting in triaxial condition.40 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Frequency (Hz) Fig. 2004. tip of an injection needle. 1994.. Thesis). the objective is to transfer energy to the surrounding soil as efficiently as possible. Small Scale Physical Modeling of Compaction Grouting.A. College Park. and Grant FL0992039 of the ARC Australian Laureate Fellowship. 1974. D.E.A. Conclusions To study dynamic compaction grouting in CDG soils of Hong Kong. Hong Kong.