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2015 NDI 6WS – Aff K of TSA


Lasers CP

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org/56-2/simbro///GH) Current screening technology has proven ineffective at detecting and deterring threats. The Fifth Circuit identified this shift to nonmetallic threats in the 1970s. a former TSA screener detailed the disturbing activities that took place in the image operator room before the TSA agreed to remove its x-ray backscatter machines." n251 a cancer survivor who had to endure a flight covered in his own urine after a TSA agent popped his urostomy bag during a pat-down. http://arizonalawreview. n253 Although the pat-down option contributed to the constitutionality of advanced imaging technology. . or bioweapons at a distance. n255 With the goal of "quickly identify[ing] explosives. laser-based molecular scanners can detect threats without even touching passengers. n231 it appears that magnetometers will soon become obsolete. placed a metal carrying case inside it. University of Arizona. dangerous chemicals. Passengers would not have to check their privacy interests at the gate when they chose to fly. n254 laser-based molecular scanners would be a more desirable option . n245 In a blog. explaining that "modern technology has made it possible to miniaturize to such a degree that enough plastic explosives to blow up an airplane can be concealed in a toothpaste tube." n247 Although automatic target recognition software will prevent TSA officers from viewing passengers' naked images from a back room. n244 the public has condemned the use of advanced imaging technology as an overly intrusive "virtual strip search" that is not narrowly tailored to meet airport security needs. and a whole lot of officers laughing and clowning in regard to some of [*586] [the passengers'] nude images." n232 As the thwarted British liquid explosives plot n233 and the attempted underwear and shoe bombing incidents reveal. n252 and John Tyner--the famous "don't touch my junk" disgruntled passenger. n248 the pat-down opt-out option n249 creates even more privacy concerns. “The Sky's The Limit: A Modern Approach To Airport Security” Arizona Law Review. n229 As new threats have emerged.JD candidate. Unlike a probing Airport screening procedures have steadily become more invasive as threats have escalated. A 27-year-old engineer n234 magnetometers are ineffective at detecting such threats. n250 Victims of such pat-downs include a four-year-old girl who feared the TSA agents because of "stranger danger. n230 but none have permanently solved the problem . University of Arizona.JD candidate. it is not perfec t. n243 While a magnetometer screening is minimally intrusive.1NC—Lasers CP Laser based molecular scanners are more cognizant of privacythey allow us to look for only the things that would endanger the general public Simbro 2014 (Andrea M. n246 He witnessed " light sexual play among officers . and walked through the scanners undetected. http://arizonalawreview. [*585] named Jonathan Corbett recently exposed a flaw in the technology. Because of emerging nonmetallic threats. the TSA has employed a reactive approach to terrorism." n256 the scanners permit passengers to speed through security without the fear of being groped by strangers. LBMS is better at preventing terrorist attacks Simbro 2014 (Andrea M. n237 Although such a case could . Passengers expressed outrage at being subjected to these aggressive pat-downs. the TSA has rushed to develop solutions. n236 He sewed a pocket to the side of a shirt. . A detonator planted in a fountain pen is all that is required to set it off. In fact. “The Sky's The Limit: A Modern Approach To Airport Security” Arizona Law Review. Although advanced imaging technology can better detect nonmetallic threats. n235 A viral video documented Corbett's successful attempt to outsmart both types of AIT scanners.

however." the supposedly more advanced body scanners did not detect it. n240 In fact. n242 . the scanners have the capability to precisely detect traces of substances."easily alarm any of the old metal detectors. n238 Laser-based molecular scanners can fill these loopholes by disclosing metallic and nonmetallic threats that are overlooked by current technology. they should be programmed to alert to substances greater than a specified amount. n241 To ensure that the scanners' effectiveness is not reduced by a false positive problem. n239 scenarios depicted in the Introduction of this Note. Such a limitation would avoid the "Big Brother" Federal investigators conceded these vulnerabilities.

Congress CP .

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since [*1646] security is still vitally one glaringly missing solution is for Congress to explicitly limit the TSA's authority. Congress should be ready and willing to do what it is able to do: protect Americans from gross invasions of privacy by the agencies it creates. Even though some of the TSA's measures have been held constitutional. n224 While Congress cannot protect Americans from every threat. suggested that Congress should set guidelines for TSA security methods so that privacy will be respected. The problem remains that the TSA has too little oversight for the vast amount of authority it has to invade individual privacy. as they are extremely vague and would be [*1645] practically impervious to challenges by citizens due to the high degree of deference that the TSA would While Congress should indeed set guidelines. increasing security at airports. n228 However.editor of the Michigan State Law Review. at a certain point. some type of system must be worked out to both provide for security and protect privacy. n223 Congress should still play a more active role in limiting the TSA's discretion in areas that so heavily invade personal privacy and dignity.library. more clear directions to the TSA. n220 any such guidelines could still provide the TSA with too much discretion. n219 Although some have n218 none have suggested a satisfactory solution to protecting privacy. foreign or domestic.lexisnexis. . While the TSA was charged with strong. Indeed.1&docsInCategory=10&csi=144692&docNo=5//GH) While scholars have taken a variety of approaches to resolving questions on the constitutionality of TSA measures. n227 surely Congress did not intend that security come at any cost.turing. when threats are clear. n221 warning that "'[t]hose [who] would give up their liberty for security deserve neither and lose both'" n226 is rather the sacrifice of privacy and liberty for the sake of security becomes too great as the "benefits" of increased invasiveness hit levels of diminishing returns on the amount of safety gained. Although Congress cannot foresee every potential abuse of privacy in new technological developments.1NC—Congress CP Congress should put guidelines on TSA surveillance Hoff 2014 (Jessica. n222 such vague guidelines are simply insufficient to protect privacy and need to be supplemented by other. http://www. like requiring the TSA to explicitly consider the invasiveness of its measures. “Enhancing Security While Protecting Privacy: The Rights Implicated By Supposedly Heightened Airport Security” Michigan State Law Review.northwestern. n225 Although Benjamin Franklin's continue to receive from courts in carrying out its docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T22289642469&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&res ultsUrlKey=29_T22289642473&cisb=22_T22289642472&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&selRCNodeI D=2&nodeStateId=411en_US. it ought not to stand idly by while the privacy of Americans is daily infringed upon without significantly enhancing safety.

Conditions CP .

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library. “Enhancing Security While Protecting Privacy: The Rights Implicated By Supposedly Heightened Airport Security” Michigan State Law Review. n261 . Imposing such requirements would be easier than having Congress pass laws on specific methods the TSA wants this could be undone much more easily than passing another law as the President could make another finding that the condition is no longer satisfied. However. docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T22289642469&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&res ultsUrlKey=29_T22289642473&cisb=22_T22289642472&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&selRCNodeI D=2&nodeStateId=411en_US.1NC—Conditions CP Congress should condition TSA funding on presidential approval Hoff 2014 (Jessica. Alternatively.turing. the problem with Congress making rules that are too specific. just as could be to use. through Congress.1&docsInCategory=10&csi=144692&docNo=5//GH) Congress could require the President to make a finding that a given security measure's benefits. measured in the value of lives saved. n260 Congress could condition funds for the TSA's security measures or condition permission for the TSA to use certain security measures on the President making this finding .lexisnexis. this alternative would allow for the benefit of increasing the TSA's political accountability by centering attention for these decisions on the President. n263 Even considering the potential disadvantages the advantages of increased accountability and greater protections for privacy are worth measured both in monetary expenses and privacy costs.editor of the Michigan State Law Review. n259 outweigh its costs. of the President or Congress taking a more active role. n262 Overall. it could also have a danger of being too micromanaging over the agency.

Trusted Traveler CP .

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frankly. around which a trusted traveler program could be organized include Possession of a security clearance issued by a U. government agency . professional. The random secondary screenings would help prevent .1NC—Trusted Traveler Cp cp text: the usfg should create a trusted traveler program open for all persons to apply for. A profile that involves frequent travel. and agency checks of spouses and significant others. Several programs. #noideologypls? CP is good (:^0) Riley ’11 . Even at the lower end of the range. a credential that requires an investigation covering the preceding ten years that includes contact with employers. including Global Entry. permit the holders to work on the government’s most pressing and sensitive problems . but. investigation of education. Ph. they should be eligible for a level of primary screening that is not as intrusive and time consuming as WBIs and frisks . Airlines generally do not make information on the size of their frequent-flyer pools publicly available. and others. given the extremely low odds of a suicide terrorist being on a flight originating in the United States. undergo an interview and background check. This.16 Hundreds of thousands hold lesser clearances that require similar. or combinations of characteristics.S. Travelers willing to submit to the equivalent of a security clearance process . http://www. An individual traveling 100. personal. and civic affiliations. coworkers. These It is important to note that trusted traveler screenings would be supplemented by random applications of more-intensive secondary screening on small portions of this population. The Washington Post reported in 2010 • that more than 850. which are far more stringent than the criminal background checks conducted on TSA agents. suggests that such travelers can be screened via the basic procedures that were in existence prior to the deployment of WBI machines and pat downs. Some business and leisure travelers would consider it well worth the time and expense to obtain such a credential in exchange for the ability to get through an airport more quickly. NEXUS. That is approximately 10 percent of a standard 2. although not as stringent. for example. already allow travelers to become pre-approved for expedited clearance for entry into the United States at borders. and provide fingerprints as part of seeking approval. Rather. I am not advocating that travelers with these characteristics be exempt from security screening.000 people held top secret clearances. in public policy analysis.000-hour work year. combined again with • the extremely low likelihood of terrorists or suicide bombers being on flights originating in the United States. These clearances. Jack. “Air Travel Security Since 9/11”.Vice President at RAND National Security Research Division. investigations. it does not need to be.D.pdf)// HH There are a variety of ways in which we could configure a trusted traveler program. The characteristics.rand. Most U. No program will be bulletproof.000 miles per year is. and SENTRI. Again.S. spending 200 hours on airplanes each year. by conservative estimates. RAND Corporation. but such individuals are thought to number in the tens of thousands to the hundreds of thousands. government security clearances are issued after a comprehensive background investigation that includes an examination of foreign ties . numbers are generally not easily but the combined programs likely cover hundreds of thousands of frequent travelers. pay a fee. they would still be responsible for a significant fraction of the annual enplanements in the United States. • Global Entry members. (K.

contraband and risk from creeping in through the process . we would also likely significantly reduce the number of machines. the moreintensive methods can be more effectively used on people about whom we know little. thereby reducing the expense of operating the system . In addition to allowing resources to be more effectively used. In the meantime. needed for security procedures at airports. and therefore people.

Moreover. like hammers. Radical Philosophy Review. It's not itself pretending to be an argument. pickaxes. and heterosexist United States. Hunting around the plantation. it falls apart. in such a neat epigrammatical form. Charles W." But the most literal level. But with all due respect to my late fellow CaribbeanAmerican. inter alia. I suggest that Lorde's dictum is no truer here. Lorde is not saying: "The masters tools sometimes can. Cannot we take these tools and—hammering. it gets its force precisely from its only a few seconds' thought—more than most of its reciters have apparently ever given to it—should be sufficient to demonstrate the obvious falseness of this claim. we figure he owes us a lot of back pay—^we head out West. “Occupy Liberalism! Or. would have the unhappy vice of reducing it to banality—not what one wants in a good aphorism or epigram. sexist. But obviously there will be many tools. which can be used for a wide variety of ends. Appropriating the master's tools—after all. Mills is John Evans Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy. to build his plantation mansion (with our forced labor. one quickly finds oneself floundering . But one does try to come up with a (good) argument for its truth. be used to dismantle the masters house. and making such an invaluable contribution to the this celebrated dictum is just false. it would be a banality that nullifies its impact. since. will be intrinsically oppressive. while having the happy virtue of making the claim distinctive feminism of women of color." Such a qualification. this does not mean that we cannot use them for different purposes once he is no longer with us. so that even if the master has used them. affirming her identity. of course. digging. of course). at implicit uncompromisingness: "The master's tools can never be used to dismantle the master's house. Who will refuse to move into these houses because they were built with the master's tools? Consider now the abstract level of conceptual tools and theoretical frameworks that the material tools are supposed to represent . since if an aphorism is untrue in the concrete it is hardly any more likely to be true at the abstract level meant to be figured and represented by the concrete. Ten Reasons Why Liberalism Cannot Be Retrieved for Radicalism (And Why They’re All Wrong)”. a seemingly radical and uncompromising metatheoretical position. Only if it could plausibly be demonstrated that there is something intrinsic in the tool itself that prohibits any such emancipatory use of it would the dictum be true . Take it. saws.AT FRAMING MEANS THE CP CAN’T SOLVE Their indicts are logically incoherent—we can use the master’s tools to dismantle the master’s house—make them provide specific indicts against our radical vision of liberalism Mills 12 [2012. to begin with." The reason for its popularity is obvious: it sums up so well. so that one should be dubious about—to cite a famous example—Jean-Paul Sartre's claim in "Black . sawing in half. So the moment one examines the maxim. barrels of gunpowder. and sometimes cannot. Imagine we're a group of escaped slaves who have begun by dismanding the master (presumably using our own tools) and now wish to move on to his house. where we construct freedmen's towns with them. Some tools. and her courage in resisting her subordination. true. such as racism. we come across a tool-shed of hammers. of course—it's just an assertion. Volume 15 number 2 (2012): 305–323] Few lines in the anti-colonial and anti-racist traditions of the last few decades or so have been as often quoted as Audre Lorde's (1984) celebrated dictum: "The master's tools can never be used to dismantle the master's house. and so forth. blowing up—demolish the master's house? Of course we can—^you just watch. the multiple oppressions she had to suffer in the racist.

this is not the case. But liberalism and contract theory. Admittedly. liberalism and contractarianism have historically been racialized—this was the whole burden of The Racial Contract. But liberalism and contractarianism as descriptive and normative claims about how we should think of the formation of society and the rights that morally equal humans should have within that society can survive the removal of racist conceptions of who should be counted as fully human and fully equal. and that racially based disregard for people is morally unconscionable. But the crucial disanalogy as "tools" between racism on the one hand." unlike the former. The latter "tools. have other dimensions beside the goal of subordination.that an "antiracist racism" is possible. while for liberalism and contractarianism. Orpheus" hierarchically ordered biological groups. and so can be reclaimed. I would claim. collapses into nothingness once it is realized that not only are the groups historically taken to be races not in a hierarchy. and liberalism and contractarianism. or racism as moral disregard for people because of their race. on the other hand. An anticontractarian contractarianism is possible in a way that an anti-racist racism is not . . are different. but that in fact they do not even exist as discrete biological entities in the first place. Racism as an ideology about the natural differentiation of humanity into discrete. is that once you purge racism of its scientific errors and moral viciousness there is nothing left:.

State PIK .

difference principle n31 into effect. we should. page lexis) normative legal thought is so much in a hurry that it will tell you what to do even though there is not the slightest chance that you might actually be in a position to do it.” (CV 238) The individual is not to take law in his their own hands. solves. and the Possibility of Justice. pragmatists. efficiency purveyors. because these relations are no longer regulated by the “culture of the heart” [Kultur des Herzens]. recommends. Colorado. . worldly consequences. legal ends that can be realized only by legal power. Power. the “legal system tries to erect. The consequence of this infiltration of law throughout the whole of human life is paradoxical: the more inescapable the rule of law is. (CV 245) As Benjamin describes it. no conflict should be susceptible of being solved without the direct intervention of law. its only consumers are legal academics and perhaps a few law students -persons who are virtually never in a position to put any of its wonderful normative advice into effect. . and resolves. normative legal thought remains seemingly unconcerned that for all practical purposes. The legal institutions." When was the last time you were in a position to rule whether judges should become Normative legal thought doesn't seem overly concerned with such worldly questions about the character and the effectiveness of its own discourse. in all areas where individual ends could be usefully pursued by violence. For instance. prescribes. november. MA in philosophy and Cultural Analysis. professor of law@ univ.” p. 4 Diego Rozo. the very agents of (legal) . stanford law review.1NC Shell #1 We advocate the entirety of the 1AC with the exception of their “lens [of] United States federal government economic policy” There is no internal link between the plan text and the solvency. Even the possibility of forgiveness is monopolized by the state under the ‘right of mercy’. Legal and judicial institutions act as avengers in the name of the individual . or Hercules surrogates? Externalizing ethics onto legal institutions trades off with personal ethics— turns the case and independently kills value to life Rozo. 19-21 //bghs-ms [Gender modified] Within the legal order the relations between individuals will resemble this logic where suffering is exchanged for more. Law has to present itself as indispensable for any kind of conflict to be solved. Hence the responsibility of the person toward the others is now delegated on the authority and justness of the law. Schlag 90 (Pierre Schlag. but ‘legal’ suffering. . Yet despite its obvious desire to have worldly effects. when was the last time you were in a position to put the In fact. civic republicans. “Forgiving the Unforgivable: On Violence. or to restructure [*179] the doctrinal corpus of the first amendment? "In the future. the less responsible the individual becomes. lest its authority will be undermined. It just goes along and proposes.

Yet as it takes place. virtual: his their otherness is equaled to that of every possible other. and thus.its congratulatory sense of its own accomplishments and effectiveness. Typically. Hence. the rhetoric. It is not so much the case that normative legal thought has effects on the field of pain and death -. but what normative legal thought What is missing in normative legal thought is any serious questioning. my responsibility towards the Other is taken from me. let alone tracing. All this self-congratulation works very nicely so long as normative legal [*188] thought continues to imagine itself as outside the field of pain and death and as having effects within that field. stanford law review. and its consequent meddling all across human affairs makes it possible that the worst could be exerted in the name of law. as Robert Cover explained. breaking the moral proximity that makes every ethics possible . However. the modern state protects my existence while bringing on the terror of state violence – the law infiltrates into and seeks to rule our most private conflicts . normative legal thought is playing language games -. can be overlooked by the state if it feels threatened by other states or by its own population. Colorado. And there is a reason for that: Normative legal thought misunderstands its does with normative legal thinkers. self-image -. which seeks to protect the life of the population. the because all this problem is not what normative legal thinkers do with normative legal thought. at the price of my own existence being constantly threatened by the imminent and fatal possibility of being signaled as guilty of an (for me) indeterminate offence. They are more interested in playing hermeneutic games than engaging in politics. making it all too easy for me to ignore his their demands of justice. makes this other anonymous. normative legal thought. own least not in the direct. because law.utterly oblivious to the character of the language games it plays. and even to exert on him them violence just for the sake of legality. page lexis) All of this can seem very funny. the ever-present possibility of the worst takes the form of my unconditional responsibility towards the other being delegated on the ideological and totalitarian institutions of a law gone astray in the (its) logic of self-preserving vengeance . The vengeance undecidability of the origin of law. it is more the case that . of the relations that the practice. professor of law@ univ. n56 And in a very real sense Cover was right. the preoccupation with pretending to be policymakers traps them in a spectator position and bars them from recognizing the bureaucratic violence of legal praxis. It is also deadly serious. That's because it is very funny. It is as if the action of normative legal thought could be separated from the background field of pain and death. To be sure. becomes not a means but an end in itself:21 state violence for the sake of the state’s survival. n57 Yet it is doubtful this image can be maintained.22 From now on. self-righteous.20 Thus I am no longer obliged to an other that by his/her very presence would demand me to be worthy of the occasion (of every occasion). then. This theatrical distinction is what allows normative legal thought its own self-important. The Other becomes faceless. Rather. november. Schlag 90 (Pierre Schlag. normative legal thinkers are often genuinely concerned with reducing the pain and the death . takes place in a field of pain and death. the routine of normative legal thought have (or do not have) to the field of pain and death. Even the very notion of crimes against humanity. by seeking to regulate affairs between individuals. originary way it imagines. normative legal thought understands itself to be outside the field of pain and death and in charge of organizing and policing that field. It is deadly serious. The logic of evil. In this picture. utterly uninterested in considering its own rhetorical and political contributions (or lack thereof) to the field of pain and death.exonerate me from my essential responsibility towards the others.

for us.normative legal thought is the pattern. but who are largely the manipulated constructions of bureaucratic practices -. n58 And apart from the leftover ego-centered rationalist rhetoric of the eighteenth century (and our routine). The problem for us is that normative legal thought.academic and otherwise. n59Until normative legal thought begins to deal with its own paradoxical postmodern rhetorical situation. there is nothing at this point to suggest that we. rather than assisting in the understanding of present political and moral situations. it will remain something of an irresponsible enterprise. it will continue to populate the legal academic world with individual humanist subjects who think themselves empowered Cartesian egos. as legal thinkers. It systematically reinscribes its own aesthetic -. The problem the normative appeal of normative legal thought systematically turns us away from recognizing that normative legal thought is grounded on an utterly unbelievable re-presentation of the field it claims to describe and regulate. are in control of normative legal thought. is that .its own fantastic understanding of the political and moral scene. is the operation of the bureaucratic distribution and the institutional allocation of the pain and the death. stands in the way. as legal thinkers. In its rhetorical structure.

as well as other political critiques. In its measurable damage we see the proof that violence has taken place. the right. it is becoming standard to argue as if it were these power relations which cause the violence. While consideration of mitigating circumstances has its rightful place in a court of law trying (and defending) an offender.1nc shell #2 My partner and I advocate the entirety of the 1ac minus the plan text. Yet even here the focus tends to be on the effects and experience of violence. However. Here violence is recognized by the victims and defined from their perspective .not just as acts of violence. under the pressure of mainstream science and a sociological perspective which increasingly dominates our thinking. may differ according to the politics of the explainers. there is nevertheless a growing important step away from the catalogue of violent acts and the exclusive evidence of material traces in the object. `Does pornography cause violence?') The circumstances identified in the Balkans. to explain violent behaviour by its circumstances. police and politicians about violence in the `street'. human action which may be analysed. but as the actions of people in relation to other people and beings or things. Al Akhawayn University. p. ignoring the personal decision of the agent to act. of insult and humiliation. the spectacular blood of wounded bodies. in the process. violence becomes more likely. and all together about the violence in our society. centre and liberals about the violence of leftist extremists. (Compare the question. the violence being reduced to this damage . or invisible forms of violence . Kappeler 95 (Susanne. or the cause of its effects. the unequal power relations which enable it to take place. Associate Professor at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. The affirmative’s concept of violence as external from their own lives allows individuals to abdicate their responsibility. Even though we would probably not underwrite these propositions in their crass form. adults about the violence of young What is striking is that people. Feminist critique.are hardly ever the issue except to some extent in feminist and anti-racist analyses. political activists talk about structural violence. not just in social science. the visible damage left in the world of `objects'. the material destruction of objects. this does not automatically make it an adequate or sufficient practice for political . or the increasingly subjective definition of violence as experience. but the method of explanation remains the same. What is missing is an analysis of violence as action . The violation as such. Westerners talk about violence Violence is recognized and measured by its visible effects. or under the name of psychological violence. implying in turn that circumstances virtually dictate certain forms of behaviour. has analysed the preconditions of violence. Similarly. Western citizens together with their generals about the violence of the Serbian army. Violence is perceived as a phenomenon for science to research and for politics to get a grip on. "The Will To Violence: The Politics of Personal Behavior". Underlying is a behaviourist model which prefers to see human action as the exclusive product of circumstances. the violation of human dignity .the non-physical violence of threat and terror. the left. Denial of our individual culpability with violence forecloses the possibility of meaningful change. 1-4) the violence which is talked about is always the violence committed by someone else: women talk about the violence of men. But violence is not a phenomenon: it is the behaviour of people. either the objective and scientific measure of psychological damage. liberals and the centre about the violence of right extremists.

Although such oppression is a very real part of an agent's life context. Racist Alliance or the Anti-Nazi League in Britain argue that `the causes of racism. but constitutes an incentive to violence. confirming that social problems will be taken seriously when and where `they attract attention by means of violence and upper-class racism). of stigmatizing entire social strata as potential hotbeds of violence. racist or sexist oppression. that is.the classic clienteles of social work and care politics (and of police repression) . they actively contribute to it. Thus if German neo-Nazi youths and youth groups.analysis.for experiences of violence in the offender's own past. Explaining people's violent behaviour by their circumstances also has the advantage of implying that the `solution' lies in a change to circumstances. That is. it sells out these entire groups in the interest of exonerating individual members. It begs the question. serving particular interests . needs to be countered by combating poverty and unemployment in these areas. should be tackled and that it is `problems like unemployment and bad housing which lead to racism' . in other words. which rests on and perpetuates the mainstream division of society into so-called marginal groups . since their murderous . yet they not only fail to combat such inequality.' This slanders all the women who have experienced sexual violence. however. and which we are to assume to be a zone of non-violence. explainers. why (white poverty and unemployment should lead specifically to racist violence (and what would explain middle- it is more than questionable to combat poverty only (but precisely) when and where violence is exercised. It is a version of collective victim-blaming.just as the most unruly children in schools (mostly boys) tend to get more attention from teachers than wellbehaved and quiet children (mostly girls). Some left groups have tried to explain men's sexual violence as the result of class oppression. Moreover. To overlook this decision.and an implied `centre' to which all the speakers. while some Black theoreticians have explained the violence of Black men as the result of racist oppression. it helps to stigmatize all those living in poverty and oppression. Far from supporting those oppressed by classist. is itself a political decision. namely the agent's decision to act as he did.' Besides being no explanation at all of understanding which is rapidly solidifying in scientific model of a `cycle of violence'.on the part of the tabloid press or professionals of violence . yet do not use violence against others. In the first instance it serves to exonerate the perpetrators. The ostensible aim of these arguments may be to draw attention to the pervasive and structural violence of classism and racism. these `explanations' ignore the fact that not everyone experiencing the same oppression uses violence. that the perpetrator has decided to violate. whose responsibility is thus transferred to circumstances and a history for which other people (who remain beyond reach) are responsible. They overlook. like poverty and unemployment. an the relevant factors are sought in the distant past and in other contexts of action. even if this decision was made in circumstances of limited choice. and libels those experiencing racist and class oppression. yet do not necessarily act out violence. they are held to be potential perpetrators themselves. . It not only legitimates the violence (by `explaining' it). Even politically oppositional groups are not immune to this mainstream sociologizing. Likewise anti-racist groups like the Anti. `What is considered to be part of the circumstances (and by whom)?' Thus in the case of sexual offenders. there is a routine search . in particular. because they are obvious victims of violence and oppression. especially in former East Germany. that these circumstances do not `cause' violent behaviour. e a crucial factor in the present context is ignored. Thus it has become fashionable among socially minded politicians and intellectuals in Germany to argue that the rising neo-Nazi violence of young people (men). researchers and careers themselves belong.

. use. sexual violence is not the disturbance of otherwise equal gender relations. the ordinary and the rule.the connection. the ideological armament and the intellectual mobilization which make the `outbreak' of war. including `educative' trips to Morocco and Israel. genetically manipulated. Dresden etc. in other words. the norm. I want to tell [my friend]. values . But it is also in your non-comprehension. the consistent and logical application of the principles of our culture and everyday life. between our own actions and those acts of violence which are normally the focus of our political critiques. in a society in which exploitation and oppression are Moreover. and especially our personal will to violence. "The Will To Violence: The Politics of Personal Behavior". are treated to special youth projects and social care measures (to the tune of DM 20 million per year). in the way in which it grows inside ourselves and changes our feelings. `what is war?': I do not know what war is. Associate Professor at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. of murder and destruction possible at all. nor the deeds of inhuman monsters amid humane humans. objectify. of sexual short: us. in which people divide others according to race. Political violence is sustained by organized thinking that looks at violence through meta-analysis. writes Slavenka Drakulic at the end of her slaughtered daily for `harmless' consumption by humans. Violence as we usually perceive it is `simply' a specific . This is integral to ending the cycle of violence. enslaved and It is no error of judgement. Rostock. constitute the conceptual preparation.assaults on refugees and migrants in Hoyerswerda. Precisely because there is no choice between dedicating oneself either to `political issues' or to `personal behaviour'. We are the war .is no exception to the rules.what we usually recognize as such . of racist attacks.' this is am unmistakable signal to society that racist violence does indeed 'pay off'.. in my unconscious cruelty towards you.form of violence. no moral lapse and no transgression against the customs of a culture which is thoroughly steeped in the values of profit and desire. existential analysis of the question. Racist attacks do not shoot like lightning out of a non-racist sky. We need to have deeper insight that realizes that each of us are culpable for violence. 'We are the war'. p. War does not suddenly break out in a peaceful society. sex and many other factors in order to rule. everywhere. It is no misbehaviour of a minority amid good behaviour by the majority. exploit. torture and kill them. sell. no deviation from the normal and nothing out of the ordinary. in a society in which there is no equality. Violence . and the sexual exploitation of children is no solitary problem in a world otherwise just to children. expansion and progress. on the contrary.. is the connection between these recognized forms of violence and the forms of everyday behaviour which we consider `normal' but which betray our own will to violence . in the fact that you have a yellow form [for refugees] and I don't. Kappeler 95 (Susanne. .and to us still visible . 8-11) personal behaviour is no alternative to `political' action. class. enslave. relationships. Al Akhawayn University. My concern. of self-realization. the question of the politics of personal behaviour has (also) to be moved into the centre of our politics and our critique. but I see it It is in the blood-soaked street in Sarajevo. The violence of our most commonsense everyday thinking. in which millions of animals are tortured. there is no question of either/or. after 20 people have been killed while they queued for bread.

' `We are the war' . or to recognize the connections between those political decisions and our own personal decisions. the exploitation and the will to violence in all its manifestations in a society in so-called `peacetime'. the wars in Croatia and Bosnia-Hercegovina or Somalia . `I want military intervention'. upholding the apparent lack of connection between bureaucratically. any question of what I would do if I were indeed myself tends to peter out in the comparative insignificance of having what is perceived as `virtually no possibilities': what I could do seems petty and futile . nationally and also individually organized separate competences.finding expression in ever more prevalent formulations like `I want to stop this war'. Single citizens . as Ulrich Beck says.' 7 .' On the contrary. and thus into underrating the responsibility we do have within our own sphere of action. a prime minister. not even for forming our own judgement. about a war. Yet our habit of focusing on the stage where the major dramas of power take place tends to obscure our sight in relation to our own sphere of competence. institutionally.even more so those of other nations . Which is why many of those not yet entirely disillusioned with politics tend to engage in a form of mental deputy politics. the president.we cannot hold anyone else responsible. Decisions to unleash a war are indeed taken at particular levels of power by those in a position to make them and to command such collective action. Yet our insight that indeed we are not responsible for the decisions of a Serbian general or a Croatian president tends to mislead us into thinking that therefore we have no responsibility at all. truly effective ones. We make this war possible. or a General Secretary of the UN . say. the foreign minister or the minister of defence?' Since we seem to regard their mega spheres of action as the only worthwhile and equivalent of a universal acquittal.which would be equivalent to exonerating warlords and politicians And I am afraid that and profiteers or. In particular. the prime minister. we permit it to happen. and where the conception of universal responsibility becomes the the object is precisely to analyse the specific and differential responsibility of everyone in their diverse situations. our so-called political disillusionment. `We are the war' does not mean that the responsibility for a war is shared collectively and diffusely by an entire society . because we are not where the major decisions are made. however. the racist violence. where people are no longer held responsible for their actions. and since our political analyses tend to dwell there first of all. our own power and our own responsibility .leading to the well-known illusion of our apparent `powerlessness' and its accompanying phenomenon.have come to feel secure in their obvious non-responsibility for such large-scale political events as. `I want to stop this backlash'.since the decisions for such events are always made elsewhere. in the style of `What would I do if I were the general. We need to hold them clearly responsible for their decisions and actions without lessening theirs by any collective `assumption' of responsibility. We are this war'. It not only shows that we participate in what Beck calls `organized irresponsibility'. because we deem ourselves to be in the wrong situation. upholding the notion of `collective irresponsibility'. say. For we tend to think that we cannot `do' anything.and we also `are' the sexual violence. for we make them possible and we permit them to happen. it seems to absolve us from having to try to see any relation between our own actions and those events. even if we do not . or `I want a moral revolution. It also proves the phenomenal and unquestioned alliance of our personal thinking with the thinking of the major powermongers. For my own action I obviously desire the range of action of a general.

’ on the other hand. ultimately in our interest: we prefer to keep certain people under control.command the troops or participate in so-called peace talks . injustice. etc. like the cosmic black hole. on the other hand. Associate Professor at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences. in our 'non-comprehension': our willed refusal to feel responsible for our own thinking and for working out our own understanding. cannot act sensibly (but in changed circumstances will behave differently. it seems. in other words. it nevertheless remains within ‘our’ scope at least theoretically and by means of state power. is neither within our power nor. one of our own and one for the `others'. only by politicizing the way we think about violence can we find ways to end the cycle of violence. our inability to act as well as our desire to become `active' again. namely as Drakulic says. We seem to deem ourselves in a kind of action vacuum which. instead we need to interrogate our own will to violence. We share in the responsibility for this war and its violence in the way we let them grow inside us. who as victims by definition. ‘We. And we `are' the war in our `unconscious cruelty towards you'. our relationships. unemployment. the need for strategies. towards the structures of thought employed in decisions to act. "The Will To Violence: The Politics of Personal Behavior". – may not be easy. Al Akhawayn University.our readiness. to build identities. but we apparently have no interest in a politics that presupposes people's ability to change and aims . our tolerance of the `fact that you have a yellow form for refugees and I don't' . 4-5) If we nevertheless continue to explain violence by its ‘circumstances’ and attempt to counter it by changing these circumstances. Hence this is also an attempt to shift the focus again to the fact that we are continually acting and doing. p. that is. putting limits on their violent behavior. of its `inaction'. our values' according to the structures and the values of war and violence . Changing people. Kappeler 95 (Susanne. There is talk of the government doing `nothing'. preferring innocently to drift along the ideological current of prefabricated arguments or less than innocently taking advantage of the advantages these offer. one for ourselves and one for refugees. Instead. of the need for action. In particular. This seems all the more urgent as action seems barely to be perceived any longer. we do not complicate the problem by any suggestions that it might be people who need to change. Even if changing the circumstance – combating poverty. in the way we shape `our feelings. and that there is no such thing as not acting or doing nothing. So if we move beyond the usual frame of violence. the time for action. None of us have our hands on the levers of power. it is also because in this way we stay in command of the problem. are the subjects able to take in hand the task of changing the circumstances. we turn the perpetrators of violence into the victims of circumstances. this also means making an analysis of action. tends to consume any renewed effort only to increase its size.

both their will to violence and their will to change.not just to describe acts of violence. not even in circumstances which potentially permit it. It is the decision to violate. the personal decision in favour of violence . A political analysis of violence needs to recognize this will. including our own. at the centre of political reflection. only they themselves can change it. which makes a person a perpetrator of violence . their will not to abuse power and not to use violence. therefore. seems to me a necessary precondition for any political struggle against violence and for a non-violent society. For changing (as opposed to restricting) other people's behavior is beyond the range and influence of our own power. A politics aiming at a change in people's behavior would require political work that is very much more cumbersome and very much less promising of success than is the use of state power and social control. but above all to regard this decision as an act of choice. It would require political consciousness-raising — politicizing the way we think — which cannot be imposed on others by force or compulsory educational measures. To understand the structures of thinking and the criteria. but also to capture the moment of decision which is the real impetus for violent action.just as it is the decision not to do so which makes people not act violently and not abuse their power in a situation which would nevertheless permit it. by which such decisions are changing attitudes and behavior. To take seriously the will of others however would mean recognizing one's own. is also the locus of potential resistance to violence. or the conditions which enable them to take place. not just the act itself. and putting people's will. . For without this decision there will be no violent act. It would require a view of people which takes seriously and reckons with their will. This moment of decision. It requires their will to change.

Ironically. the expectations of government are always cast in terms of religious obligation. that a State is judged to How easily humankind still gives itself to the new gods. Princeton University. While the purpose of the State. . Volksgeist. rather than in peace. as Lewis Mumford has observed.” Fear of death. Though mired in blood. but heroic. Beres 94 (Louis Rene. n6 1 the modern transformation of Realpolitik has led the planet to its current problematic rendezvous with self. “the State is the actualitv of the ethical Idea. postseventeenth century expression. born of the knowledge that the State’s deeds are neither infamous nor shameful. it also creates entire fields of premature corpses. INTERNATIONAL LAW AND SURVIVAL ON PLANET EARTH” Spring 1994. And in those places where the peremptory claims of faith are in conflict with such expectations. the idea has normally prohibited intervention n62 and acted to oppose human dignity and human rights. for Locke. it is the latter that invariably prevail. Throughout much of the contemporary world. 1163 Left to develop on its continuous flight from reason . n59 was fully developed in Germany. Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law. the legacy of unrestrained nationalism can only be endless loathing and slaughter. This sacralization. rather than of individuals. the profane has become not only permissible. Rationalist philosophy derived the idea of national sovereignty from the notion of individual liberty. “ARTICLE: SELF-DETERMINATION. according to Hegel’s description in the Philosophy of Right. Professor of International Law in the Department of Political Science @ Purdue University. Although it has long been observed that States must continually search for an improved power position as a practical matter. that is the presumed creator of advanced civilization. Rather. A sanctified killer. to summarize. prodding killing with conviction and pure heart. such surrender brings about an enlargement of the very terrors that created the new gods in the first place. the State stands above any private interests. all human energies will be placed at the disposal of a murderous “megamachine” with whose advent we will all be drawn unsparingly into a “dreadful ceremony” of worldwide sacrifice. the characterization of the State as “the march of God in the world. With States as the new gods. not only cripples life. a way that would point to a new and dignified polity of private selves and.. From Fichte 1160 and Hegel. it is now altogether sacred. to fewer untimely deaths? One answer lies in the ethics of Epicurus. Consider the changing place of the State in world affairs.” John Locke’s notion of a Social Contract – the notion upon which the United States was founded n66 – is fully disposed of. The State that commits itself to mass butchery does not intend to do evil. significantly. Lexis Nexis) The State presents itself as sacred. Ph.Ext – impact When the State Becomes a Sacred Event Unrestrained Nationalism Produces Endless Slaughter. especially in the democratic. n57 Thrasymachus n58 and Machiavelli. the sacralization of the State is a development of modern times.” A necrophilous partnership that promises purity and vitality through the killing of “outsiders. representing a break from the traditional [*20] political realism of Thucydides. but cast in its modem. And it is in war.” It commits itself to State that accepts Realpolitik generates an incessant search for victims. an enlightened creed whose prescriptions for disciplined will are essential for international stability. N65 With Hegel’s death for the sake of life.determination.D. It is the spirit of the State. is to provide protection that is otherwise unavailable to individuals – the “preservation of their lives. but we surrender nonetheless.death and disannearance – our species regularly surrenders itself to formal structures of power and immunity. In the words of William Reich. but this notion is indisputable. relegated to the ash heap of history. we lay waste to ourselves by embracing the “political plague-mongers. the search is tranquil and self-assured. secular West. The idea of the State as sacred is met with horror and indignation. But how can we be reminded of our mortality in a productive demonstrate its true worth and potential. Ultimately. Promised relief from the most terrifying of possibilities -. way. through Ranke and von Treitschke. liberties and States” – for Hegel.

and other sensory data words that come out of his mouth are special and therefore are the law which must be obeyed. coercion. Similarly. "John-the-stranger is a King. By representing him as a "King" in our representational systems." "government makes law. terrorize. I've identified a very important fourth way in which our representational systems differ from reality: Addition . we have added something to what exists in reality. the CIA. To have a neural patterns or mental models that say "the government runs the country. That's why they need the IRS. or challenge their so-called "authority." How's that for self-referencing?! "Government" is Kept in Place by Terror and by Violence Ultimately. John's words are ordinary like those of the rest of we have added something to what occurs in reality.e. and violence to claim "jurisdiction" over a certain area.such as "government. the FBI. as described above. If anybody questions or challenges these concepts or nations. from which I then draw a table.Tom has many other attributes." John is really an ordinary man. BA in Communications @ Sanford U. threaten." "models." "law.. The phenomenon is mass hallucination.A. Because practically all humans suffer from similar political hallucinations. The last resort of the monsters who masquerade as "government" is terror and violence. we regard them as useful. they tend to think he's crazy.g. The phenomenon of addition.g. The essence of hallucination is "seeing" or "perceiving" what doesn't really exist or occur. Mao said. and when we represent some of his words as "the law" in our representational systems.the physicist tells us this is a distortion.. They include intellectual. and the people who happen to be in that area." all constitute hallucination.Ext . For example.S." "nation. Founder of Terra Libra. It's these forms of hallucination that keep "government" in sounds even better in French: "La notion de la "loi" (soi-disant) est une halloicinotion. They have to threaten. healthy individual" . generous.or the "intellectual" neural pattern: "all women are the same." "Slick Willy is President of the U.e. “Report #TL07B: The Nature of Government”” Online.. is simply hallucination. I access the "picture" or "model" in my head. and to live like parasites or cannibals off the values created by their victims. and kill to retain their coercive power ." or "neural . [KevC]) We could also describe hallucination as "seeing" or "perceiving" what's not there ." That's why it's appropriate to call them "territorial gangsters" or "territorial criminals" or "terrocrats" . emotional. . some of which have been ignored or "deleted" from my representational system. If someone asks me to draw a picture of a table. Make examples out of those who question." etc." "constitution. NeuroLinguistic Programming (NLP) could be described as the science of representational systems.monsters who use fraud. The monsters do so in order to control and dominate. auditory. – discourse heir Routinized Depiction of “Government” Surrenders Consent – The Word Terrocrat Threatens Authority – [Prefer Our Linguistics Analysis] Mann." "state. The foregoing is another very useful definition of "government!"us. and the patterns" are called representational systems. the representational system called "furniture" ." Distortion ." "president. etc.e. "the color of my car is blue" . the ATF.or "seeing" or "perceiving" more than exists in reality.g..g. in my brain I have a "picture" of a table. Neuro-Linguistic Programming people have identified three major ways in which our representational systems differ from reality: Generalization .." To the extent that we use them to predict accurately and produce desirable results." "country. they tend to all agree with each other about certain fundamental political concepts and notions . therefore he has special powers." while absorbing light with other wavelengths. happy. "Tom is a wonderful. Deletion . These "pictures." "king. political power comes from the barrel of the gun . Here is one of my favorite sentences: "The notion of "law" (so-called) is an hallawcinotion" .e. visual. (Frederick Mann. Our representational systems are more or less "useful. In our brains we have "neural patterns" or "models" that attempt to represent reality. it's more accurate to say that my car's outer surface reflects light with the wavelength we call "blue.


We can learn vastly more about any given word than can be found in the dictionary. Meanings consist of a "neural-patterns-ofinstructions-and-associations". the dictionary. requires a brain program vastly more complex.) We can communicate because (we have to assume that) when I say "chair. the "brief-userinstructions" have to be "enriched" a thousand-fold. People Have Meanings Many people suffer from the basic linguistic illusion that "words have meanings. Individuals create. enabling you to think.yet similar to the meanings others have for the word "chair. and update our personal meanings. maintain. E-Prime does not contain the verb "to be" or any of its variants. “The Anatomy of Slavespeak” Online. we can improve our ability to use any particular word more effectively. Certain Words Accumulate Meaning Based on Repetition – Our Linguistic Analysis is More Accurate – It’s Based on the Most Inclusive Studies – Their Evidence is Flawed. For a 'general semanticist. (No such "meaning" can be found in the dictionary. than the "brief-user-instructions" in Even if you claim that the "brief-user-instructions" constitute the meaning of a word. For example. (You'll find the reasons for writing this way. what if our meanings constitute our most important creations by a long shot? If so. This forms part of my meaning for the word "chair. that my meaning for "to be" and its forms varies dramatically from any "meaning" you can find in a regular dictionary.Ext: linguistic link Even If Meaning is Fluid. to what extent do we render ourselves oblivious of our most important creations? Can we create anything physical." The following GS principles (with my personal interpretations and extensions) I regard as most germane to the subject of Slavespeak. Words Don't Have Meanings. Founder of Terra Libra. Through observing responses to communication we discern whether or not we refer the same object when we say "chair. A "neural-pattern-of-instructions-and-associations" can be compared to a computer program that essentially tells the user how to use a particular word. together with the reactions of the nervous systems of the human beings involved in the communication." I also have links to other patterns and memories I relate to "chair. and act much more effectively . or assertions in proper relation to each other (as for the logician). In order for an individual to use a word in a manner such that he or she can think and communicate What characterizes or distinguishes a meaning and how can you recognize it? effectively.) You'll also find below. assertions and their referents in nature but also with effects on human behavior. Operating on the basis that you personally create all the meaning in "your universe" greatly increases your control over your mental processes. BA in Communications @ Sanford U. 97. I utilized a variant of English called E-Prime to write the portion of this report dealing with GS. or does the dictionary contain only words? Consider the possibility that: Meanings reside in the individual deals not only with words.a meaning unique to me and vastly greater and more complex than any "meaning" to be found in a dictionary -." whether they use it more or less the same way I do. engage." My meaning (brain-program) for using the word "chair" includes a module enabling me to determine. or "boot up" in your brain a meaning similar to mine. do we perhaps disown much responsibility can we demonstrate? . below. Over time. otherwise E-Prime mirrors standard English. maybe a million-fold. maintain and update their meanings. we individually create. but all these." Most importantly. how do we affect our awareness of our physical creations and how much control do we have? How If we ascribe the creation of our meanings to agencies outside ourselves ("words have meanings")." All of this complexity constitutes my meaning for the word "chair" -. communicate. or assertions in proper relation to referents (as for the semanticist). GENERAL SEMANTICS goes furthest -. using that word." you trigger. Corresponding to the word "chair" I have in my brain a generalized picture or template of a range of kinds of objects that qualify as chairs. properly inflected (as for the grammarian). (Frederick Mann. where do you find it? Can it be found in the sound when you say it? Can you find it in the ink when you write it? Can you find it in the dictionary. when others use the word "chair.' communication consists not merely of words in proper order. an individual couldn't use that word effectively without integrating at least the meanings of all the words used in the "brief-userinstructions". In order to use a word effectively." If a word has a meaning. Now. Mann. without first creating it internally in a form that includes meaning? If we render ourselves relatively oblivious of creating our meanings.

and Freedom. sense. To look. regarding the map as more important than the territory. we behave intensionally or in an un-sane manner. Preponderance of Means over Ends As far as I know (a GS qualification). Ultimately." . Our description of it (map) includes at best incomplete details. they can seldom (if ever) include all the details of the territory. means preponderate The preponderance of the map over the territory. and words (symbols) constitute incomplete abstractions -." might represent cows in general. When scientists tried to find a substance corresponding to the way they "understood" the word "heat. I reply. In GS a specific aspect of the more general principle above.a most important part of ourselves? Do we perform most of our "meaning-processing" more or less unconsciously? For a more extensive discussion of this principle. Through language. The money becomes more important than the happiness." If we elevate our words in importance above our experience of the world. "What do I care! All cows look the same to me!" A fourth way in which our maps may differ from the territory. Distortion -." the Generalization -. see Report #50A: Semantic Rigidity. The word differs from the thing. you'll find that tribe 1 (the sane ones) practice extensional evaluation. Our map contains more than what can be found in the territory -. describes three basic ways in which our models or maps differ from the territory: Deletion -. or. Korzybski called this "Intensional Evaluation -." they attempted to add to the territory an expected "substance" they could never find.?. Now. For example.. etc. Guernsey. one person "sees" a red car with two people. Making the word more important than the thing. reflect." evaluated intensionally.can never do more than approximate the actual world or the actual phenomena they seek to represent. He said that our means tend to become more important than our ends. we evaluate intensionally. Hans Vaihinger first enunciated this principle in his book The Philosophy of As If. feel. test." The term extensional refers to elevating experience above language. and then to describe. To achieve more sane behaviors. Our concepts (basic ideas) and words constitute maps or models which represent or reflect (we hope) aspects of the world. and approximated.we often have one generalized map that represents many different parts of the territory.including our words -. Our models and maps can be more or less useful. Hereford. simplified. Flexibility. The world (territory) has its form or nature. my generalized "cow" map opponent "sees" it as "out. Ultimately. observe.our maps often include minor or even major inaccuracies. Our maps. Korzybski claimed that elevating words over facts causes much human misery. We figure if we make lots of money we'll be happy. For example. The Map Differs from the Territory Hense the GS aphorism (converted into E-Prime): "Whatever description you give something differs from the thing itself!" The word differs from the thing it tries to describe. the word cannot describe the thing. They started with the description "heat. sample. Of course. We "see" and put into our map what does not exist in the territory. If someone asks me what breed of cow I saw. etc." then looked and searched the territory in vain for We experience the world in at least two basic ways: Through our senses. models. if you look back at our two tribes. another "sees" a brown car with three people. The scientists looking for a substance corresponding to the word "heat. Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP). a Jersey."Facts" Last. we evaluate extensionally. touch. It may be worthwhile to reread the two-tribes story to better grasp the extensional/intensional distinction. we want to become happy. the actual territory defies verbal description. measured by the results we produce using them. For example. He called this orientation "un-sane" because its linguistic delusions can endanger our success or survival. Many of us then focus on making money (means). We "see" a "constellation" where only individual stars exist."Facts" First. evaluating and behavior. or represent . to the extent that we lose sight of becoming happy (end). if we believe over ends. In our minds we make all kinds of maps and models of how we think the world works.condensed. Money becomes the means to achieve the end of happiness. When we observe. one tennis player "sees" the ball as "in. un-sane. Korzybski considered this a sane way to make our evaluations of the best we use partial maps.addition or hallucination." and continue with unhealthy habits. while tribe 2 (the un-sane ones) practice intensional evaluation. can be formulated as: that we can achieve good health by saying. Our models and maps -. scientists eventually discovered their error because they require physical evidence which they could never find. We experience the world through our the "fact" of "heat. we've already covered briefly: addition or hallucination. "I create that whatever I eat is good for me. we must look first to experience. Korzybski called this "Extensional Evaluation -. because it leads to dysfunctional. and then describe.

" [converted into E-Prime] .S." they assumed that if they searched Hypostatization.J.words first. Mill. or regarding a purely conceptual idea as a real existent or concrete thing. such that.such as the word "government. touch. had to have an outward objective reality answering to it. if you look." -. reflect. or "false-over-facts".Mussolini on the Doctrine of Fascism applies here. reification. sample." [converted into E-Prime] ." Bentham's "Look to the letter.including our words -.regarding something abstract as a material thing.a word without a thing or discernible referent -. Participation mystique can have various elements: kinds of maps and models of how we think the world works. Ultimately. and a will of its own. Hypostatization "Mankind in all ages have had a strong propensity to conclude that for every name. reflects personification -." He uses the phrases "collective abstraction" and "empty linguistic convenience. granfalloons. Hense the GS aphorism (converted into E-Prime): "Whatever description you give something differs from the thing itself!" The word differs from the thing it tries to describe. Vonnegut in effect said. When we experience the world through the intermediary of language indirectly.addition. For a philosophical analysis of "government" (or "state") as an empty linguistic convenience.condensed. test. Our maps. Our description of it (map) includes at long enough.even deification. observe." and "nation. best incomplete details. personification. you fail to find a referent. Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP).tends toward less sanity. or represent . measured by the results we produce using them. Our models and maps can be more or less useful. extreme hallucination -. Our concepts (basic ideas) and words constitute maps or models which represent or reflect (we hope) aspects of the world. Mussolini combines reification with personification by treating his hypostatized "fascist state" (empty linguistic convenience) as a person with a conscience and a will. they would eventually find a substance corresponding to their map. represents a classic article: Deep Anarchy . Rupert Crayshaw-Williams has a chapter on hypostatization. The world (territory) has its form or nature . Hypostatization represents extreme intensional evaluation -. Ultimately. the actual territory defies verbal description. We could call it extensional experience -tends toward greater sanity. " government represents a granfalloon." "country.Abraham Lincoln). Mussolini's map contains more than can be found in the reality or territory it seeks to represent -. and intensional evaluation may all have their roots in the more primitive forms of a phenomenon called "participation mystique" by anthropologist Lucien Levy-Bruhl in his book How Natives Think. Our models and maps -. etc."seeing" what can't be found.can never do more than approximate the actual world or the actual phenomena they seek to represent. you find nonsense -.senses as directly as we can. deification. words without corresponding things or referents. you find nothing" "ethical" state. we could call it intensional experience empty description ." "Germany." To then go further and ascribe to this supposed "government" volition and magical powers ("The purpose of government is to do for people what they cannot do for themselves. see the The majority of political Slavespeak words constitute examples of hypostatization and intensional evaluation -. In his book The Comforts of Unreason: A Study of the Motives behind Irrational Thought. and approximated.An Eliminativist View Of "The State"." Mill above describes hypostatization or reification. on this account constitutes an Hypostatization basically refers to construing a word as a thing. simplified. Hypostatization represents the extreme case of glorifying a map without a territory -. and every complex idea which the mind has formed for itself by operating upon its conceptions of individual things.look beyond the letter. "facts" last. "Heat" again. A System of Logic "The Fascist State has a consciousness of its own. describes three basic ways in which our . Because scientists had the abstract idea of "heat. where he analyses hypostatized abstractions like "England. Hypostatization closely resembles reification -.. example of hypostatization. in Mussolini's case. a distinguishable separate entity corresponding to the name must exist. models. feel. the word cannot describe the thing. and words (symbols) constitute incomplete abstractions -.

and then describe. etc. Korzybski called this "Extensional Evaluation -. because it leads to dysfunctional. touch." they attempted to add to the territory an expected "substance" they could never find. A System of Logic "The Fascist State has a consciousness of its own. We "see" and put into our map what does not exist in the territory.?.S. etc." Mill above describes hypostatization or reification. Hans Vaihinger first enunciated this principle in his book The Philosophy of As If. "What do I care! All cows look the same to me!" A fourth way in which our maps may differ from the territory. To achieve more sane behaviors. un-sane. It may be worthwhile to reread the two-tribes story to better grasp the extensional/intensional distinction. He said that our means tend to become more important than our ends.tends toward greater sanity." "country. In his book The Comforts of Unreason: A [converted into E-Prime] . Distortion -. to the extent that we lose sight of becoming happy (end). Our map contains more than what can be found in the territory -."Facts" First.. my generalized "cow" map might represent cows "sees" it as "out." "Germany. can be The preponderance of the map over the territory. observe. Making the word more important than the thing.models or maps differ from the territory: Deletion -. Rupert Crayshaw-Williams has a chapter on hypostatization. a distinguishable separate entity corresponding to the name must exist.our maps often include minor or even major inaccuracies. test. we could call it intensional experience -tends toward less sanity. Money becomes the means to achieve the end of happiness. Preponderance of Means over Ends As far as I know (a GS qualification). and then to describe. We could call it extensional experience -." and "nation." [converted into E-Prime] . scientists eventually discovered their error because they require physical evidence which they could never find. The scientists looking for a substance corresponding to the word "heat. evaluating and behavior. sample. Hereford. one tennis player "sees" the ball as "in. Hypostatization closely resembles reification -regarding something abstract as a material thing. if we believe that we can achieve good health by formulated as: saying." the opponent Generalization -. one person "sees" a red car with two people. if you look back at our two tribes. or. Many of us then focus on making money (means) best we use partial maps. we evaluate extensionally." in general. Mussolini combines reification with personification by treating his hypostatized "fascist state" (empty linguistic convenience) as a person with a conscience and a will.Mussolini on the Doctrine of Fascism Study of the Motives behind Irrational Thought. feel. Guernsey. We figure if we make lots of money we'll be happy. a Jersey. Now. Mussolini's map contains more than can be found in the reality or territory it seeks to represent -." If we elevate our words in importance above our experience of the world. The money becomes more important than the happiness. When we experience the world through the intermediary of language indirectly. We "see" a "constellation" where only individual stars exist. sense. means preponderate over ends. regarding the map as more important than the territory."Facts" Last. another "sees" a brown car with three people. For example. In GS a specific aspect of the more general principle above. and a will of its own." conclude that for every name. we evaluate intensionally. Hypostatization "Mankind in all ages have had a strong propensity to then looked and searched the territory in vain for the "fact" of "heat. Korzybski claimed that elevating words over facts causes much human misery. while tribe 2 (the un-sane ones) practice intensional evaluation." and continue with unhealthy habits.addition. Korzybski called this "Intensional Evaluation -. They started with the description "heat." He uses the phrases "collective abstraction" and "empty linguistic convenience. He called this orientation "un-sane" because its linguistic delusions can endanger our success or survival.we often have one generalized map that represents many different parts of the territory. We experience the world through our senses as directly as we can. we've already covered briefly: addition or hallucination. Mill. or regarding a purely conceptual idea as a real existent or concrete thing. and every complex idea which the mind has formed for itself by operating upon its conceptions of individual things. we must look first to experience. on this account constitutes an "ethical" state. Through language. Korzybski considered this a sane way to make our evaluations of the world." The term extensional refers to elevating experience above language.addition or hallucination. had to have an outward objective reality answering to it. To look." Hypostatization basically refers to construing a word as a thing. we behave intensionally or in an un-sane manner. you'll find that tribe 1 (the sane ones) practice extensional evaluation. where he analyses . For example. Of course. hypostatized abstractions like "England. When we observe. "I create that whatever I eat is good for me. we want to become happy. they can seldom (if ever) include all the details of the territory. If someone asks me what breed of cow I saw." evaluated intensionally. When scientists tried to find a substance corresponding to the way they "understood" the word "heat. I reply. For example." We experience the world in at least two basic ways: Through our senses.

Vonnegut in effect said."seeing" what can't be found.a word without a thing or discernible referent -." they assumed that if they searched Hypostatization. test. sample." Bentham's "Look to the letter. Hypostatization represents extreme intensional evaluation -. Because scientists had the abstract idea of "heat. empty description .Abraham Lincoln).An Eliminativist View Of "The State". "Heat" again. they would eventually find a substance corresponding to their map. Hypostatization represents the extreme case of glorifying a map without a territory -.." -. Mussolini's case. extreme hallucination -. see the article: Deep Anarchy . you find nonsense -.even deification. granfalloons. touch. "government represents a granfalloon . deification. "facts" last. Participation mystique can long enough. and intensional evaluation may all have their roots in the more primitive forms of a phenomenon called "participation mystique" by anthropologist Lucien Levy-Bruhl in his book How Natives Think. example of hypostatization. words without corresponding things or referents .such as the word "government. observe. have various elements: . represents a classic empty linguistic convenience. personification. such that. you find nothing" applies here.look beyond the letter. if you look. For a philosophical analysis of "government" (or "state") as an The majority of political Slavespeak words constitute examples of hypostatization and intensional evaluation -. reflects personification -. " To then go further and ascribe to this supposed "government" volition and magical powers ("The purpose of government is to do for people what they cannot do for themselves. feel. or "false-over-facts". you fail to find a referent.words first.

" [emphasis added] Spooner attacked words and phrases like "the government. or even seen it.e. telescoped words and phrases had noticed that the tendency to use abbreviations of this kind was most marked in totalitarian countries and totalitarian organizations. or ever will read or see it." Rick Maybury wrote as follows in an article." "state... "Man is the animal that speaks.even when physical violence is involved. BA in Communications @ Sanford U. so to speak." "King. It is the assault upon the abstract and verbal underpinnings of this institution which draws blood." "member of congress.what does this word represent in reality? If Spooner words did not necessarily correspond with reality. men in their political capacity. I specifically use Slavespeak in the sense of Orwell's "B centuries. In a letter to Thomas F." then what does the word "country" mean? What does it really represent? Similar questions followed about ''government.". and grow more complex and intricate ." "queen." etc. for their voluntary acceptance.Ext link The Word “State” Maintains the Myth of a Unified Nationalist Identity Mann." My "Slavespeak" is similar to the word "Newspeak.. that is to say. usually deductive and speculative." "judge. may easily become counter-productive. but within the domain of "Slavespeak" I subsume words that I don't think Orwell would have included under "Newspeak. Understanding language is thus the key to understanding man. they seek to explain the status and relationships in the community.... I read: "Since late Neolithic times. which not only had in every case a political implication. Nor ever will know anything. without questioning its validity." "law." "constitution of the United States. but were intended to impose a desirable mental attitude upon the person using them. often packing whole ranges of purposes: ideas into a few syllables.. Thomas Szasz wrote in The Second Sin. robbers and murderers. and especially speech been one of the characteristic features of political language. the people of the United States." "president. There were "fraud-words" which served only to mislead. “Report #TL07B: The Nature of Government”” Online." Spooner indicated that the people who masqueraded as the so-called "government" could be more accurately described as fraudulent impostors or a "secret band of thieves. and it had been ." "government. to the control of man.. World Market Perspective: "Government" is Kept in Place by Certain Fraud-Words Politicians and bureaucrats use mostly words to impose their will upon others ." "king. He indicated that these were all fraud-words designed to dupe the gullible." invented by George Orwell and described in his book Nineteen-Eighty-Four." "king. the intention being to make speech. even though there has been a steady replacement of one by another over the centuries." "national debt. the 'B' words were a sort of verbal shorthand." "nations".. I contend that vocabulary": "The 'B vocabulary' consisted of words which had been deliberately constructed for political words. Bayard.." "prime minister. the constitution has been an utter fraud from the beginning.": "state. Of its legal meaning (if it can be said to have any) they really know nothing. then it represented but an empty fraud. sometimes mystical.. And if there is no valid "constitution." "president. [KevC] BBBB) Reading Spooner's pamphlet was an assault on my whole knowledge structure.. It also meant that Introduction by James J. 1984 issue of an investment newsletter. and without considering its consequences). those who attack the rationale of the game. 98. Professing to have been 'ordained and established' by we." "constitution. it has never been submitted to them." published in the November." "senator. It triggered a process of questioning many concepts such as "constitution" (so-called) .." "our country. have lived almost exclusively by myths [more appropriate: "fraudulent fabrications "or "murderous misrepresentations!"] And these political myths have continued to evolve. Martin to Spooner's No Treason. very few of them have ever read. even in the early decades of the Twentieth Century." "the United States. and never did. I use "Slavespeak" in essentially the same way that Orwell used "Newspeak. Founder of Terra Libra. and the control of language. A series of entirely theoretical constructs. Slavespeak has developed over many the use of Slavespeak by freedom lovers as if valid (i. proliferate." The language used to control and dominate others I collectively lump together as "Slavespeak.. Spooner wrote: "In practice. "the people. (Frederick Mann." "emperor. as individuals." "divine right.." "law. "Profiting from the Constitutional Convention." etc." "monarch." "ambassador. In the was right. are its most formidable adversaries. they use words to attempt to justify their actions." etc.

" "country." "nation." "emperor." When a man calls himself "King." "prime minister. This aim was frankly admitted in the Newspeak word 'Duckspeak' meaning 'to quack like a duck." "U. or those masquerading as (so-called) "state" or "government" coercing (so-called) "subjects. as nearly as possible independent of consciousness." "princess." "public interest. Do politicians and bureaucrats use guns or words? I further put it to you that next to "government." I'm saying that certain words are fraudulent in themselves..not guns and explosives." "commonwealth." "law." "constitution." "king.A." We have a perfectly good word "man.'" [emphasis added] I'm also introducing here the concept of "fraud-word. ultimately it was hoped to make articulate speech issue from the larynx without involving the higher brain centers at all." he's lying as did John-the-stranger above." "common good.." "mandate from the you will realize the role of language in practically all coercion: be it parents or teachers coercing the people." Here is my list of statist fraud-words: "government." two of their most powerful fraud-words are "law" and "constitution. Two of the Worst Fraud-Words: "Constitution." "fair share. young." "empire." "republic. You don't even have to use them in a sentence." "national interest. I put it to you that fraud-words are the most formidable weapons in their armory ." "queen. For example." "public policy." "prince." "state. The word itself is a fraud. the word itself is a lie.." "president." Politicians and bureaucrats have an armory of weapons they use to coerce their victims." and "Law" If you think about it." ." "social contract.Chapter 8: "Keeping It All in Place.S." etc. the word "King." "society. Robert Ringer devoted an entire chapter to how "government" is kept in place by certain words .on any subject not ideologically neutral." "national security. In his superb book Restoring the American Dream.

state. Pinning political possibilities to the law circumscribes the¶ boundaries of change in very narrow ways ¶ a array of critiques that have elucidated the . In practice legal equality struggles have failed to deliver substantive social justice for many groups ¶ the incompleteness of legal change. indebtedness." n6 ¶ As Hartman shows. In this essay . and legal recognition as citizens worked to constrain¶ and curtail these more expansive possibilities of freedom by locking freedom into an idiom defined by¶ obligation. servile.¶ In order to illustrate these points. the best that Even those critical of legal strategies frequently fall can be achieved in the current political context. n4 This was [*267] . rather than presume legal equality is the answer. and infectious" n3 and obliged freed people to shoulder the¶ responsibilities and burdens of perpetually having to demonstrate their preparedness for and deservingness of¶ citizenship in a context where their blackness marked them as otherwise evident in the ways that¶ state institutions prioritized enforcing labor and sexual discipline amongst freed people other self-defined mechanisms of individual and ¶ collective self-determination. equality and the extension of legal rights.” 41 Sw. the Fourteenth Amendment's extension of citizenship rights to ¶ freed people forced the nation to grapple with what racially inclusive citizenship in a nation forged through racial ¶ violence would look like. freedom of mobility. who shall racism fundamentally shaped recognition as a liberal subject While for white¶ male citizensliberal understand the necessity of steady employment and ¶ the responsibility of providing for themselves and [their] families.Ext: impact Investing in the law as a marker and method for alleviating violence reifies a liberal understanding of freedom which has empirically amplified and cloaked racism. land ownership. Frequently written off as a sign of these . Given the ways ¶ that U. dangerous. Gender. it is still quite commonplace to assume that to¶ remedy social injustices one must turn first to the law The pursuit of legal equality is frequently understood as the most¶ pragmatic approach and a necessary first step to any kind of broad scale social change. n7 . . 265/ Despite vast ways in which the U. I turn first to the historical example of emancipation and the consequent conferral ¶ of citizenship to formerly enslaved people. citizenship . I ¶ look to Reconstruction Era struggles over the meaning of citizenship specifically because they mark a particularly ¶ defining moment in the reconfiguration of racial violence through the construct of the liberal subject. it is necessary to ¶ engage with the more complex questions about what freedom should and could look like and locate legal interventions ¶ in relation to this broader vision. Women's. back on them. In other words. ¶ Emancipation marked a moment of great possibility. In this way. legal reform is bound to reiterate¶ rather than transform unequal distributions of power. state is deeply invested in¶ maintaining social relations of racism. a quintessential moment in the expansion of legal rights in U. Instead. Therefore. Mills College “SYMPOSIUM ON EXPLORING POWER. if freed people were to be citizens. .S. Rev.S. particularly given the role emancipation ¶ has played as an important historical reference point for these struggles. n5 As the Virginia Freedmen's¶ Bureau's Assistant Commissioner Orlando Brown wrote. . To the extent that . and Sexuality Studies. and freed people held broad and diverse visions of freedom ¶ that included reparations. and responsibility n2 Rather than mitigate the significance of racial difference in the national¶ imagination the conferral of rights collaborated in "the persistent production of blackness as abject. and heteropatriarchy. or the first step toward broader changes. considering the legacies of this historical period raises crucial issues for ¶ contemporary struggles for inclusion. history. capitalism. AGENCY & ACTION IN A WORLD OF MOVING FRONTIERS: ARTICLE: THE OBLIGATIONS OF FREEDOM AND THE LIMITS OF LEGAL EQUALITY. L. n1 However. The assumptions that legal reform is a pragmatic and¶ necessary first step to social justice is a reflection of the boundaries that circumscribe what is imagined as politically ¶ possible within dominant discourse rather than the essential truths they are often taken to be legal¶ interventions will always simultaneously reinforce the legal authority of the U. failures areoften invoked as evidence of the need for further legal reform¶ rather than prompting the serious consideration of the law's actual capacity to effect change that perhaps they should ¶ ¶ the law maintains a¶fierce hold on the political imagination ¶ . Kandaswamy 2012/Priya.¶ threatening. anti-black . for black people . as Saidiya Hartman shows. citizenship had been defined against blackness. I argue for the importance of severing that hold. irrational.S. however. movements for social justice must seek to open up possibilities for transformation and evaluate their engagements with the law in terms of the [*266] future possibilities those ¶ engagements might open or foreclose. .S. it was necessary "to make ¶ the Freedmen into a self-supporting class of free laborers. dependent. citing legal reform as a necessary evil.

n16 . for many. one of the first people gained was marriage recognition. the state disinvests in black ¶ life. the belief in marriage as a civilizing institution simultaneously ¶ reiterated and valorized white supremacist beliefs that black people's inferiority was evidenced in their lack of ¶ appropriate gender and sexuality. contractual freedom provided a basis for the state's total disinvestment in black life. many freed people faced convictions for adultery. n39 In fact.¶ possible. n10 For freed people ¶ who had both been structurally denied access to other material resources through slavery and who were subject to ¶ despite the fact that they functioned to limit black people's mobility. n30 complicates Foucault's analysis and adds to that scholarship er. marriage incentive ¶ programs and increasingly punitive welfare regulations cast marriage and the economic self-sufficiency that supposedly ¶ [*271] comes with it as an obligation for welfare recipients who are most frequently represented as black women. thereby making it more ¶ or less impossible to live up to the ideals of citizenship. On the one hand. displacing responsibility for state violence onto those who feel its effects most and punishing those ¶ bodies for their The assumption that legal equality strategies are the most pragmatic pathways through which resistance movement¶ might effect change presumes that recognition as a free and equal liberal subject by the state is universally desirable. While marriages and other kinship ties were not legally recognized under slavery. n35 Certainly. and the failure to provide for ¶ their lega dependents created new¶ obligations and new grounds upon which people might be punished ¶ biopower ¶ ¶ the¶ capacity to "make live" in particular ways arrangements were criminalized and rationalized state austerity toward black people by constructing ¶ the self-sufficient household as the means to economic security. n31 As Hartman shows. Foucault also notes that sovereign power does not simply¶ disappear but rather that the state continues to exercise sovereign power alongside biopower. n26 This process is ¶ delimited by state racism. freed people were terms of the [*268] labor contract. and emancipatory. A historical view. black people were simultaneously subject to the normalizing and violent powers of the state. as Katherine Franke points out.¶ freed people were subject to [*270] constant surveillance as their moral capacity for citizenship was always in ¶ question.S. much like the labor contract. n29 ¶ Scholars such as Ann Stoler and Scott Morgensen have elaborated on Foucault's Hartman's¶ analysis of antiblack racism and the constitution of the liberal subject ¶ highlights the central role of racial violence in the elaboration of state pow rather scant discussion of racism¶ showing the ways in which biopower in fact emerges in relation to and as a function of colonial violence. ¶ this way. the extension of rights freed marriage rights was grounded in the belief that marriage . the extension of marriage rights provided the ground upon which ¶ alternative sexual As a result of the legal recognition of black¶ marriages. however. n21 Additionally. the extension of rights in fact black emergence of . n36 For example. n38 ¶ Another terrain upon which racially stratified constructions of citizenship are evident is in struggles for state protection ¶ from violence. n18 A key element of the rationalization of slavery was the construction of black¶ inferiority as marked by a lack of the gender differentiation that was seen as characteristic of civilization. liberal subjecthood¶ itself rationalizes and begets state violence. n22 l [*269] . welfare state and the expansion of the prison industrial complex can be understood as the logical ¶ extension of the processes of liberal subjection that Hartman outlines. n40 On the one hand. contemporary political struggles over marriage¶ reflect the processes by which marriage can secure entitlements for one social group while exacting social obligations ¶ from another. ¶ ¶ n8 This was particularly evident in the workings of contract. a mainstream. This historical example powerfully illustrates the ways in which inclusion into citizenship rights can operate as a ¶ technique of domination and the role the construct of the liberal subject plays in maintaining state racism. n17 However. ¶ ¶ Liberal concepts of freedom also functioned as a mechanism of regulating gender and sexuality through the¶ marriage contract ¶ ¶ as an institution would help civilize freed people by instilling¶ heteropatriarchal gender norms vagrancy laws that criminalized the refusal to enter into long-term labor contracts. secure the hyper-exploitation of ¶ black labor. A key distinction between the free person and the slave was self-ownership signified primarily through the capacity to enter into contract." n27 As biopower becomes concerned with regulating the life of the ¶ population. demonstrates that the abstract construction of the liberal¶ subject has functioned in particular ways to secure continued anti-black violence and that. ¶ laws have changed a great deal since Reconstruction. fornication. which "introduces a break into the domain of life that is under power's control: the break¶ between what must live and what must die. for freed people. n28 Killing the internal or¶ external racial threat becomes understood as a necessary element to making the population stronger. n32 On the one hand. n33 On the ¶ other hand. "early attempts to congeal racist taxonomies of difference through anatomical investigation and ¶ ethnographic observation produced the Black body as always already variant and Black people as the essence of gender ¶ aberrance. or ¶ perhaps more accurately normalizing processes became yet another vehicle for state violence. However. Michel Foucault argues that one of the distinguishing features of the modern state is the n24 Unlike sovereign power that is expressed in the capacity to take life.¶ during Reconstruction. . n34 In the seeming contradictions between racial¶inclusion and racial violence were effectively displaced by locating responsibility for state violence in those who¶ suffered from its effects.¶ recognition as a liberal subject rendered one responsible and therefore blameworthy. thereby defining the norm by making the Black its opposite. It is essential that structural location." n20 While marriage recognition did provide ¶ some tangible protections to married freed people. a phenomenon most clearly illustrated by the labor and marriage contracts. and ultimately knowledge about and regulation of populations. n37 On the other hand. n13 In called upon to demonstrate their independence and deservingness of freedom by fulfilling the fact. n41 On the other hand. n19 As Matt ¶ Richardson describes. n23 In this way. predominantly white gay and lesbian movement seeks access to a wide¶ array of property and social rights through same-sex marriage recognition. n11 However.individualism had afforded a kind of entitlement and self-determination . . racism marks the bodies upon which sovereign power must still be exercised. n25 However. Legislation that has increasingly criminalized violence against women and hate crimes against LGBT ¶ people holds out the promise of greater equality and freedom for some by expanding a system of mass incarceration that ¶ targets women of color and queer and transgender people of color. n14 In this way. and provided the ground for the development of carceral institutions directed at the punishment of black¶ people entering into the labor contract became discursively understood as the quintessential sign of freedom ¶ ¶ contract provided a rubric for reinventing relations of subordination ¶ by obscuring national responsibility for the injustices of slavery and instead displacing this responsibility onto the ¶ shoulders of the formerly enslaved. The black subject was thus brought into the fold of citizenship but as a subject always in need of reform or punishment. and any failure to comply with labor or marriage contracts was read as evidence of this incapacity. the increasingly punitive and austere ¶ orientation of the U. biopower is invested in the production of normalization and regularization. contracts were very much coerced. the differentiated structure of citizenship grounded in ¶ anti-black racism that Hartman describes still operates. cohabitation. n9 The understanding of legal freedom as self-possession meant that there ¶ was no inherent contradiction between subordination and freedom as long as subordination was secured through a freely ¶ entered into contract. processes of . n12 . n15 Freedom was rewritten as obligation and independence manifested as a burden. n42¶ . processes of criminalization hold individuals responsible for the effects of that ¶ disinvestment.

Rather than viewing legal change as a benchmark of success or situating¶ legal equality as a primary goal. For example. targeting their root causes. . . Elsa Barkley Brown demonstrates how freed people sought to defy liberal ¶ individualism and the exclusion of women from suffrage by exercising the vote as a collective resource. it is important to remember that both in the past and in the present many other concepts of freedom exist ¶ and are exercised. However. I conclude by suggesting some important principles that might be used to rethink our relationship to the law. ¶ there is a vast black radical tradition of intellectual and cultural production that has persistently challenged anti-black ¶ racism while putting forward alternate visions of freedom.¶ and holding state institutions accountable for their perpetuation rather than relying upon an abstract rubric of equality. . ¶ examples of what [*273]¶ exists beyond the purview of the law. n44 In addition. . First. ¶ n. the case of Reconstruction clearly¶ demonstrates how legal recognition can in practice [*272] produce a narrowing of political possibilities and a fixing of ¶ responsibility for social injustice onto the black bodies While Reconstruction is frequently narrated as the transition¶ from slavery to freedom. however. n47 Queer and gender nonconforming communities ¶ have developed a broad range of strategies for securing community survival and creating spaces to develop different¶ ways of living without relying upon the law. it is more accurate to recognize the ways in which the state reduced the multiple possible¶ meanings of freedom to the rubrics of liberal individualism and contract ¶ ¶ . it might be more effective to focus struggles around specific harms. Native American ¶ conceptions of sovereignty actively challenge settler colonialism and show how structures of collective belonging that ¶ are not embedded in state violence might be instated. n43 Tera Hunter ¶ shows how black women saw freedom as something to enjoy by reclaiming their time and their bodies. n45 In the contemporary moment. It seems more appropriate to target those forms of violence directly by naming them. These rubrics produced black people as both formally free and structurally subordinated thereby reconciling state racism with the extension of citizenship. For example. n48 Feminists of color are building community based mechanisms for ¶ addressing interpersonal and state violence against women. the historical case I have discussed shows that legal equality and inclusion is not the most productive site of struggle¶ because even if it is secured it does not ameliorate and can actually reproduce the violence people experience in their ¶ lives. Legal change is ¶ often construed as the benchmark of success for social movements.the utility of the law for social change be assessed from ¶ the vantage point of people who live at this conjuncture ¶ My point then is to insist on the necessity of vociferously challenging hegemonic understanding of how the law ¶ works and what the law offers movements for social change by centering the experiences of those for whom legal¶ citizenship and the extension of rights have undermined rather than advanced struggles for freedom. ¶ it is imperative to¶ decenter the law in struggles for social justice. n49 These are but a few important Rather than building on and cultivating these more expansive notions of freedom ¶ insistence that legal equality is a pragmatic and necessary first step to change erases them. n46 A vibrant prison abolition movement seeks to dismantle ¶ incarceration in all its form and imagine a world without prisons. However. While there is no easy solution to the dilemmas the law produces for social justice movements.

He wrote." "patriotic." "state." When sentence is! the terrocrats say." In his book The Incredible Secret Money Machine. they think. And I suggest that most "constitution.." "public welfare." etc. images." "king. new alternatives. "conspiracy" (talking with others about defending yourself against politicians). “The Anatomy of Slavespeak” Online." "cutthroat competition. This probably triggers development of mankind." "IBM." "justice." "treason" (betraying a politician).[I]ntellectually active people do not think in a rut." "decent. they consider new ways.[C]onsidering alternatives." etc." "country. "assassination" (killing a politician). associations." Each of these terms. etc. just prick a hole in a toy balloon. big "they" is all in your mind. "Go kill the . many of which may never have been attempted before. It can dull the mind. This phenomenon leads people to say things like "the government runs the country." "state. and there's some structures." "public interest." are such intellect-devastating." "loophole. There are a bunch of people out there that relate to each other. (Frederick Mann.what I call political Slavespeak -. All these people." "fair. For instance. "tax" (stealing by a politician)." "eminent domain" (theft of property by politicians). "Keeping It All in Place" is Robert Ringer's title for Chapter 8 of his Restoring The American Dream." The effect is created through the deliberate and careful use of certain words . kiddies!" The monolithic.that tend to trigger automatic meanings. "He takes unfair advantage of others"." "conscription." "counterfeiter" (a non-politician who prints paper currency). author of None of The Above. thoughtdestroying package-deals -. there's really no such thing as the Feds or the General Veeblefeltzer Corporation.." "majority rule." "windfall." "domestic policy.this is what freedom and independence are all about. such as disgust and hatred.beneficial to terrocrats and harmful to their victims.. 97. AAAA) The Killer Word "Government" In Restoring The American Dream Robert Ringer acknowledges the influence of Sy Leon. "society." "society. "There it is. In None of the Above Sy Leon wrote: "Politics is an intellectual anesthetic.. and to then think and speak as if the abstract collection is one single entity capable of performing actions. which is responsible. and paper are real. But nowhere can you point to the larger concept of "government" or "corporation" and say. "To discover the substance of a granfalloon.Ext impact Investing Power in the Word “Government” Has Caused the Death of Millions as Bodies Become Mobilized for a Nationalist Identity Mann. there's lots and lots of paper. Founder of Terra Libra. BA in Communications @ Sanford U. The word "selfishness" constitutes Slavespeak words (like "government." "government. the Twentieth Century. structures." "public morals. such as: "He only cares about himself"." "public property. "public good. stupefying inhibitions -.) incidental side effect. "legal tender. communicate. and hypnotic. to the degree that it's accepted as valid." "country." [emphasis added] A granfalloon is the lumping together of many diverse elements into an abstract collection." "national interest." "foreign policy. and some paper.of words terrocrats use to maintain their power and keep their victims in subjugation . for the arrested moral The use of one word can have vast and far-reaching consequences. But this kind of questioning spells death for politics . "war" (murder organized by politicians on a massive scale). "perjury" (lying to a politician). Suppose I brand you as "selfish" in front of a typical audience." "obligation. The meaning ascribed in popular usage to the word "selfishness" is not merely wrong: it represents a devastating intellectual "package-deal" [of contradictory elements and emotional associations].. attitudes. or even kill it permanently." I hope you realize by now just how absurd the previous Slavespeak Consider the possibility that because people generally consider this word/concept as valid and a given." "good of society.. This is not an a devastating package-deal. Sy Leon attacked the arrogant and pretentious words and phrases politicians used (what I call Slavespeak): "Mandate of the people. Don Lancaster explains: "A granfalloon is any large bureaucratic figment of people's imagination. The people sit in the structures and pass paper back and forth to each other and charge you to do so. Now let's focus our attention on one word: "government.. the willingness to challenge and explore -." "duty to society." "public service." "public servant." "society." "public duty." etc." "taxation." "inflation. and behave in ways that have resulted in over a hundred million people slaughtered during this. "He's greedy"." etc. In fact." "duty. "the draft" (slavery practiced by politicians)." "democracy. It probably also triggers associations." "president. theARSENAL Robert Ringer analyses terms such as: "government." emotions in the audience. it is a calculated result that keeps the politician in business. Most of the chapter is devoted to (collection of weapons) -. adds to the power of terrocrats and reduces "public good." "law. the power and freedom of their victims." In The Virtue Of Selfishness Ayn Rand wrote: "It is not a mere semantic issue nor a matter of arbitrary choice." Author Kurt Vonnegut coined the word "granfalloon" to describe abstract concepts like "nation. put it to sleep. more than any other single factor. Because of political brainwashing the "citizens" believe they must "fight for their country .. Sy Leon writes about "the verbal legerdemain of politicalese" as "one of the worst frauds ever perpetrated on mankind. emotions." In None of the Above Sy Leon also wrote: ".

the kind of thing you tend to do to promote liberty is to beg the terrocrats to "change the law" so you You also operate in a way that. reinforces and perpetuates the master-slave relationship between terrocrats and their victims can enjoy a little more freedom. Would this happen on such a massive scale in the absence of Slavespeak? Consider the possibility that in the same way that the entire "legal" the entire coercive political system basically rests on the concept/word "government." the "loyal citizens" take up arms and proceed to slaughter each other. etc. I represent "your government" and I want you to pay me "your taxes" so I can defend your property and safety. If you operate from this perspective. a whole constellation of Slavespeak concepts/words soon follow in its trail. I also want you to join "our army." To begin to see why this might be so. industry basically rests on the concept/word "law. .) So a would-be-terrocrat says. By accepting the basic concept/word "government.evil enemy. in the long run." so we can go and shoot "your enemies" in the "country" next door." you position the terrocrats who call themselves "government" as superior (more powerful) and you position yourself as inferior (less powerful) . What once the basic concept/word "government" is accepted." force people into "armies" to kill each other. assume that there's no equivalent word available to would-be-terrocrats. You position them in power and you position yourself in weakness. etc." imagine a world in which there are some would-be-terrocrats and a population of enlightened individuals who either don't understand the word "government" or they think it's a silly joke. If you accept the "government" concept.. force people to pay "taxes. you also accept that the terrocrats who call themselves "government" have the power to "make laws." force children into "schools" for political success would the would-be-terrocrat have? Realize that brainwashing.what Ayn Rand calls a devastating package deal. -. (For the purpose of this thoughtexperiment.

was acquitted on charges of Brennan’s statement points to the reversal of the power dynamics in such an act: “The irony that they want to see me naked. I don’t like a naked picture of me being available” (Duara 2012). . .ing their bodies hypervisible. or nearly naked. the “two-way ¶ [ 128 ] Bodies of Violence¶ street” is about Stripping naked at security screenings is a refusal to have one’s body made into an image viewed and interpreted only by unseen. measure. Such observ. The protest hinges on the juxtaposition of the control over viewing the body. and “strategic visibility” is. In mak. rather than only authorized government personnel . a type of of the security assemblage: one German protester wrote “prosthetic” on her arm. Chapter 4) If “don’t touch my junk” is about making bodies less visible. and are “pornographic” in the naked. You have all these machines that pretend to indecent exposure for stripping in protest of TSA screening procedures. . John Brennan. and “piercing” with an arrow pointed at her breast (Zetter 2010).¶ Unlike “don’t touch my junk” protests. Clearly. while disallowing nakedness in general . “fleshmob” protests are not about defending a liberal sphere of autonomy against government intrusion so much as challenging the log. Some of these protesters have done even more to make their bodies “legible” according to the terms visibility in order to streamline the airport security process. precisely. In Germany. the naked body of the security assemblage that was a “safe” body because it has nothing to hide becomes a dangerous body as it subverts the logic implicit in the security assemblages of the state as authorized viewer of the body. The airport security assemblages are made to appear meaningless by the redistribution of economies of observers and observed : bystanders are not only bodies waiting to be scanned them.selves. especially for those viewed as unlikely to constitute terrorist threats (such as children. authorized viewers (and possibly leaked into wider circulation) and turns the tables by making the naked body visible to everyone in the vicinity. “wives and mothers.” the “naked body” parodies the logic of the airport security apparatus.mobs” (after the performance art style of “flashmobs”) is about making bodies hypervisible.ers are necessary for the protest: this protest of excessive visibility only works if there is an audience to view bodies that are both “safe” in that they could not be concealing contraband. into observers of bodies.Fleshmobs Embrace fleshmobs. Brennan described his act of stripping naked as intended to reveal to the TSA the effect its policies have on passengers. In his court tes. the “two-way street” Brennan is referring to does not mean that TSA personnel are made naked and subject to the gaze of passengers.ness of their bodies. scandal of too much visibility of naked bodies in public spaces with the visibility of naked bodies as a security The naked protesters. but are viewers of the bodies of the fleshmobs as well.” and white men). a man from Portland.. Oregon. . By becoming a “dangerous body. 2015 (Bodies of Violence: Theorizing Embodied Subjects in International Relations. and only valuable as a means of humiliation and domination. fleshmobs render body-scanning procedures a meaningless gesture in terms of producing information. In these protests. . “fleshmob” protesters destabilize the state’s prerogative to surveil bodies and the production of bodies as state-owned information. By stripping down. which are about preserving the body as sovereign. Lauren B Wilcox. especially of the body-scanning procedures: “I want to show them it’s a two-way street. the elderly. or “fleshmobs.timony.ics of bodily visibility.elers and airport personnel.alt . critics of the security procedures have subjected themselves to screenings while naked. but I don’t get to take off my clothes off . about increasing protest known as “flesh.” court arrest that would reveal the hypocrisy of the state producing images of naked bodies for their own purposes. rather. do it” (KATU 2012). These “fleshmobs” critique the excess of vision that characterizes the scanners’ “virtual strip search” (Magnet and Rodgers 2012) by making other trav.

¶ bodies–scanners setting as a potentially pornographic site underpinned some artistic and activist protests against the scanners. we better realize that the bodies within the bodies– scanner are not predestined to become only docile. within a specific association of elements. or by maintaining the visibility of those that the setting is masking. Many journalists and activists keep referring to “nude” airport scanners (Kravets 2011).Our alternative is to hijack the security process .mance as a “fleshmob. In this sense. that is. it is possible to highlight a move to retranslate the spectral images of original scanners into naked. as Specific enactments within the bodies– scanners setting are not. It can also produce a different type of politics. and either stressing their presence or their 2012). an excess of visibility of the bodies. One of the most interesting cases. always critical moves. . emphasis added). This nakedness. be it by the introduction. but can also be used for commercial purposes. As shown in Figure 6.sion (it is the gesture of those arrested and of those threatened with violence) and. and with the most explicitly political intentions.individual critical activism can expose the contradictions inherent to the system and create new forms of liberation Rocco Bellanova and Gloria Gonzalez Fuster 2013 (International Political Sociology 7. Importantly. virtual strip searches (The Privacy Coalition 2010). and whole body imaging or body scanners (Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) 2012). There is also a parallel critics of the machines have consistently (re) introduced. some of the elements of the setting have to be enrolled to the criticism . as in the case of a Las Vegas–based company that relies on and fosters the nakedness controversy in an attempt to market so-called flying pasties on their website (Flyingpasties. either in a material or in a linguistic way. is that of the naked activists of the Berlin Pirate Party. As in the other set of processes. rein. The enactment of the messages. Furry Girl 2010). activists distributed pamphlets to passengers while wearing only their underwear and tattoo-like Nakedness appears to have been one of the most disturbing features of the images initially generated by body scanners. references to bodies and to the appearance of nakedness and inverse set of phenomena. of further new actants. They define their political perfor. living bodies.lematic. even the “arms up” gesture that the bodies going through the machines are forced to adopt could at the same time be a movement of submis.mob (Piratenpartei Berlin 2010. Processes of disappearance can be hijacked. demonstrating in the Berlin Tegel airport against body scanners in January 2010. one that can potentially question specific articulations of the security setting. perceived as prob. In stark contrast to such processes. In a similar fashion. to do so.” a sort of biopolitical version of the more classical flash.¶ This aspect is very strong in more artistic forms of criticism. bodies are enacted both in linguistic and material ways. the different tactics. From this perspective. pornography . such as the fleshmob or the planned striptease. "Politics of Disappearance: Scanners and (Unobserved) Bodies as Mediators of Security Practices") Various processes of the obliteration of bodies through the bodies–scanners set.ting have been described. and articulation.forcing their potential association with images of bodies presented as mere “objects” of desire. constrained bodies. in a sense. ¶ The bodies– scanners setting is not only productive “in favor of” securitization . and then re-engineer the body-as-object into body-as-subject. however. and all the alternative enactments of the bodies—including the concealment of bodies and the resistance to such concealment—keep open the possibility of a political landscape. wherever possible.uals were not only portrayed naked but also without face and/or identity.teases (for example. The potential for further controversy was apparent with the production of images in which individ. resulting from the invisibility of clothes in the images displayed by the original scanners.¶ Taking into account playful and/or critical approaches. a pick from a twominute YouTube video. a in the case of planned and video-recorded strip. was.

In January 2010. Live Information and Rights in the Airport: A Theoretical Perspective on Information Circulation") In the immediate aftermath of the Christmas day underwear terror plot. Presumably. Opt Out Day protest. however. airport security agents see are far less detailed than the YouTube protest video the Pirate Party posted online. the images produced by the body scanners cannot be seen by the human eye.S. The word “piercing” and an arrow point to one of her breasts. what they were “pixelated. a brief interruption in an oppressive security continuum. this act was specifically designed to protest the privacy invasion associated with the “visual strip search. the U.”20 attempting to do was to equate their written words with the technically legible body image created by the By turning themselves into walking examples of privacy violations. More fleshmobbing Eric Kula. In fact.movement of potential libera. including Germany. by .colored tights wears a sign reading Not only were they taking aim at the invasive procedure itself . Another woman dressed in a beige sweater and flesh.scanner initiative. " Full-Body Scanners. The images that the scanners. only a few weeks after the failed underwear bombing attempt.tion. the protesters had introduced a new form of legibility into the airport space. But. We don‟t have x-ray vision and boldly equating the technical circulation of x-rays and electromagnetic waves with the circulation of information through language and human vision. “One woman has the word “diaper” scrawled on her lower back with an arrow passengers. the protesters were drawing a comparison to the technically derived image.”19 pointing to her underwear and the word “prosthetic” printed on her leg. the protesters claimed that informational privacy in the technical sphere should be considered identical to that in the experiential sphere of the human senses. Like the U. protesters from Germany‟s Pirate Party organized a protest at Berlin-Tegel airport. approached the issue in a very different way. but they were also mocking claims made by government officials that this technology can protect a person‟s privacy by blurring or “pixelating” the image to hide personally identifiable information. 2011 (American Political Science Association.¶ ¶ By writing slogans and descriptions on their skin. was not the only state aggressively rushing out new security measures.S.) A statement on the party's website said they opposed the new security scanners because they threaten the “private sphere and the personal rights of In order to highlight their privacy concerns. A small number of people descended on the airport more or less unclothed (most were wearing only underwear. Other nations. were already in the testing or implementation phases of their body. the protesters had words written on their skin.” These protesters. we don‟t see bodies as chalk outlines. the Netherlands and Britain.

"Step Forward Please". For 3-and-a-half minutes. their conversations rise. ¶ But all too soon it’s over. and a wall of people once as I move to the plane. suddenly everybody stops. tilting your head towards the bar and towards R. But in truth. People stop moving. We’re alone in this deserted airport with only R. And we all look around. “I’m not sure all these people understand/It’s not like years ago – the fear And of getting caught/The recklessness of water/They cannot see me naked/These things they go away – replaced by everyday/Nightswimming deserves a quiet night”. . and fail. And explain the point of this story. When was the last time we heard the tannoy? When did someone last walk past? When did I last hear someone speak? We all sway and its bliss. Flight #173 to wherever is still delayed. But it was there. sharing a few smiles. if all too briefly. all I can really say for sure is that you Michael Stipe. Something touched us in a way that pat-down searches and a biometric ID’s were unable to comprehend . And everybody is respectfully silent. if there even is one. about technologies which utilise whatever an airport is – there are ways of defeating it. The flow of people past the bar has vanished.E. It’s got to be ‘nightswimming’. about people who don’t see each other. I saw it. There is a ‘we’. and restraining themselves from singing their favourite lines.academia. Thank people in their quest to see darkly. With eyes half closed and drinks resting on the table-tops. I try to catch their eyes.¶ The moment is lost. And after 6 weeks in transit. And suddenly there is a ‘we’. Transit ceases. 28-08-2014 (Critical Studies on Surveillance 2(2). nails digging into the wood to stop from physically singing along. everybody is semi-present – letting Michael Stipe’s voice move through them. ¶ And I’m not from braced for impact – far from it. I occasionally hear quiet whistles of the ‘Nightswimming’ refrain from people I pass on the way to gate 53 – testament to the fact that something magical really did happen. and it is still requested that people visit information desk three for their refreshment vouchers.¶ The tannoy ceases to bray. Is that Michael Stipe singing? That’s definitely Michael Stipe – what song is this? And you concentrate hard to block out the tannoy and the music from the other bars. There was security in the sense that we were together. noone moved anywhere. Everything stops. that was truly special. That piano riff is unmistakeable. and his success dwarfed my smiling Jesus Christ pose through security .M to guide us.E. Michael Stipe did it with just a voice and a piano . The chatter rises. no-one bought anything. People are moving past again in herds. And out of respect for ‘nightswimming’ the other bars turn off their music. To tell you something about intimacy in the face of airport technologies which atomise and process. People go back to their separate lives. ¶ I’m tempted to switch to academic prose to again bustles through the airport.M. and we shared something . I look around and everyone is swaying. the moment is lost. not And then suddenly something magical happens. available at https://www. There was no airport. The barman whistles along with the piano riff as we wipes the tables.alt—Michael Stipes Michael Stipe alt Charlotte Heath-Kelly. I notice that my hand is gripping the edge of the table.

for the context of this analysis. the U. Fueled by two websites . The protest wasn‟t designed to rebel against this invasion.OptOutDay. However. I believe that the protest could demonstrate that the technical expectation of access to bodily information is unreasonable when separated from its technical supports . Live Information and Rights in the Airport: A Theoretical Perspective on Information Circulation") The American Protest¶ For a variety of reasons. By recognizing that the information generated from their bodies is a contingent part (indeed. still requires what many believe to be an uncomfortable invasion of their personal space. they resist any attempt to generate information in the form of images.”18¶ People were not encouraged to stay home and not fly.body scans. The “here and now” experience of that submission ties people (and very personal. public has begun vocalizing concern about the body and WeWontFly. that a choice exists for passengers to undergo either form of screening.a protesters‟ tactical list: urging passengers to “opt out” of full. they have tapped into the tension that exists there and organized a political movement that brings that tension into focus for others to see . pat downs that can include feeling a person‟s inner thighs and buttocks. . 2011 (American Political Science Association.‟ hand-sliding. to the commerce of the air industry. The protest was designed to demonstrate that. to increase delays by opting for pat downs . It is not a matter of protecting bodily information. but rather a matter of opposing a particular mode of information circulation that already presumes that body space will be included in the production of social space. “Atop the in the full view of other passengers. to the circulation of bodies. They were encouraged¶ to opt out of the full-body scan and to receive the traditional pat down .alt—Opt Out Opt out alt Eric Kula. and the way that some aspects of this screening process occur call for protest went out asking flyers to cause delay by refusing the body scanner screening just as millions of Americans were trying to fly off for annual family feasts. Therefore. By imposing time constraints (the time of delay) back onto the TSA. The government has always maintained What is noteworthy about the protest. The protesters realized that an obscured tension does exist in the dual structure of experience. forcing TSA employees to instead administer „enhanced. an essential component) of the functionality of the entire airport people don‟t really have a choice but to submit to the body scanner.S. By reemphasizing the tactile nature of the body. the conduct of airport security screeners. and to the efficacy of government security regulations. there seems a reasonable outlet for people that do not want revealing body scans to protect their privacy. in the larger picture of the entire commercial air industry and government regulations. the mode of protest. private information) to the larger flows of information. " Full-Body Scanners. is the suggested mode of protest.

In the villages that you will visit. and individual sovereignty . To govern ourselves. they don’t use the word “government”. “Why You Must Recognize and Understand Coercion” On-line. Coercion is the negation of individual freedom.At perm Blurring Disadvantage –Affirming Exceptions is the Logic that Masks Statism – Reject Every Deployment of Statist Language Mann. Most coercive bureaucracies operate on the same principle: creating dependency. In fact. "I believe in freedom and individual sovereignty. except for. The word “government” is used for that external oppressive structure out there. In contrast. instead of your muscles to force. Coercive "government" is a win-lose or lose-lose game . Coercion is the essence of slavery. there is almost always a loser. This is a different notion of power. and they really govern their lives by themselves. (Gustavo Esteva. Can we formulate Some people say.different kinds of political bodies -. Perhaps the word “government” is not the right word to describe that kind of situation. Here in the communities they are the same people. and nobodies who can't think for themselves. imply that people are powerless victims. That is the “government”. barbaric savagery." another principle: Become wise. be stopped. All the structures are they themselves governing themselves. to true civilization! It is vital to our progress and survival that the currently increasing trend of coercion. There are alternative convictions. we need the pertinent political bodies -. etc. BA in Communications @ Sanford U. Therefore the coercer must decide for the victim. prevent yourself from being coerced. you have those governing and those governed. reversed.. of course. They are not two classes of people. they don’t call that “government” . 97. nothings. compulsory compliance with "regulations". self-ownership. you get the modern slave-state that all countries are now in . They are governing themselves. and ultimately eliminated altogether! The solution for the individual is to reject the use of coercion. Online. for What we want to say is that . a radically new organization of the society. and powerful . When coercion is perpetrated. The recognition and rejection of coercion constitutes the shift from backwards. For this. It’s Mutually Exclusive Esteva. "anti-drug laws".but not those in a democratic structure. What they have governing themselves. For example. Founder of Terra Libra. That they don’t need someone upstairs governing them. benefits all parties. There is the conviction that people can govern themselves. compulsory state "education" (coercion at its most insidious).it's destructive. and powerlessness . strong. helplessness.. [KevC]) The problem is that if you add up all the coercive exceptions of the people who profess their love for freedom and individual sovereignty. 2k5. you will see that when they are talking about how they govern themselves. “The Revolution of the New Commons” Lecture. voluntary exchange is win-win . [KevC]) there is an alternative vision. we cannot use the same words.or suffer coercion? Some forms of coercion imply that the information of the coerced or victim is no good and/or the victim can't think for himself or herself (can't process information). (Frederick Mann. When you use the word “government”. September 6. at least to some extent. Reject Coercion Practice using your mind to persuade. perpetrated by those who call themselves "government". Professor @ Universidad de la Tierra in Oaxaca. and you'll become much more capable.. and withdraw your support from coercers the means for doing this is called Freedom Technology. Two classes of people. What we have now is a transition from a conventional power structure to another conventional power structure. or to a different kind of organization of the society.

breathing entity capable of performing actions .they can't hear you. like running a school. BA in Communications @ Sanford U. what we need to do is basically conclude the dismantling of the old regime." that their brains automatically shut out anything to the contrary. . for most people . human beings.collectivist thinking. Permutation Fails – Their Advocacy is Mutually Exclusive Mann. Founder of Terra Libra. if "government" is some kind of living. reorganize the society from the bottom up.individualist thinking . “Report #TL07B: The Nature of Government”” Online. and writing about "government" as a volitional entity. They say "government does this and that" .including many freedom lovers . talking. "Look at anything that "government" supposedly does. 98. (Frederick Mann.the second seems impossible to grasp the above refutation because they are locked into the habit of thinking. Sometimes it seems that when you say to these people." . and you'll find that all the work is being done by individual They seem so brainwashed with the notion that "government does things. [KevC]) Unfortunately. second.

“It’s illusory to think a food co-op can replace Grand Union or Peoples’ Bank could replace Chase Manhattan.” Much of modern American anarchy exists as civil disobedience. “ Anarchist groups get the word out. June 12 2009 http://swindlemagazine. unethical capitalist pressures. They’re also great about organizing grassroots Free Stores and Food Not Bombs so that food. 2k9 (Shawna and Zio.” states American anarchists made headlines later in 1999 while protesting the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Seattle.” Swindle Magazine. empowerment and agency. That is one of the beautiful things about anarchism—that it brings ethics into socialism instead of mere science.” says Tarrant. “But I do believe this: One can try to maintain a high ethical standard.” she says.At cooption No Cooption – Reclaiming Agency Comes First Kenney & Zio.” . This especially matters because media is so incredibly controlled by corporate consolidation.” In the recent documentary film Anarchism in America. residing in ideas like co-ops and community effort. states on its anarchism “doesn’t tell people what to do. school. agricultural system.” The statement goes on to encourage people to ask “what would your website ideal transportation system. AK Press. neighborhood. It is basically impossible to live a thoroughly anarchist life within a capitalist system. Numerous anarchist bookstores and publishers thrive here.” he says. beyond kids sporting patches with the anarchy symbol like a trendy corporate logo. “Anarchists have brought such important attention to global issues like the IMF and World Bank and how unelected people are making policies affecting workers around the world. Political it’s exactly such awareness today’s anarchists are responsible for. “Mainstream media focuses on wild demonstrators who wear black and throw rocks at The Gap. or even co-optation. despite media’s depictions and misconceptions. “Anarchy in the USA. as the black-masked portion of the more than 40. or workplace look like? Now ask yourself how much influence you and the people around you have over these issues? Can we afford to leave these decisions to the same people who have been screwing up our lives thus far?” Such questioning goes well “There’s always the danger that a radical political philosophy will become co-opted by the mainstream status quo. clothes and other necessities get straight to the people who need it. Murray Bookchin agrees. One can protest and try to work with projects in which people learn how to take control of their lives. Shira Tarrant says San Francisco-based worker-run collective that publishes and distributes anarchist literature. It is about emancipation. racism.000 demonstrators. But more important is how anarchist groups have drawn attention to the politics of global exploitation. One can concern oneself personally with what is humane. a scientist and author Dr. Wash. that it will become just a watered down fashion statement. but she stresses the positive change that anarchism can bring “in the face of sexism..

Terror DA .

Winter 2010. a piecemeal approach will continue to leave airports and passengers exposed to the risk of injury or death . " we world of significantly less information privacy. the EU Charter expressly guarantees rights to privacy and modesty. such as bombs hidden in body cavities. Although one can easily understand why someone would find it unreasonable to use backscatter or MMW technology that depicts naked images of men. the imposition of AIT absent some restraint upon government decision makers denotes that. Arguably. By sharing ideas and financial resources these hegemons are better equipped to develop the technology required to detect multiple potential forms of attack. The Fourth scanner. the use of AIT violates expressly guaranteed rights in different if passengers voluntarily decided to walk through the airports completely naked. Thus. Amendment of the United States Constitution protects the right to be secure in the person. “Bombing Out: Using Full-Body Imaging To Conduct Airport Searches in the United States and Europe Amidst Privacy Concerns”. This understanding becomes readily apparent when consider-ing reasonable minds may differ. Accordingly. as one commentator remarked. +337&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&key=aa985e4d46ce815557319e05bc877ccd//GH) The short list of vulnerabilities identified supra militates against investing $ 150. Perhaps this conclusion would be the fact that passengers are clothed suggests that they retain a reasonable expectation in the privacy of their naked bodies. Accordingly.JD candidate at Tulane University.lexisnexis.+Int%27l+%26+Comp. n161 To better protect their citizens. Lombard 2010 (Etienne. aviation security methods typically lack foresight because they guard against only one type of threat. and [*367] children. As aviation security expert Bruce Schneier observed.Uniqueness/brink US surveillance is on the brink—no EU action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=19+Tul.+J. AIT infringes upon these rights. Likewise. women.+L.000 to purchase only one the United States and EU should pool their resources together to develop a comprehensive technology that considers each of the identified vulnera-bilities and guards against them while concomitantly preserving privacy. However. truly. that other forms of available technology accomplish the same precise objective. the EU and protected rights in the United States. without impinging upon passenger health." n162 are moving toward a . Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law. https://litigationessentials. Until then. security administrators from the EU and the United States must collaborate .

" the official said.body. There is every indication that whatever radicalization took place occurred recently. Sen. "It's either hour before the landing or hold any personal item on their laps. including the slayings of 13 people at Fort Hood.html? sid=ST2009122601151)//FJ Several top Republicans criticized the administration's approach to counterterrorism. Peter King (R-N. 09 (Dan.washingtonpost. Peter Hoekstra (Mich. Meserve and Ahlers 10 (*Jeanne AND **Mike M.). and his name was run against the watch list maintained by [the Department of Homeland Security] and the FBI. the ranking Republican on the House intelligence committee and a state After being briefed by federal authorities. said terrorists appear to have exploited the natural inhibition of screeners to conduct overly intrusive searches. Michael Chertoff.S. "We interviewed him. chairman of the House Homeland Security subcommittee on intelligence. One administration official.Link Full-body scanners are key to detect hidden objects.). Embassy in Nigeria. and he renewed calls for widespread expansion of whole-body imaging scanners that use radio waves or X-rays to reveal objects beneath a person's clothes." Body scanners key to stop potential terrorist threats.” The Washington Post. including the visit by Abdulmutallab's father to the U.” CNN.S. you've got to find some way of detecting things in parts of the body that aren't easy to get at. Rep." Administration officials said President Obama is seeking accountability in the incident. http://www.Y. "I think the administration is finally recognizing that they got this terrorism thing all wrong. The extraordinary steps came as pat-downs or imaging. TSA is requiring that all passengers bound for the United States undergo a "thorough pat-down" at boarding gates." Chertoff said. saying the government had not pieced together warning signs in recent cases. officials. passengers must remain seated and may not access carry-on baggage for the final former senior U. “Plane suspect was listed in terror database after father alerted U. Lieberman (I-Conn. or otherwise hoping that bad guys haven't figured it out. In addition. airspace. http://www. He is getting detailed briefings on the facts of the case and the airport security changes while on vacation in Hawaii. TSA said." In a new emergency order effective until Wednesday. Jane Harman (D-Calif.S. although he has not demanded any sort of special review. All carry-on baggage also should be inspected." chairman of the Senate Homeland Security Committee. focusing on syringes with powders or liquids.S. said Abdulmutallab received his 2008 tourist visa from the U. and I guess bad guys have figured it out. 12/27. Democrats in the House and Senate vowed to hold hearings in January but also urged caution in jumping to conclusions. Eggen et al.) said Abdulmutallab did not undergo body scans that might have helped detect the explosive material when he went through security at airports in Nigeria and Amsterdam.S.). 4/2. released a statement saying he was "troubled by several aspects" of the case. officials spoke in unusually blunt terms about the apparent failure of aviation security measures to detect a common military explosive allegedly brought on board. TSA says. “Full-body scanners improve security. speaking on the condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to discuss the matter publicly. the officials said.scanners)//FJ . and in order to be able to detect it. said a federal official briefed lawmakers about "strong suggestions of a Yemen-al-Qaeda connection and an intent to blow up the plane over U. "This plot is an example of something we've known could exist in theory. "There was no indication of any derogatory information. "I think we came very. concentrating on the upper legs and torso. Chertoff said the government has sought to expand use of imaging" said Rep. Rep. but privacy advocates and Congress have raised objections.cnn.. very close to losing that plane last night. gubernatorial Embassy in London. who was homeland security secretary from 2005 to 2009 . allegedly by a Muslim soldier. Joseph I.

The agency field-tested the full-body imagers for more than a year before announcing last month the deployment of machines to 11 airports nationwide. "It is an excellent piece of technology that will significantly improve our detection capabilities. and have revealed more than 60 "artfully concealed" illegal or prohibited items in the past year.Full-body imaging machines that see through clothes have significantly improved security in airports where they are deployed. saying it was identical to a concealed bag detected by an imager." said Dr." As evidence of the machines' capabilities. which are prohibited as carry-on items. When it finds illegal items during a search. very small things that are being secreted on the body. it refers the item to local law enforcement officers. "Regardless of the sophistication of the piece of technology. “Body scanners not 'magic technology' against terror." said John Perry Barlow. the Transportation Security Administration says." TSA Acting Administrator Gale Rossides said this week. because technology gives us powers that were not envisioned by the Founding Those items are confiscated but are not counted in the tally. In an appearance before Congress last month. the security agency released five photos of drugs or suspected drugs that airport screeners found after scans revealed anomalies on the ghost-like images of people's bodies. To date. we have to reclaim the Fourth Amendment." said Rossides. But to illustrate the machines' effectiveness. 46 machines are in place in 23 airports." she said. "I can't imaging an explosive that is powerful enough in that [tea-bag size] quantity to endanger an aircraft. machines have revealed numerous prohibited items that passengers evidently inadvertently left in pockets." Barlow said. experts say. such as the detecting very small objects -. airport.000 set up by the end of 2011. In addition. then that machine is not going to deter a [sophisticated] terrorist operation. and the agency is stepping up deployments and plans to have about 1.are subjecting passengers to scrutiny beyond what is needed to safeguard the plane. "If it's drugs. http://www. it says.screening/)//FJ The full-body scanning technology being adopted and discussed since the attempt to take down a passenger plane on Christmas Day isn't a "magic machine" that will solve aviation security issues. the the items. But some passengers say the machine's capabilities are presenting new Fourth Amendment questions about the government's searches. then we call in local law enforcement and they handle it from "Every time technology makes another leap forward. Richard . "Eventually they're going to bust somebody for something that was clearly and obviously not a threat to the aircraft. make it an issue. "I think what was so telling about the Christmas Day attack was that it exploited our cultural norms. and other concealed items such as large bottles of lotion. This technology will give us the image of the entire body. 12/31." she said. a former Grateful Dead lyricist who once took the TSA to court after a search of his checked luggage revealed a small amount of drugs. Interest in the machines has heightened since the Christmas Day incident in which a man allegedly attempted to detonate an explosive concealed in his underwear. The agency said metal detectors would not have revealed Screeners using the technology also found a knife hidden in the small of a person's back at the a concealed razor blade on a passenger in Phoenix. officials said. Arizona. Richmond. if you can collect the information on how it works and what its technical parameters are. Today. Rossides said Full-body scanners are key—Amsterdam member proves and counterterrorism programs must be exaggerated in order to be successful. And at that point somebody is going to the body imagers are especially useful because they can expose contraband on parts of the body that aren't fully explored in pat-downs. and any reasonable person would have known that [while looking at the] body scan. a TSA spokesman said. Virginia.not illegal items such as drugs. "It is absolutely a tremendous improvement of what we can detect at the checkpoints. as they get more and more familiar with this technology.cnn. "What we're trying to resolve is the anomaly that we're seeing on the body. The security agency said that it searches only for prohibited items -. saying the machines -. Hunter 09 (Marnie." he said." Barlow predicted that the body scanner will lead to another court case to clarify the extent it can be used to search the body. "The amazing thing is that our officers. are actually finding very.” CNN. no explosives have been detected by the machines. but their ability to spot even small concealed objects demonstrates their effectiveness as a security tool . that we don't frequently pat down persons in that part of the body. Rossides declined to say whether the machines could have detected the underwear bomb. Rossides showed a packet of white powder smaller than a tea bag. and often we have to reclaim the entire Bill of Rights.

Because only a handful of the machines currently are in use in the technology. Soule said. Michigan. The more thorough searches. You take away liquids. said. they use liquids. The privacy rights group is concerned that the focus on hidden explosives will push the TSA to ramp up use of the machines as a primary screening tool without resolving concerns about appropriate use of the Addressing privacy concerns." "Security has to be layered and the layering has much more to do than pat downs and technology. Also Wednesday. the Dutch interior minister said Wednesday. we have a concern. "If you know ahead of time what you're going to be facing. explosives and other objects concealed under layers of clothing without physical contact. Some and embarrassed after is ineffective. who is the author of a number of security-related authorities have charged Umar Farouk AbdulMutallab. You take away box cutters. because it's a virtual strip search that is terribly invasive.S. they put explosives in their shoes." Federal taking flights to the United States. Investigation and intelligence gathering is where the money would make a difference. U. Bloom said. of Nigeria with trying to detonate explosives hidden in his underwear on a flight from Amsterdam. Privacy rights groups are wary of 300 more machines in 2010. the announcement said. You use full-body scanners. the odds are really . said TSA spokesman Greg Soule.S. announced plans to add body scanners to its security system. The agency said Wednesday that this is not the current procedure but declined to offer further details on how pat-down guidelines have evolved. including pat-down searches security analysts say pat-down searches -. An additional 150 advanced imaging machines will be installed in U. would be used only when all other screening measures failed to resolve a security alarm. movements to impose the anatomically revealing technology on all travelers as a primary screening method. the TSA says faces are blurred on the body scans generated by the agency's machines." including the chest and groin. analyzing it and transmitting it in a prompt and responsive and secure fashion." he said. including "Beyond Fear." said Michael German. and the agents who review the scans do not see the passengers. first used in a U. Screening procedures and technology constitute only one layer in combating terrorism." Bloom said. Amsterdam's Schiphol Airport will begin using the full-body scanners on all passengers books. Only in six airports are they used as a primary screening option. director of terrorism.000 explosives trace detectors are in use in airports across the country.which are often perfunctory -. Dutch authorities have said they are confident about how AbdulMutallab was screened but acknowledge that they could not have detected the explosive material that he was said to be carrying. 23. There is no "magic machine" or "magic technology.Fullbody screening and other security measures are more effective in detecting threats from an increasing number of unsophisticated. but the advanced scanning technology was not available. the terrorists use box cutters. In Amsterdam. airport in 2007. "Advanced imaging technology enhances security by safely screening passengers for metallic and nonmetallic threats including weapons. metal detectors and X-ray machines were in place. You screen shoes. "Basically. he added. he said. You take away guns and bombs. "In general. Security suspect. you either plan to beat it. In the United States. The device failed to fully detonate. airports over the next year. any pat-down that you are not violated and technology that can detect traces of explosives. can find hidden objects that metal detectors can't. "Obviously. said associate director Lillie Coney. the TSA announced an "enhanced pat-down search" to address items that could be hidden in "sensitive areas of the body. mentally troubled suspects acting alone . In April 2008. filed a lawsuit in November against the Department of Homeland Security seeking details under the Freedom of Information Act about the department's use of the advanced imaging technology. Netherlands. the TSA's Soule said.are useless. "Stop trying to guess." Soule said. The technology is "only a piece" of aviation security. they strap explosives to their body. according to the TSA. technologist Bruce Schneier believes that the body scanning machines are a waste of money. the airport authority in Nigeria." Schneier said. Agents who deal directly with passengers do not see the scans. The advanced imaging scanners would not have caught substances hidden in a bodily orifice or substances concealed by folds of skin on an obese The Transportation Security Administration cannot discuss specific detection capabilities of its technology for security reasons. where AbdulMutallab's flight to Amsterdam originated." said Schneier. More than 7. A separate technology that analyzes samples for traces of explosive material is in place at every airport. a Washingtonbased public interest research center. it also includes collecting intelligence. The Electronic Privacy Information Center. he Bloom. most travelers flagged for secondary screening would encounter other means of detecting threats. as a primary screening measure and only a few other countries are using the technology. they're going to do something else. to Detroit. policy counsel for the American Civil Liberties Union. intelligence and security studies at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. and the TSA plans to purchase The controversial technology. 40 of these advanced imaging machines are in use in 19 airports.S. or you go somewhere else.

http://www. "At this point." The president. Portugal. In a public statement released Saturday...are subject to a pat-down. I want to remind you that TSA's mission is to ensure the safety of you the traveling public and we are committed to doing so efficiently. when Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab of Nigeria allegedly boarded a flight from Amsterdam to Detroit with a bomb hidden in his underwear . have indicated to me that the procedures that they've been putting in place are the only ones right now that they consider to be effective against the kind of threat that we saw in the Christmas Day bombing. the president vowed he'd try to find a way to make passengers feel more both comfortable and what we're doing absolutely necessary? Have we thought it through? Are there other ways of accomplishing it that meet the same objectives?" he said. " Every week I meet with my counterterrorism team and I'm constantly asking them whether -. said he understands "people's frustrations. 11/21. facing "enormous pressure" to prevent a terrorist attack. calling methods such as pat-downs and body scans necessary to assure airline safety. TSA officers can use "professional discretion" to airport screening procedures that have caused a holiday travel uproar. Those who voluntarily opt out -. The president said Abdulmutallab reportedly failed to set off the bomb. Some travelers have likened the such methods are needed after what happened December 25.tsa/)//FJ Obama stood by new controversial screening measures Saturday. according to a statement from the federal agency. determine whether individuals should be subject to further screening. the president called the balance between President Barack protecting travelers' rights and their security a "tough situation.cnn. "As you travel this holiday season. 2009. In Portugal.stacked in the terrorists' favor ." he said. travelers may be subject to full-body scans at 400 such machines in 69 airports nationwide. TSA Administrator John Pistole spelled out the new security measures and offered tips to those flying this Thanksgiving week. Malveaux 10 (Suzanne.” CNN." Key experts agree that full-body scanners are necessary in the fight against terrorism. courteously and professionally. with Rutherford Institute President John Whitehead saying the agency "is forcing travelers to consent to a virtual strip search or allow an unknown officer to literally place his or her hands in your pants. Critics have called the procedures invasive. Obama said that transportation security officials have a tough task." He said that he has also told the federal agency's administrators that they must consider whether there are "less intrusive" ways to obtain the same goals. while noting that he didn't have personal experience with the new security measures." Pistole said. “Obama stands by controversial air security screening methods. whether it is through the current policies or with new ones. which metal detectors didn't" said Obama. He said he's asked TSA for assurances that "what we're doing is the only way to assure the American people's safety." Per the new rules. "One of the most frustrating aspects of this fight against terrorism is that it has created a whole security apparatus around us that causes huge inconvenience for all of us. in consultation with our counterterrorism experts. because they only have to be successful one time and the government has to be successful all the well as those who set off a scanning machine or a metal detector -. Speaking at a NATO press conference in Lisbon. . though his attempt led to the Transportation Security Administration. pat-downs to groping.

and the enemy will find a way around it … no matter how technologically advanced that basket is. Put all your security eggs in one basket. 1/22. Sunbathers give away more at the beach.are running so high. The Transportation Security Administration has tested and evaluated them for years and given ample opportunity for public comment on how to regulate their use. Members of Congress and ACLU lawyers have no doubt already stepped through them at one time or another at Washington's Reagan National Airport. Scanners render faces nondescript. "You never want a serious crisis to go to waste.AT: It’s Invasive Full-body scanners are crucial for detecting terrorists—there are no privacy violations and the alternative is pat downs which is far worse.. The hard truth: Terrorists can't An unseemly rush to buy more body scanners will shift resources from the most effective means of countering terrorists: a good offense. They tire quickly. As employing the scanners. has even received kudos from the privacy and civil liberties community for the outreach it conducted in developing guidelines for politics with the Rahm Emanuel said. Furthermore. One technique is the "booty bomb.and rhetoric -. and there aren't enough of them to go around.” The Heritage Foundation. and airplanes will suffer the same fate as the French at the onset of World War II. and it is not retained. then set off with an external detonator like a cellphone. testing. They were used during Saddam Hussein's trial so suicide have been tested extensively by the TSA. Are they perfect? No. Erect a Maginot line of scanners in every airport in the world. Talk about invasive! Concerns that those scanned would be subject to ridicule are overblown as well. Without question. Breasts and genitals are tactfully blurred." Explosives are either placed in the anal cavity or swallowed. where have you been since 9/11? These technologies are not new. Explosive-trace technologies have limitations.heritage." And it seems a lot of people in Washington take that mantra seriously. A body scanner wouldn't find a booty bomb. many people are scared by dogs. an effective pat down requires feeling around the breasts and crotch. Arguing that the scanners Abdulmutallab's underpants have put that argument to rest. Since most bombs are hidden in the areas that security officials will feel most uncomfortable touching. Even full-body scanners can be beaten. be stopped with defense alone. Scanners make sense. it's hard to argue that a search for bombs hidden in clothing is unreasonable. and deployment questions surrounding the scanners or they are just playing for those "outraged" by the deployment of the scanners. aren't efficacious doesn't hold up so well. The detection systems used to swab bags are too slow to allow universal screening. But no screening technology is. too. "Scans for some" makes sense. they're useless for detecting knives and guns. "Scans for everyone" doesn't. which can be disruptive. Carafano 10—a senior research fellow for national and homeland security at the Heritage Foundation (James Jay. The scanning technologies basically allow airport security to look through your clothes to see if anything is hidden underneath. Yet security zealots who want to put them at every checkpoint in every airport are equally wrongheaded. So why is stopping the scanners suddenly a cause célèbre in some quarters? Their righteous-sounding indignation does not bear up well under scrutiny. The image is seen only by a professional screener. either. The emotion -. like dogs. the best security tactic is to . why didn't they file suit the day the first passenger walked through the machine? One possible reason: There is plenty of case law holding that individuals' right to (i. And the privacy argument seems shakiest of all. Bomb dogs bombers wouldn't sneak into the courtroom. Every system has its shortfalls. one suspects the two camps are either ignorant of the legal. If folks truly think the scanners represent an unreasonable search. The very idea seems to enrage some. “Airline Travelers Should Fear Terrorists More Than Full-Body Scanners. which oversees TSA. Additionally. The Department of Homeland Security. Richard Reid's shoes and now Umar Farouk Consider the alternative: a pat down. They can't find hidden guns and knives. Witness the ferocious debate over the use of full-body scanners in the wake of the Christmas crotch-bomber episode. while others appear besotted with the machines. expectation of) privacy is far less when passing through a government security checkpoint than when in their own home. And. http://www.

That's how authorities disrupted the 2006 London-based plot to smuggle liquid explosives onto United States-bound flights.html)//FJ The full-body scanner controversy is much ado about nothing . In fact. They should be used judiciously. The backscatter emits low-level x-rays at you to determine whether you're trying to get through security with more than God gave you. of the Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association. they help keep terrorists from killing us -.stop terrorists before they even enter an “I'll take the full-body scan. Keep the focus where it belongs: Scanners don't undermine our privacy or freedom. And I’ll take an electronic scan over a hands-on pat-down any day. My take: negatives of nudie pictures (millimeter wave) or like the chalky outlines of victims at Pompeii (backscatter). It takes all of 20 seconds from beginning to end. But privacy rights groups are up in arms because the equipment produces what looks like backscatters on order and there are 40 millimeter-wave scanners in operation at 19 airports. The millimeter-wave machine takes up to 40 seconds to do the same thing with radio waves. The rights groups leave the impression that your business will be bared for inspection right there in front of everyone. But I have no doubt his sentiment is widely shared." How vivid. Let's not let security-vs. wrote on my Facebook wall after I posted the booty-bomb citation: "Have these ‘flyers rights’ [folks] forgotten that flyers reserve the right to take whatever measures neccesary [sic] to escape being blown to bits in midair? I fly constantly and would gladly submit to a strip search. .-liberty diatribes hijack the debate. who told The Post: "I think a bomb detonating on a plane is the biggest invasion of privacy a person can experience . There are 150 We need more. I’d agree with Jon Adler. security needs to funnel suspicious travelers into secondary screening where scanners as well as other technologies and techniques can be used to keep malicious actors off airplanes.the ultimate deprivation of liberty. A quick synopsis: There are two types of full-body scanners. they are no cure-all for terrorism. Full-body scanners don’t invade privacy rights and pat-downs are worse. 1/4. colonoscopy or the infamous 'please turn your head and cough' for even the slightest increase in MY safety." Or as Quentin Hines Not true. other hand. http://voices. On the on how best to fight terrorists. Effective counterterrorism operations find and take down plots before they are put in motion. The images are viewed in a secure room away from the security checkpoint and they are destroyed once each passenger is cleared . if you ask me.” The Washington Post. Capehart 10 (Jonathan.washingtonpost. Next best.

Transparency K .

which fetishize the fetus as something separate from the mother. In addition to Lowry’s understanding of reproductive technologies as maternal body) firmly into view . .” that is.thetics of transparency is motivated by the desire to turn the world (the body) inside-out such that there would no longer be any secrets or interi. 364). Chapter 8: "The Public Fetus and the Veiled Woman: Transnational surrogacy blogs as Surveillant Assuemblage") Lowry builds on these understandings to assert that reproductive technologies and services form “an assemblage that monitors and dis. human or geographical. Hall locates her analy. In Hall’s words. 603) of an international surveillant assemblage. perceived threats to a particular formu. Hall’s (2007. yet simultaneously distanced and suspect. which routinely post both sorts of images. bringing the fetal context (the gestat. While the former visualizes reproductive interiority in the form of the fetus. And yet.” We investigate the tension between the kind of reproductive surveillance undertaken in clinic rooms and the sort of national borderland surveillance conducted in airports.1NC—Transparency K Focus on transparency and revealing ignores the ways in which certain bodies are systematically concealed . globalized world order of surveillance not operated from “above” but horizontally. These two gestures appear to bring into conflict Hall’s assertion that an aesthetics of transparency relies on a “binary opposition between interiority and exteriority . as part of a digital “rhizometric crisscrossing of gaze[s]. . products of her labor.ority and exteriority and Fetal images are consistent with Lowry’s discussions of reproductive-imaging technologies . seemingly contradict this impulse. 321). We examine how trans. [It] establishes a binary opposition between interi. even “veiled” or headless surrogates. playing out on the bodies of women from the Global South.national iP blogs. She points to gestational ultrasonography’s abstraction of the fetus from the maternal body as an example of how the surveillance assemblage of reproductive technologies breaks down. exemplify a new. in which our enemies (or the enemy within) might find refuge. .” The ultrasonographic and photographic images posted on the blogs of infertile couples from the Global North become part of the information networks and “centers of calculation” (Haggerty and Ericsson 2000.lated notion of national (and racial) integrity. . this volume) formulation of the aes. where Ziplock bags revealing the body’s hygiene products represent the state’s investment in policing bodies and bodily interiors. and reassembles female bodies. “The aes.thetics of transparency influences our discussion. Such policing becomes framed as a way to “root out terror. the latter brings into focus the exteriority of the gen.ors. abstracts.veillant assemblages.turns case Sayantani Dasgupta and Shamita Das Dasgupta 2015 (Feminist Surveillance Studies.tributes information about pregnant women” (2004. images of pregnant surrogates.dered and racialized “foreign” subject —desired for the privileges the external or visible surface over the suspect’s word” (2007. such as ultrasound.sis at national rather than reproductive borderlands.

But they fade. rather like South African diamond miners. na. As such.18 . a pale shimmer on the air. In our critique. Faces disappear from the mem. then a face again. to raise my own spirits.rity state to force a correspondence between interiority and exteriority on the objects of The distant. for instance. Back to wherever they are. our desire to contextualize the sighting of her (internal and external) body and its broader sociopolitical implications.teriors in the form of the fetal ultrasound. Stay with me. blackness eats them.” In the words of Hall. are subject to torture and abuse.¶ I try to congure [sic]. their hands and feet. at least healthy white babies. are very precious products these days.¶ In Margaret Atwood’s postapocalyptic novel The Handmaid’s Tale (1985). I try to hold them still behind my eyes. paralleling the same tensions in the type of surveillance done at national borderlands to “root out terror. 128). In the words of Barbara Katz Rothman. not-too-trustworthy labour necessary to produce the precious prod. I am forgetting too much.¶ It’s my fault. “The aesthetics of transparency can thus be defined as an attempt by the secu. from wherever they are. I need to remember what they look like. but exist solely for the reproductive potential they offer “the Commander” and his dance of electrons. they are taught that no other parts of their bodies other than their uteruses matter. So. A glimpse.” She is looked¶ Public Fetus want to say. impoverished surrogate represents a reproductive. are cheap. unable to participate in Haggerty and Ericson’s (2000) “rhizometric criss-crossing of the gaze . In the Red Center. In turn. I Where. but her reproductive body alone is present and not her subjecthood. These conversations remain haunted by her faceless image .ory of one handmaid. Her poverty. 19). are the handmaids’ heads and most of their faces covered by a “stiff white veil. it is ultimately the fetal “face” which is unveiled through biotechnology. her racial otherness all represent sources of potential “terror” to the iP digital nation .” which they must wear or risk punishment of death. they are not meant to see or be seen. the iP digital nation attempts to neutralize this threat by “knowing” the surrogate’s nutritional and vitamin status and visualizing her uterine in.nized” or to gaze back .veiling” of the surrogate such that not only is she unable to “be recog.uct” (2004. if not traditional. her foreignness. she is by and large voiceless—made invisible and mute — on iP blogs and discussion sites. their restrictive dormitory. but does not look and cannot implicate others in her looking. aurora. we seek to conjure her face and spirit. We do not “speak for” but “speak with” her. For the Western iP digital nation. a glow. “Babies. 127). too. though I stretch out my arms towards them. it is the “face” of the other that is brought into the light of recognition by the self who heeds¶ 164 Sayantani DasGupta and Shamita Das Dasgupta¶ the other’s “primordial call” (Irvine 2005).bump shot signals an undermining of this sort of recognition: it is a “re. they slip away from me. There are no mirrors in their world. ghosts at daybreak. their faces. ¶ In the Levinasian formulation of mutuality. is the voice of the Indian surrogate? Like her veiled or headless image. in all this. Earth’s few remaining fertile women are forced to be “handmaids”— bearing children for the (infertile) ruling class. But they won’t. and it is this fetal image which replaces the surrogate’s own literal and figurative face in the Western iP gaze . But they won’t stay still for me. there’s a smile and it’s gone. they move. as is this essay itself. 193) ¶ and Veiled Woman 165¶ upon. Mothers. their features curl and bend as if the paper’s burning. even as she herself becomes “de-faced” by her sur. Ubiquitous requests to see her baby bump via Skype and emailed the preventative gaze” (this volume.tional security threat.roundings.2NC TK—Top Level Better card for the above Sayantani Dasgupta and Shamita Das Dasgupta 2015 (Feminist Surveillance Studies. like pictures in an album. photos may represent what Hall calls an attempt to “flatten the object of surveillance” (this volume. faces. (Atwood 1985. yet the surrogate’s ultimate distance and inscrutability remain. listening hard for her reply. the headless belly. Chapter 8: "The Public Fetus and the Veiled Woman: Transnational surrogacy blogs as Surveillant Assuemblage") We see here the tension between transparent interiors and inscrutable exteriors. expend.


Eroticism K .

1NC Shell .

in terms of the porn 2008). Pg 204-205. amateur or covert footage. she adds. and forms of porn fashioned to look like found. sexualizing the positions of both watcher and watched. Barcan’s second point. to any home in which there is a computer connected to the Internet). reality porn paradoxically at once ‘ordinariizes’ porn and challenges the normativity of the standard porn recipe or script (see also Hardy 2008). second. my argument here is that the knowing deployment of this ‘surveillance aesthetic’ in ‘reality porn’ serves as an interesting site to consider the hijacking and repurposing of surveillance. “Surveillance is Sexy”.php/surveillanceand-society/article/view/3281//GH) To begin. and third. The increasing ubiquity of Internet and other digital imaging technologies has dramatically amateur and commercial exchange of images’ (Barcan 2002: 88).1NC—Eroticism K We endorse a reality porn aesthetic. in contemporary forms. and describes how this genre fetishizes authenticity and ‘brazenness’ or ‘rawness’.). 2004) discussion of ‘homemade’ and ‘reality porn’. ‘have impacted on both the economics of porn production and the cultures of porn viewing’ (ibid. voyeurism and exhibitionism and where the technologies of surveillance structure the narrative. While ‘pornification’ and eroticization should in no way be collapsed together. Like other sexual practices which eroticize power dynamics. the sheer scale.1 Central to the ‘realitiization’ of porn for Barcan (itself embedded of course in the broader rise of other ‘reality’ formats) are ‘technological changes that have democratized access to image-making technologies and to circuits of both technological changes’. Surveillance & Society. against normative (and normalizing) surveillance. The of growth of ordinari-ized amateur porn featuring ‘real people’ has been especially propagated by the Internet. bringing about three especially significant and interconnected transformations: first. this argument goes beyond what some people would think of as liberatory. or known about. and about ways of performing surveillance that are about taking back control over images and their uses. owing to the ambiguously public/private nature of the Internet. there are much trickier issues at stake here. (Barcan 2002: 89). It asks us to think about the pleasures of looking and being looked at. and the ‘realness’ and ‘truthfulness’ that underpins the logic of surveillance just as it underwrites the ‘realness’ of ‘reality porn’. changes in the nature of privacy itself. such as sadomasochism. and even into the ‘mainstream’. http://library. While ‘ amateur porn’ has a history that outstretches modern surveillance technologies.The stage is the scanner and our bodies are the seductive performers Bell 2009 (David. about the possibility of different ways of configuring the ‘algebra of surveillance’. I want to turn my attention to Ruth Barcan’s ( These changed the ‘pornscape’ for Barcan. I think it is possible to trace. reach and quantity of pornographic images it makes available. which features ‘ordinary people’ stripping and dancing on camera. Readable as a response to the ‘pornonormativity’ of much mainstream commercial porn. Barcan notes the increasing popularity ‘reality porn’ within the overall ‘pornscape’. the increased visibility of pornographic practices (in the sense that many different kinds of porn become available. amateur porn. the action and most importantly the ‘look’ of porn. Paasonen Nikunen and Saarenmaa The proliferation of porn and porn-like images.pHD from the University of Birmingham. about the increased visibility of porn practices. I want to argue. a mobilization of a ‘surveillance aesthetic’ – where the technologies and staging of pornographic images plays on ideas of surveillance. The pornification of surveillance (which is not to deny its always-already porn-ness. as Koskela points out) draws on and connects to the ‘reality porn’ aesthetic in diverse ways. connects to broader current arguments about the sexualization or pornification of the public sphere (eg Cover 2003. practices and aesthetics. though it has migrated across other porn platforms. for example on the TV show Pants Off Dance Off. which for her includes ‘found’ and covert footage. . makes available a new idiom that can be redeployed subversively – in this instance. paparazzi and other unauthorized images of ‘celebrity skin’. And of course.

downgrade particular lives. It implies reversibility. metamorphoses. or the code. exchange within language. elements are accumulated as dead weight because they are never symbolically destroyed. They territorialise spaces which have been decoded by the system. Baudelaire’s art is praised as enchanted. effective changes alter the form of media. It also recreates the experience of destiny. Obscenity and seduction are closely related. This resistance repeats the system’s own simulations. provides a model for resistance. The fetish performs a miracle of summoning an experience of destiny from the accidental nature of the world – fate instead of chance. allowing ambiguity. “Jean Baudrillard: Strategies of Subversion”. The means to do this is through an uncodeable absolute difference. without exception. graffiti and seduction as types of alternative practice which create different ways of relating. These are questions that this paper cannot settle. to create pure images which exist beyond binaries. Baudrillard is almost talking about acquiring the same power the system has obtained. Connections occur through the cycle of network of codes. According to Baudrillard. and they can be given and exchanged freely. https://ceasefiremagazine.Our performance in the reality porn aesthetic seduces the surveillance state and collapses its domination reversing the system of power Robinson 12 (Andrew. They resist both assigned identities and impersonal anonymity. play. In Baudrillard’s discussions of poetry. the type of illusion the system has destroyed. Ghettos cut-up social life. and to identity. for Baudrillard. ecstatic. the power ‘to tear the same away from the same’. One can experience oneself as being a Such unexpected connections can at most be imitated by strategy. Things have a predestined linkage. with the ‘hot’ sphere which is lost. particularly the kind involving tagging. and symbolically destroy social relations. It is an art of withdrawing something from the visible order – and hence counterposed to liberation and production. It creates a world which is connected.Changes in media content are assumed to have little effect. Baudrillard proposes alternatives to the language of the code. Poetic language is the form of symbolic In some passages. This decisive element in a situation without willing it – as being indispensable. He sees it as a ‘savage offensive’ in response to the enclosure of people and signs in They dismantle or scramble the signals of the order of signs. Irony is seen as an expression of the indifference of the object. This is because it is not reducible to the expression of the code. graffiti writes ‘tribal’ names with symbolic force. and with no message. instead connecting them by arbitrary signs or codes. repeating and exceeding the logic of the system. which can restore other forms of social relations. (Trying to interpret graffiti as art or as expression of identity is for Baudrillard recuperation). Hence. They are experienced as destined. Yet he is also talking about recreating the scene. Poetic language creates a kind of vertigo. . They escape the rule of the code. but I would like to avoid closing down the possibility of ‘surveillance porn’ being considered as part of an ‘erotics of resistance’ in surveillance society. Fate happens because everything seems to be linked to everything else. rather than aleatory. a special place is reserved for Baudelaire. In resistance to the proper name and private individuality of capitalism. political theorist and activist. He distinguishes seduction from fascination. In the field of language and signs. Baudrillard thus sees poetic language as non-representational. Graffiti tags reproduce mass relations in that they allow no response. However. It is therefore opposed to language as value. This. Tags are an anti-discourse of empty signifiers.industry. It renders language open to being broken down into its particular components – like in Freirean education. September 7th. This view is advanced against the idea of poetry as simply a loosening of fixed meanings (the position taken by most poststructuralists). they do not seem arbitrary. consisting of nothing but names. often borrowed from comics. Seduction brings things outside their objective or rational causal connections. to invent signs which point nowhere. But they are subversive because they simulate symbolic exchange. and non-functional space. turning areas into collective territories. in the dominant language. the exploitation of people on both sides of the camera. Graffiti exterminates this space of the code by exceeding the code in its nonreferentiality: a tag refers to even less than the code does. Baudrillard also provides an interpretation of graffiti. They take us into a world which is neither random nor causal. These signs are quasi-anonymous. we need to attack coded difference. Baudrillard sees poetry. It escapes the fate of language to silence and separate. Seduction has something in common with passion. instead resting on the equivalence of the signs of emergence and disappearance. Seductive practices flip normative power relations. It is the force which destroys the code. to master the art of escaping chance and causality and causing disappearances. leaving the place of the signified empty. I shall return to this issue in the conclusion. ironic. To dismantle the Baudrillard also writes of reinventing the power of illusion and seduction. The city encloses people in the form of the sign. They avoid any reference or origin. and questions of whether porn can ever be truly emancipatory.

and dispossess her/him of her/his secret or shadow. He also argues that seduction is more basic than sex or the orgasm. and drags it down to annihilation. Seduction has the effect of making a particular sign or object no longer arbitrary. In seduction. a neutral world is repugnant. dispassionate way. He also argues that everything is of the order of initiation and symbolic exchange. into a spectacle or scene with a magical effect. combinations and flows. and act as if it exists. To love. It can be manipulated by the code because it floats in this way. the object is seductive. the experience of events is altered. . but the object can reverse this domination. according to Baudrillard. September Baudrillard proposes that opponents of the system replace explosive strategies with implosive strategies. presumably. Signs become objects become impossible to turn into metaphors. Baudrillard’s argument seems to be that it is best for us to believe in destiny. He argues for it from its emotional appeal and its role in societies with symbolic exchange. Signs become simply a game of appearances. In a pure event. We live in an era when games of chance and vertigo have replaced competitive. rather than referring to an absent reality. argument is often unclear. seduction reverses the usual power of the subject over the object. https://ceasefiremagazine. Such experiences can be created through unexpected connections. in which things come together spontaneously in a single site of intensity. People secretly desire the unravelling of rational connections and their replacement with events. It is connected to the ‘maternal’ and the Oedipal family. which carries out a magical integration of what is otherwise distinct. This event needs to be transmuted further. This. Such strategies outbid the system in the direction in which it is already going. The object traps the subject through Neither a chance-based nor a causal world is as appealing an idea as a world ruled by willed or destined coincidences. It is the way in which signs obtain intensity. one experiences oneself as a thing rather than a word (e. There is a void behind power. beyond representation and causality. Baudrillard suggests that love is part of the Christian defeat of symbolic exchange and the fall into individuation. hence of metamorphosis. Its loss or absence today is cruelly felt. Seduction aims for a kind of contact as if in adversity. Effects seem to generate their causes. The subject dominates the object. From a symbolic point of view. Implosion and reversal similarly respond to the order of networks. Baudrillard is advocating. In seduction. is to isolate someone from the world. Love consists of a floating libido which tries to invest its environment in a cold. and/or restore symbolic exchange. political theorist and activist. It is an imaginary replacement for the actual loss of connections. against this ‘cool’ form of desire. It thus restores symbolic exchange. The object is always the master of the game in seduction . Crucially. Seduction and reversibility causes it to collapse.We bring the surveillant assemblage to its limit and leave the system to die. It is counterposed to the ideal of universal love. The ontological status of destiny in Baudrillard’s the ‘hot’ intensities of seduction and passion. “Jean Baudrillard: Strategies of Subversion”. Seduction is antagonistic.Simple rejection of the surveillance state leaves its subjects in a static form that allows it to re-establish itself inevitably Robinson 12 (Andrew. And it blurs the barriers between Good and Evil. Destiny thus exists in a Manichean conflict with causality and chance. Our reality porn aesthetic is an implosive strategy. like a duel. creating a particular existential territory or connection. Explosion responds to the order of production. One experiences a pure event rather than a rational sequence. as an embodied self rather than a rational ego). stops the interchangeability of the code. a return to To seduce something is to return it to the cycle of appearance and disappearance . since everything comes into being and disappears.reverses cause and effect. and hence a counterpoint to the ‘cool’ signs of today.

which make it far harder to live in the system’s spaces as if they were territorial. Catastrophe is not necessarily a negative idea – Baudrillard means catastrophe for the system. drawing on the marginal rebellions of excluded groups. It is. but disengaged from the passage to an entirely different world. rather. Catastrophic responses involve pushing things to their limit. has meaning from one’s own point of view. Baudrillard sees this as possible through ‘symbolic disorder’. The challenge the code poses for us is the liquidation of all its structures . instead calling for the logical exacerbation of the system’s logic. We should live this space. a space without Baudrillard was writing this before the rise of contemporary surveillance and policing practices. With the social failing. as a return to the territory. the return of symbolic exchange. It has done this by further deepening and expanding the code. devoid of meaning. The catastrophe is the point of transition after which nothing overthrow it. as it has several times before. an effective subversion today would involve becoming more aleatory than the system. not for anyone else. To become. one which can move beyond and Baudrillard argues for catastrophic – rather than dialectical – responses. Death offers a higher order than the code. the dying system to bury themselves. But the rejection of the code’s demand for meaning makes catastrophe no longer negative. Baudrillard is suspicious of attempts to recreate marginal systems of meaning. pathways. It seems the system has somehow gained a reprieve from death. Catastrophe is the The challenge must now be taken up at a higher level. mechanical illusion of value’. it is a winding-down of a cycle to its horizon or to a transition-point where an event happens. Baudrillard proposes that we ‘become the nomads of this desert. and by drawing on reactionary and fascistic energies. as symbolic exchange. while rejecting the seduction of value – allowing work. Something is catastrophic in the bad sense only from a linear mode of thought. The system keeps itself alive by staging the ‘ruse’ of its death . . to avoid giving it our energies in this way – to simply leave it to die. For this reason. According to Baudrillard. as one writer puts it. value. For Baudrillard. through our own ‘death’ (or metamorphosis) that the system collapses. it seeks new energy. From another point of view. finding at the end only symbolic exchange. while leaving the subjects it has created intact.expressive games. ‘the hunters and gatherers of the contemporary megacity’. We should reconstruct the current space as a sacred space. the challenge is to avoid fascination with the death throes of the system.

2NC Arguments .

2NC AT: Baudrillard’s sexist
Baudrilard isn’t sexist- They misinterpret his definition of
feminine and the power relations of seduction
Karre 11 (Erin, PhD in Philosophy, “The Seduction of Feminist Theory”,
Seduction (1979) is a further attempt to articulate this challenge and relies on a
dichotomy whereby all systems of meaning are masculine . In one sense, the
position outside of this structure, which poses a radical challenge to the authority
of this system, is feminine, but Baudrillard posits the word “feminine,” as it relates
to seduction, outside the dichotomous structure of masculine/feminine, which he
says is also masculine. In Seduction, Baudrillard exposes the difficulty, the almost
unavoidable trap, of attempting to think outside of the productive system . The fact that
Baudrillard instantiates another “code,” “masculine/feminine /feminine,” in order to posit an “outside” to the system of production, is certainly contradictory because his entire
argument is against the political backslash. However, for Baudrillard, to be able to theorize without contradiction is the first sign that a theory itself has run its course—is passé. This

For Baudrillard, contradiction is positive
because, wherever contradiction is exposed, “reality” and “truth” cannot be
assumed or contained – power cannot be enacted. When contradiction does not occur, we become too close to arguing for
is an argument he makes in critiquing Marx, Freud, and later Foucault.10

universality, and inevitably create new hierarchies of belief. Allowing Baudrillard the admittedly generous benefit of irony (as we most certainly do for many feminists) and
acknowledging that his writing is, to an extent, performative of his own theory, we can approach Seduction as a self-consciously productive discourse of anti-production rather than as
instantiating an authoritative discourse. In Seduction, Baudrillard argues that Freud and Foucault are similar to Marx in that they do not challenge the concept of sexual desire as a
natural given—something that exists before discourse and before regulatory practices. Expanding on his earlier argument that “use value” constitutes “need,” Baudrillard argues that
the process of signification constitutes both “sex” and “sexuality.” These terms are never value free. In his readings of both Freud and Foucault, Baudrillard argues that these theorists
not only argue that desire is regulated and structured by discourses but also believe that sexual desire exists prior to such systems.11 For Freud, all children start off bisexual and
mature into heterosexuality or homosexuality. For Foucault sexual desire is regulated through discourses that produce heterosexuals and homosexuals as either natural or aberrant
identities. While Marx takes production as a social given, Freud and Foucault assume that sexual desire, the desire for a specific sexual object, is a social given. As such, human beings
are structured by how they relate to each other as sexual subjects with desire. But Baudrillard sees no natural desire, nor does he define sexuality in terms of desire for a certain sex
object. Rather, he argues that what we come to think of as object desire is also created and regulated ideologically. Heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality are ideologies rather
than identities.12 These discourses structure how we come to think about ourselves as possessing a natural capacity for sex and desire. Freud was not only describing sex and
sexuality he was also creating/constituting it, just as Foucault was not only describing power but also enacting it. For Baudrillard, the moment that Freud became productive in
thought was the moment he dismissed his theory of seduction. Freud’s theory of seduction came about as a result of his work on female hysteria. Freud initially argued that hysteria
was a result of latent childhood trauma whereby the young girl experiences sexual advances from her father, or another male relation. But he eventually, and controversially, dismissed
this theory of seduction, arguing that the female hysteric was fantasizing about her father’s sexual advances. Baudrillard argues that Freud’s dismissal of the seduction theory was his
first step to becoming productivist because Freud formally established a structural code, a political backslash between fantasy and reality in which a father would not seduce his own
daughter. Freud established a reality of mythic proportions whereby female children possess a universal desire for their father, the hysteric being the pathological variant on this

The reason that Baudrillard defines
seduction as feminine has nothing to do with “real” women but is precisely
because seduction is a concept that exposes the weakness of masculine ,
productive, realist thought through the challenge and the game: seduction is
where meaning dies. In order to function as reality, the masculine order needs
constant affirmation of its “truth” – “truth” that, for Baudrillard, feminists are all
too willing to grant. Thus, he is not trying to deny women “subjectivity” or
“sexuality” in an attempt to keep women within the roles of the “oppressed”
feminine, but to show the ways that “subjectivity” and “sexuality” are products of
productive discourse grounded in hierarchy, domination, and power. This is what Baudrillard means
when he accuses feminism of going in the direction of the system that it claims to disavow. By arguing for a “feminine” subjectivity, a
“feminine” sexuality, a “feminine” identity, we expand and propagate an oppressive
structure that is based on difference and hierarchy. Even multiplying these conceptual ideologies into pluralities
theme. Fathers, on the other hand, remain powerful in that no negative value is ascribed to them.13

(identities or sexualities) does not change the underlying structure. Baudrillard conceptualizes seduction as a challenge, a game, artifice, gambling, one-upmanship, secrecy, surface,
ritual, and weakness. And nowhere does seduction assert truth. Everything from cosmetics to animals, from cards to actresses, from fairy tales to drag queens falls under his theory of

What these concepts all have in common is their disruption of the concepts of
both meaning and value. They do not carry meaning – and they indicate no reality.
Meaning is imposed upon them by productive discourse, and the meaning that is
imposed exposes the inherent weakness of meaning-making systems.

2NC AT: Perm
The perm fails1. Situation- Body scanners are uniquely situated at airports,
places of mobility and border crossings. This specific situation
is important foregrounding for a flipping of power dynamics as
it’s interacting with the most obvious entrance into the
surveillance state. There’s no point to seduction if it’s not
visible, and the hyper-visibility of airports and scanners
isolated in the 1AC prove them as the best method.
2. State-based surveillance- Camera cuties aren’t involved with
state surveillance. The entire context of the alt is flirting with
the state surveillance machine, not with individual’s camera
3. Aff turn- It doesn’t capture alt solvency as all the reasons the
1AC presents for why body scanners are a uniquely bad form of
surveillance are DA’s to the perm.

2NC AT: Reality porn bad
Using reality porn as a method of engagement recognizes the
inherent wrongs with the porn industry and re embodies the
latent sexualization of being watched
Bell 2009 (David- pHD from the University of Birmingham. “Surveillance is Sexy”.
Surveillance & Society. Pg 210-211.

what’s at stake in claiming these images and practices as
forms of resistance? Have I been led astray by my own imagination, and seen resistance where there is
Yet there are lingering questions –

none? As with any work seeking to advance arguments about the political uses of sexualization or eorticization,

there is a danger of getting mired in debates about, among other things, the ‘effects’ of
sexualized and pornographic materials. In my analysis I have (sometimes hesitantly) positioned
these materials and practices in the context of Albrechtslund and Dubbeld’s (2005) call for work on ‘playful’ or
‘entertaining’ surveillance. But in positioning ‘surveillance porn’ as play or entertainment, and as part of the

am aware that alternative viewpoints would immediately
contest such an upbeat analysis, and want instead to emphasize the harmfulness of
pornography, and perhaps especially the increasing harms that new regimes of
pornographic production, distribution and consumption propagate (Hearn, 2008). What,
popular culture of surveillance, I

we might ask, is being resisted by these images, exactly? I do not want to simply wave those counterarguments
away; certainly, to echo (and add to) Koskela (2003: 295), ‘the politics [and erotics] of seeing and being seen are

neither do I want to say that we cannot ever think about sexualized
surveillance as a mode of resistance simply because it brings us into contact with
the heat of the ‘pornography debates’. In fact, this paper speaks implicitly to those
debates, in that it seeks to think about the radical potential of sexualized
looking and being-looked-at as, at the very least, re-visibilizing and re-embodying
surveillance, while also highlighting the omnipresent, latent sexualization of
surveillance. What these images do, in short, is to bring to the surface that already
eroticized potential of surveillance. In this context, the possibility of rethinking the act
of being surveilled as one of exhibitionism, and simultaneously making apparent
the voyeuristic element of the surveillant gaze, offers an alternative way of
responding to and acting in the surveillance society. That’s way Big Brother is such an
complex’. But

important resource: it dramatizes what’s going on all around us. In the same way, ‘reality porn’ doesn’t resist by
trying to evade surveillance: it confronts it head-on, with its own brazen imagery. “Look at me all you want”, it
says, “I know you want to”. And then, of course, it adds “I like to be watched”. At the same time, as Hardy (2008:
62) argues, ‘reality

porn’ as a genre ‘offers the promise of a general queering of
pornographic texts’, to some extent democratizing pornography; surveillance porn contributes
to this broader transformation (see also Barcan 2002). This might seem like a small, even insignificant
resistance; but opening up the erotic to new possibilities surely can’t be all bad.

shared by participants and audiences of reality TV may be perverse. exhibitionism and narcissism’ that Tabor (2001) writes of. the idea that ‘submission serves as a form of empowerment’ is exposed as a fantasy that serves the market and enslaves the individual (Andrejevic 2004: 192). I would argue. programme-makers and viewers come to understand the logics of surveillance through Big Brother. is certainly not subversive.php/surveillanceand-society/article/view/3281//GH)*Ableist language While discussion of surveillance has largely focused on its disciplinary. panoptical properties. Andrejevic (2004) highlights the show’s (and the audience’s) socially complicit. some commentators argue that while this surveillance-savviness.2NC Surveillance good Using the Big Brother allows us to realize the power of constant surveillance. The viewer-voting structure of the show reveals the audience’s expectations and tolerance for self-exposure. globalized and spawned countless variants.pHD from the University of Birmingham. And. shows like Big Brother depict ‘the economic potential of the exploitation of voyeurism (and exhibitionism) in an era characterized by the increasingly important economic role of electronic surveillance’. to ‘forget’ one’s public exposure. For example. which sees its potential entertainment value (but also knows its disciplining limits). As Mark Andrejevic (2004: 175) puts it. It’s hard to believe the initial hesitancy and lack of comprehension that met the first series of Big Brother in the UK. I agree with Albrechtslund and ‘the time has come for Surveillance Studies to recognize and take seriously the fun side of surveillance’. In his reading. For the past decade. For him. it makes for pessimistic reading of the (im)possibility of resisting surveillance in that resistance is so easily recuperated by the market. Surveillance & Society. For Andrejevic. Yet this psychoanalytic theorizing runs counter to the empirically grounded analysis of exhibitionism provided by Hugh-Jones et al (2005). Borrowing its logic and aesthetic at least in part from the ‘everyday webcam’ sites.this can be used to disrupt the flow of normalized surveillance structures Bell 2009 (David. and the relationship between exhibitionism and ‘success’. even shocking – celebrity (Frith 2008). In his reading of the show Temptation Island. http://library. While I find much of what Andrejevic writes persuasive. knowing that they are participating in the ‘attention economy’ (Wise 2004). Pg 209-210. the omnipresence of the camera’s gaze on set and the countless ways that contestants respond to being filmed. It teaches us all about how to act in front of an ever-watchful camera. “Surveillance is Sexy”. I would argue that the logics. and reminds us of the eternal afterlife of images beyond our control – websites like YouTube are cluttered with clips from Big Brother Dubbeld (2005: 220) when they write that shows around the world.queensu. Yet though within limits. this is the end of the . Temptation Island’s deployment of voyeurism/exhibitionism is socially productive of the ‘logic of late capitalism’ precisely because self-revelation is tied to economic ‘success’. and about the power of images caught on camera . even conservative effects. as audiences and commentators struggled to make sense of the programme and grasp its impact on the landscape of Big Brother also offers rich insights into the ways in which ‘selfconscious pro-filmic subjects’ play with surveillance. so the contestants. even under conditions of voluntary hypersurveillance. aesthetics and cultural understandings of reality shows like Big Brother are intimately enmeshed in the culture of surveillance. in the form of reality TV show Big Brother .ca/ojs/index. even blasé attitude to surveillance. make shows like Big Brother experiments in surveillance as much as they are supposed experiments in interpersonal relations. so its voyeuristic tastes. However. as reality TV has become a prominent feature of TV scheduling. It also teaches us that it is still possible . knowing that one way to profit from surveillance is to be interesting. we have been privileged witnesses to the playing out of those ‘reveries of voyeurism . The contestants on Big Brother reflexively manage their own exhibitionism. both consciously and unconsciously. we have seen the growth of what we might call the popular culture of surveillance – a new savvy. And as the franchise has evolved. While reality TV is not necessarily or straightforwardly a show about surveillance. t he show sought to reveal what happens to its subjects when they are knowingly exposed to constant panoptic surveillance.

While I think that the ‘commodification of resistance’ needn’t be the end game – there are. http://library. scrutiny of the intimate sphere. Monahan (2006: 524) suggests that this ‘is objective. not least because they share what we might call an ‘erotics of resistance’ – using sexualization as a political tactic.” he says. especially among ‘dissident’ sexual cultures (Califia resistance is about confronting the limits of what is considered morally. asking who gets to decide what is acceptable. erotonormative. In what ways can surveillance-savvy exhibitionism and voyeurism be considered resistance? What or who is being resisted? Where do issues of power and agency sit in my account? there are precedents for arguing that claiming the right to the erotic is an act of resistance in an ‘erotophobic’ or ‘erotonormative’ and asking what’s at stake in setting the bounds of acceptability in this way. resonant. being over-exposed is arguably a more response. exhibitionism and narcissism.php/surveillance-andsociety/article/view/3281//GH) So we arrive at the bigger questions.using the deviant body in opposite to the normative system allows us to flirt with the surveillance system in a subversive method Bell 2009 (David.I would also like to think there is a more productive argument to be made. given Cuff’s (2007) deploying its logic and its glamour. Surveillance & Society. “Surveillance is Sexy”. countless ways to resist within capitalism -. works equally well to denaturalize and disrupt the authorized uses and ‘flow’ of surveillance. While it might well be a stretch to see most of the forms of sexualized surveillance discussed here as ‘political’ there is surely an argument to be made for the ways that sexualization confronts the logic of surveillance. Moreover. Here of dissident sexualities which works to claim ‘pride’ in practices and identities previously rendered shameful. In embracing those reveries of voyeurism. confident. An oppositional erotics is thus framed against a ‘mainstream’ variously characterized as heteronormative. Part of my thinking here would be to group the practices I have discussed above in with these tactics. tapping into what Tabor (2001: 135) calls ‘the glamour of surveillance’. not least in reminding us of its ever closer in this sense.pHD from the University of Birmingham. In societies where there is a legislated taboo on public nudity. selfassertion or rebellion. there is also a refusal to passively accept surveillance. flashing back so to speak. 1998). and the woman he has been following and covertly photographing: “The Peeping Tom is furtive. In his short story ‘The Modern Voyeur’. In her broad cultural analysis of nudity. but also sexualizing the oppositional or resistive position itself. … Shooting Back disrupts the illusion of detached. see Weeks. we might also suggest that the sexualization of surveillance opens up the possibility to resist not through rejection of dominant logics (here. there are parallels with accounts of countersurveillance that I think are fruitfully a provocative project because it calls attention to the embodied experiences of watching and being watched. Debates about Clearly. the naked body is an effective weapon in political protests’. Geoff Nicholson (2008) describes this exchange between his male narrator/voyeur. “The voyeur is open. In common with the strategy 2000). after all.queensu. perhaps by aligning voyeurism/ exhibitionism with work on countersurveillance. . As already noted. rather than attempting to block or hide from the camera. key point about the omnipresence of surveillance. Discussing Steve Mann’s Shooting Back. images and actions that might appear subversive are actually revealed as complicit (and perverse). written to accompany a book of staged voyeurism photos by Richard Kern. of surveillance) but by playful. heteropatriarchal. ‘transgressive’ sexual acts as political acts have a long history. somatophobic. or just plain ‘straight ’. most notably perhaps in forms of queer politics (though critics argue this is ultimately an unsuccessful political tactic. There are well established (though not uncontested) modes of activism that mobilize the ‘deviant’ body and ‘deviant’ sex as oppositional to this ‘mainstream’. impersonal. of recording and being recorded. Pg 211. ‘loud and proud’ engagement with and celebration of sexy surveillance. We are all modern voyeurs as a result of surveillance. sweaty. inhibited. for example. disembodied monitoring’. Barcan (2004: 93) argues that ‘nakedness is linked to line: ideas. ethically or legally acceptable behaviour.

cosmopolitan. Even if we don’t partake of the offerings of ‘reality porn’ (or even reality TV).cool. . The Peeping Tom skulks. secrec y. modern (very possibly moderne). either). sophisticated. out of touch. While this isn’t quite a call for ‘voyeurs’ pride’. The voyeur is hip.” (Nicholson 2008: 7). as Nicholson’s narrator says. just like me.” she says. The voyeur knows himself. as Groombridge (2002: 43) argues. accepts himself for what he is. The modern voyeur is just like me. modern voyeurs and modern exhibitionists. goading and yes. and demands that you do the same. limited. current. our embeddedness in surveillance makes part of its algebra .” “I see. old-fashioned. “Not yet you don’t. apologetic. has narrow horizons. The Peeping Tom is small-time. fashionable. “The Peeping Tom is square. all of the time. In this sense. my argument would be that we are all of us. The modern voyeur and modern exhibitionist are. ‘ many people are [in fact] seeking to increase their visibility’. trying to become invisible (and never looking. The voyeur holds his head high. The voyeur is worldly. self-hating. it nevertheless articulates quite neatly the kind of reflexive engagement with looking and being looked at that I have been trying to explore here. The Peeping Tom is ashamed. even flirting with surveillance. and are playing with. And while a more obvious resistance route to take might be evasion.

K links .

” International Feminist Journal of Politics.e. the sounds of living death Human Rights Reports in Iraq to trace how sexual and racial technologies are deployed. but also racial terror – where ‘gay rights’ becomes a discourse and a practice of (perceived) racial economic superiority and (actual) racial subordination. radical alterity in the form of queerness and blacks are presumed imminently incapacious... In fact. whose recognizable humanity (i. see Morrison 1987. I also point to insurgent social life as a struggle for ‘total freedom’ (Goddard 2006). placing the queer on the inside of the civil society and relegating the hovering black outside the ‘bounds of the civil’ (Dayan 2011: 22) consequently changing the world itself and ‘all levels of social existence’ (Quijano 2000: 547). neoliberalism and capitalism from the vantage point of black terror (i. I offer a peripatetic presentation of an emergent political body: the Human Rights Watch reports on Iraq (2011) and Hillary Clinton’s speech to the UN to articulate their political the three moves outlined above constitute not only the ‘straightjacketing’ of sexuality. legal practices.. to do unspeakable things to them’ all in the name of ‘order’ (Dayan 2011: 32–3) as well as the visions of radical justice emanating from antislavery and anti-colonial struggles. whereby white bodies become signifiers of ‘legitimate’. Agathangelou. Dayan 2011) accords us an orientation from which to understand such ‘terror [that] allow[s] to demonise others . Querying the genealogy of sex. yoking them without collapsing them into comparison. policies. chain gangs. spaces and theories to reveal the reconstructed sexual queer. First. I theorize the ways in which slavery becomes collapsed as sexuality into the neoliberal imperium within which blacks and black life serve as the literal raw materials to guarantee long-term growth (Davis 2003: 94). blacks. December 17 2013. exposing . In so doing. analysing these reports.841560]//JIH This essay tracks a range of often neglected politics. Second. 15:4. In positions. racialized gays as well as the structurally impossible and ontologically dead (i. 453-476.1080/14616742. Agathangelou 13 [Anna M. Concomitantly. I suggest that so doing. . see Agathangelou 2009). never registering in the ‘legitimate’ global political economy of sex and sexuality (Agathangelou 2004) as well as law. lynchings. I use the how the suturing of a queer speculative economy ‘here’ and ‘there’ depends fundamentally on ‘value’ as an abstraction device and a risk threshold that distinguishes between queers. convict leasing to political disenfranchisement. I reengage with Hillary Clinton’s UN speech to trace how the queer is constituted as value in a speculative economy (i.e. Central to my analysis is the concept that queer economies could not and do not escape being entangled with capital’s foundational terror. In the following sections.Antiblackness The queer political body is inevitably fetishized and participates in the sustenance of racial structures – suffocates all possibilities for racial liberation. the ‘rational’ basis for passing laws that integrate them as capacious civil subjects) that reconfigures capital and globality by distinguishing between different forms of governance and violence.e. which presupposes immanent (a Deleuzian outside) slave incapacity for suture (Dayan 2011). I work with two political (ethico-juridical) archives tracing their force on bodies directly.2013. imminent living-capacity) is constituted into a recognizable sexual orientation and gender identity. this suffering fetishized ‘queer’ political body participates in the redaction and subsequent sustenance of racialized structures with its recognizable sexual orientation and gender identity. texts.doi. part of an emerging form of a sovereign body politic. Associate Professor at Department of Political Science.e. I show the ways the neoliberal imperium biopolitically constitutes and manages queer life while ignoring the wailing. http://dx. “Neoliberal Geopolitical Order and Value.

can contravene. and races in world politics emerge as strategies that foreclose and suffocates a range of possibilities. sexualities. Abu Ghraib and US prison states (Morrison 1987: 2010–11 cited in Childs 2009. globally constituted imaginaries and freedoms all in the name of overcoming limits. Dayan 2011). stagnation and the loss of material value. I end with some thoughts on the possibility that queer projects and the Black Struggle differentiations between bodies.emitting from the chains and the screams from the slave ships of the Atlantic crossing and from places such as Attica. noting how . such as death.

52. Come Out? Vampirism. to the point at which everything in our social life–from economic value and state power to practices and to the very structure of the psyche itself–can be said to have become ‘cultural’ in some original and yet untheorized sense . No. 19-45]//JIH the concept of alienation in late capitalism has been replaced with fragmentation (1991. If . substituting sexual difference for the importance of class . However. 1985. For those who are not included in traditional sources of transformation of the “real” into so many pseudoevents. Quite the contrary. and with them. Capitalism is the root cause of your impacts. (Jameson. Issue 4. no matter how progressive it was for its time. as much a part of our political movement as are campaigns for civil rights” (Weeks. Jameson has proposed that however. as postmodernist and poststructuralist writers assume a position that this equation is impossible and undesirable. substantially quite consistent with the previous diagnosis of a society of the image or simulacrum and a The fragmentation of social life repeats itself in the proposal that sexuality and gender are separate and autonomous from bureaucratic state organization. Harrington Park Press. 1991. kinship based groupings–the building of an “affectional community . p. 176). p. as examples. Khader 13 Will the Real Robert Neville Please. Kirsch 06 [Max Kirsch. differences can be equated. any hope for political action. we succeed in promoting the very goals of global capitalism that work against the formation of communities or provide the means to destroy those that already exist. of course. we must go on to affirm that the autonomous sphere of culture throughout the social realm. then the dominant modes of power will prevail without analysis or opposition.cap The affirmative’s focus on decentering identity traits and individual queer liberation promotes the goals of global capitalism and destroys hope for political action. Fragmentation highlights the it also becomes more abstract: What we must now ask ourselves is whether it is precisely this semi-autonomy of the cultural sphere that has been destroyed by the logic of late capitalism. must be This building of communities requires identification. If we cannot recognize traits that form the bases of our relationships with others. in that they both translate “antagonism into difference” (Žižek.” Journal of Homosexuality. Yet to argue that culture is today no longer endowed with the relative autonomy is once enjoyed as one level among others in earlier moments of capitalism (let alone in precapitalist societies) is not necessarily to imply its disappearance or extinction . the Ethics of Queer Monstrosity. 2013 Despite its multiculturalist politics of recognition. ends up reinforcing the “narrative” itself . as in Jameson’s terms. pp. 362). how then can communities be built? The preoccupation of Lyotard and Foucault. Matheson's I Am Legend is as interpellated as Lawrence's (2007) film within capitalist ideology. ½. “Queer Theory. is that while we concentrate on decentering identity. and Capitalism in Richard Matheson's I Am Legend? Journal of Homosexuality Jamil Khader PhD* Volume 60. p. PhD Florida Atlantic University. Late Capitalism and Internalized Homophobia. .” posits a conclusion that emphasizes individual resistance and that ironically. The danger . then this should not pose a problem for the mobilization of resistance to inequality. .14). This proposition is. 2006. 48) community building–in particular. and your impacts are inevitable until capitalism is destroyed. p. with the overwhelming power of “master narratives. 2006. Vol.

473–474). Moreover. substitutes consumption for production. and purges. capitalism is the problem” (p. Neville's death operates as a nostalgic affirmation of neoliberal capitalism. sexual identity becomes then the grounds for collective organization that. positive and self-enhancing. and the water bottles. 5 He capitalism and gay identity. Throughout the text. their integration into the labor market as well as their exploitation to benefit corporate interests. both a thinly disguised liberal critique of Stalinist terror and a nostalgic affirmation of neoliberal capitalism. Neville takes for granted the free commodities he consumes. As D'Emilio (1993) memorably states in his article on The absent presence of capitalism as the transcendent signifier especially. “in divesting the family of its economic independence and fostering separation of sexuality from procreation. 5). capitalism has created conditions that allow some men and women to organize personal life around their erotic/emotional attraction to their own sex” (pp. Neville lives the pure fantasy of commodity fetishism that does not only offer him the opportunity to fulfill his fantasy of living in a world of abundant free commodities and surplus enjoyment (which for the last man on earth can indeed be considered infinite—he would have to live many more lives to be able to exhaust all these resources). allowing. but also to kill the undead owners of the store in which he was shopping. 26). After all. moreover. clinging as much as he can to the norms of his bourgeois suburban life as if nothing happened around him. while at the same time eliding the extent to which capitalism commodifies and exploits queer sexuality. that is. sexual identity can be evacuated from its excessive threats and history of struggle. sexual minorities inhabit an ambivalent position within the neoliberal capitalist system. but has also enshrined these families for their reproductive value as the only functional model of intimate and personal relationships. since it facilitates both their emergence as consumers and producers.” “up and own the silent dust-thick aisles” (Matheson. Matheson's (1954) text naturalizes and normalizes capitalism and its social relations. what he calls “the metal wagon. As such. In other words. is the presence of capitalism itself. he argues. While capitalism continues to undermine the fabric of social relations . in its absent presence. collaborators. by reproducing the ultimate capitalist fantasy of commodity fetishism. the gasoline. Moreover. the text establishes neoliberal capitalism as an absent presence. neoliberal capitalism could at least guarantee his safety inside of his private property. to the extent that it has subtracted itself from public discourse to become a completely invisible signifier around which everything revolves but that refuses to be named. and more specifically. p. I contend that Matheson's alleged subversion of the us-them binary of Cold War politics constitutes. are necessarily subversive. 474). capitalism as the name of the social totality is left untouched and invisible. thus. As a work of fantasy. allowing him to push a shopping cart. As long as such erotic choices are coopted and contained as a “form of play. nonetheless. foreclose the question of labor altogether. therefore. p. 6 Moreover. attributes this ambivalence to the contradictory position that the nuclear family occupies in the capitalist system: Capitalism. be it the lathe from Sears.” in D'Emilio's (1993) words (p. and. Transvaluing the antagonism (class struggle) underpinning capitalist relations of production into the politics of identity and difference obscures the problematic relationship between capitalism and queer subjectivity. 1954. that is. He thus states. 201). For D'Emilio (1993). 1986. has not only subverted the material basis of heteronormative families. p. until the proliferation of the semiotics of queer identity is understood in relation to the larger social inequalities (Taylor. neoliberal capitalism is invested with the power to assert itself as the end of history. “In the most profound sense. This critique of capitalism in Matheson can also be supplemented by an attention to the ways in which Matheson (1954) represents revolutionary societies and forms of enjoyment. capitalism has provided the conditions for commodifying sexuality and erotic desire as a matter of choice outside the parameters of procreative sexual economy. To this extent. Not all forms of queer transgression. Since this new vampire society is specifically structured by the same violent forms of enjoyment embodied in revolutionary movements. it is only when he can no longer maintain his sovereignty over his private property that the vampires could intrude upon it. only to circulate as a fetish of erotic pleasure. Matheson's novella tries to deny the specific conflicts that embody the capitalist conditions of its production: What the power of the hegemonic capitalist ideology will not have disclosed. for sexual minorities. by disavowing the need for recognizing class struggle in “its terrifying dimension” (Žižek. the Soviet Union with its spies. 2009. queer communities have been paradoxically blamed for the social ills and instabilities of the capitalist system. in short. Indeed.struggle. it is . in fact. constitutes the ultimate site for their doing and undoing . thus. and the homophobic backlash against them . Indeed. Similarly. allowing family members to live outside of the family structure. 474).

Most historians and theorists – if not necessarily most lesbian and gay laypeople – agree that modern lesbian/gay identities are unique. 45–94]. elements contributed by the first. This article is dedicated to Torvald Patterson (1964–2005). as Žižek contends. 2011.4 Recently. International Institute of Research and Education. using Marxist and feminist analytical tools among others. in-your-face revolutionary queer. can render the absence and invisibility of capitalism present . the distinction between fascism and Stalinism in their differential relations to class struggle. has long since ceased to be so. In the 1970s and early ’80s lesbian/gay historians. Kevin Floyd has detected more cite Marx. and especially comments. suggestions and written exchanges with Alan Sears. that can struggle with other oppressed constituencies in order to dismantle and reimagine the neoliberal capitalist system itself.brillonline. jac] Sexuality. Foucault.4 (2011) 3–32 emergence of contemporary lesbian/gay identities. for their comments and suggestions. in a more-or-less explicitly Marxist way. urbanised societies . 2002 and 2009 IIRE Seminar participants for their comments and ideas. were particularly helpful. cannot effectively serve as the basis for a genuine politics of gay liberation. as the fundamental gap that constitutes the totality of the social field. recognizing the monstrosity of one's own nonnormative desire facilitates the relational understanding of the dialectical relationship between the self and the other.2 Although historical materialist categories have been supplemented and then to a large extent supplanted in the field by Foucauldian approaches since the 1980s and queer theory since the 1990s. The Fracturing of LGBT Identities under Neoliberal Capitalism. Matheson's representation of revolutionary society blends and obscures in an Arendtian fashion. them both within a democratic site of multicultural exchange and tolerance. Terry Conway and Jamie Gough. Once this specific form of lesbian/gay identity has been explored and its emergence mapped. industrialised. once a largely unexplored continent for historical materialism. Some historians3 have linked its emergence. 06/29/15.5 Yet some theorists have seemed uneasy in recent years about the questions that were initially not asked in these accounts. Identity politics. (For a very useful and clear discussion of Žižek's political views. as Žižek (1986) would say. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. by clearing a space for a radical reconfiguration of the ethical relationship to the other. Pascale Berthault.worth pointing out.1163/156920611x6064 12. 4 P. to the development of capitalism. in a way that reinscribes the belief in the legitimacy of sexual rights is maintained without rethinking its ramifications in relation to the ability of the capitalist system to coopt and contain any threat that may be embedded in queer sexuality.) While fascists neutralize class struggle and displace it on a racialized other such as the case of the Jews in Nazi Germany. the question arises: is this the end of the story? Especially as more writings have charted the all other forms of samesex sexuality are surrendering to what Dennis Altman has critiqued as the triumphant ‘global gay’. many thanks to the some have wondered whether . pp. therefore. Marxistinfluenced generation of historians and theorists still survive to some extent within a broad range of socialconstructionist perspectives. a monolithic figure riding the wave of capitalist spread of LGBT communities in Asia and Africa. in loving memory. beyond identity politics. Nonetheless. Stalinism abolishes the class struggle and reenacts the capitalist fantasy of unbridled production and consumption without adhering nonetheless to the constraints of the capitalist form (private property). Historical Marxism provides a better frame for analyzing queerness than queer theory itself Drucker 11 [Peter. or both. Some initial thoughts for this article originated as a talk at the IIRE Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual Strategy Seminar in Amsterdam in August 2000. Whether they historians’ analysis of lesbian/ gay identity has linked its emergence to the development of modern. Only acknowledging class struggle. especially Paul Reynolds. For Matheson (1954). and recharting alternative forms of solidarity. This connection has continued to be made by writers working within a Marxist framework. clearly distinguishable from any of the same-sex sexualities that existed before the last century or so and from many that still exist in various parts of the world. Criticisms and observations by Nina Trige Anderson. see Dean [2006. Thanks as well to David Fernbach and to the editorial committee of Science & Society for comments on earlier versions. and to Historical Materialism board-members. broadly a ‘greater openness [in queer thought] to the kind of direct engagement with Marxism that emphasizes its explanatory power’. began to chart the 1. http://booksandjournals. to Christopher Beck for his support and stimulating comments and questions.

gay.globalisation. 9. 8. Marxist approach9 can examine historically different sexual identities under capitalism.6 In much the same way that homo sapiens was once naively viewed as the culmination of biological evolution. while helping to lay the foundation for a queer anticapitalism. 11. 6 P. Altman 2003. 2. but also shifts in sexual identities in recent decades. 7. 3. ‘LGBT’ (lesbian. This means that gay identity was shaped in many ways by the mode of capitalist accumulation that some economists call ‘Fordism’: (Duggan 2002. D’Emilio 1983a. defined in Section I below. On closer examination. but also against the dominant forms of lesbian/gay identity. Mandel 1978 and 1995. Foucauldianism. and liberal democracy (according to Francis Fukuyama) as the culmination of human history.12 was dependent on the growing prosperity of the working and middle-classes. Fernbach 1981. Lisa Duggan has defined ‘homonormativity’ as a set of norms that ‘does not contest dominant heteronormative assumptions and institutions but upholds and sustains them’ the consolidation and spread of gay identity. exploring connections between shifting identities and successive phases of capitalist development. feminism. more recent Marxist treatments of the subject have almost always engaged critically with other approaches. I believe that a rigorous Marxist approach to sexuality is not only compatible with an engagement with other social-constructionist approaches. For example. p.10 constructionism’ simply as the opposite of ‘essentialism’ (a view of sexual identities as biologically determined or otherwise transhistorical). Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. they have ‘centred on the social production of categories discursively rather than determinantly through essential causality and power of the social relations of This article argues that there are socioeconomic forces that have been leading LGBT people to question lesbian/gay identity as it took shape by the 1970s. A historically-based. emerging gradually after a period of repression from the 1930s to the 1950s. especially among the mass of working-class people. It is by now nothing new to link the rise of what might be called classic lesbian/gay identity to the rise of a ‘free’ labour-force under capitalism.4 (2011) 3–32 5 led to Castro Street in San Francisco. A word on terminology: the term ‘lesbian/gay’ in this article refers to a historically specific phenomenon. for example. 195. Although the word ‘queer’ is sometimes used by others to refer generally to LGBT people. who are often rebelling. But the breakthrough of gay identity as we know it on a mass-scale is in fact very recent. Seidman 1997. In Paul Reynolds’s words. D’Emilio 1983a and 1983b. despite their abstract championing of ‘difference’. can chart not only the emergence of lesbian/gay identities. A few queer theorists have tried to undermine any such monolithic vision of gay identity. 5. See. post-colonialism and queer theory. Floyd 2009. ‘lesbian/gay’ or ‘LGB’ particularly to refer to more ‘respectable’ people who emphatically do not identify as queer. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. For example. bisexual and transgender) is used as a broader term for people with same-sex sexualities or identities. 10. without privileging any particular form of identity. for example. but in fact requires it. took place to a large extent during what some Marxist economists refer to as the expansive long wave of 1945–73. P. Hennessy 2000. Reynolds 2003. more a matter of decades than of centuries. 6. not to refer to a specific school of thought contrary to Marxism.4 (2011) 3–32 . One useful tool is the Marxist theory of capitalist long waves. This has taken centuries. not only against the heterosexual norm. they have rarely engaged concretely with the historiography that sometimes seems to suggest that LGBT history is a one-way street. social constructionist. rejecting the onedimensional focus on gender-orientation that underlies it. Sears 2005. catalysed by profound cultural changes from the 1940s to the 1970s (from the upheavals of the Second World-War13 to the mass-radicalisation of the New Left years) that prosperity helped make possible. I sometimes use ‘gay’. Gay identity on a mass-scale. 179). and specifically Marxist analyses production’. one might have sometimes imagined that all roads of LGBT history 2.8 of the mode of capitalist accumulation that was on the upswing until the early 1970s and turned sharply A historical-materialist analysis of this kind may provide a more solid theoretical basis for addressing a central political concern of recent queer theory – the defence of nonconformist or less privileged LGBT people against ‘homonormativity’11 – than queer theory itself offers. p.7 But. p. Although Marxists such as Klara Zetkin and Alexandra Kollontai wrote insightfully about sexuality within a purely Marxist framework. and historians have generally looked at it as a long process. I try to reserve the word in this article to those who self-identify as queer. 4. This article uses the term ‘social downward with the recessions of 1974–5 and 1979–82. See. such as psychoanalysis.

Nevertheless. Resistance purely rooted in queer studies cannot effectively confront neoliberalism Drucker 11 [Peter. as the class and social reality of LGBT communities became more fragmented and conflict-ridden. These different schools differ with each other particularly about the causes of the rise and decline of different modes of accumulation. . many poor people simply have a hard time taking part in commercial gay scenes. for example. jac] There is of course no one-to-one correspondence between economic and social developments and shifts in sexual. as in the world at large. communities and politics. at the level of gender and sexuality as at other levels of the systemic totality. On the other hand. their ‘social being . cultural and political identities. commercial gay scenes and sexual identities compatible with these scenes advanced and were consolidated in many parts of the world. But a schematic analysis can show that classic lesbian/gay subcultures and identities were put under pressure or into question in various ways by the decline of Fordism. the ‘mode of production of material life condition[ed] [their] social. See. a growing visibility of transgender identities.17 The changes have included development of a queer identity seen at least in part as in opposition to existing lesbian/gay identities. determine[d] their consciousness’. however indirectly. Floyd (Floyd 2009). mediate the underlying class and social dynamics. Ultimately.1163/156920611x6064 12. including sexual culture. Despite these identities’ extraordinary diversity. and tended to function differently with the rise of neoliberalism. pp. On the one hand. exists in complete isolation from the mode of production as a whole . P.16 This basic understanding can give us the audacity. 06/29/15. commercial scenes have not been equally determinant for the lifestyles or identities of all LGBT people. the current of Marxist economics relied on by. so did their ideological and even sexual expressions. . 14. their rootedness in characteristics of contemporary capitalism can be even . International Institute of Research and Education. While important. Alienation has mounted among some LGBT people from the overconsumption increasingly characteristic of many aspects of the commercial gay scene. 334–46. to point out some trends that correspond to changing class-dynamics in LGBT communities. there is a whole set of institutions that produce (among other things) lesbian/gay ideology and identity.specifically by mass-consumer societies and welfare-states. The decades of slower economic growth that began with the 1974–5 recession had a differentiated impact on LGBT people and their communities. while commercial scenes are more accessible to even lowerincome LGBTs. and the proliferation of a variety of other identities linked to specific sexual practices or rô (2011) 3–32 7 proportion of the institutions that define LGBT communities and produce their self-images tend to reproduce and defend a unifying lesbian/gay identity in apparent continuity with the identity that took shape by the 1970s. no aspect of capitalist culture.brillonline. Chauncey 1994. Bérubé 1983. The Fracturing of LGBT Identities under Neoliberal Capitalism. 13. A large Materialism 19. In the end. 2011. fundamental shifts in capitalism are detectable. In the dependent world.15 To analyse how all these institutions – from newspapers and magazines to porn-video producers to (divisions of ) publishing houses to websites and chat-rooms to lesbian/gay-studies departments to small-business associations to sports clubs and beyond – functioned ideologically under Fordism. which inevitably marginalises many LGBT people. The concept of Fordism has been largely associated with the French ‘régulation’ school. even in the absence of fully worked-out mediations. In developed capitalist countries. Drucker / Historical relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence’. http://booksandjournals. would go beyond this article’s scope. and represent ‘the imaginary 12. particularly among middle-class layers. Many of the basic elements of what regulationists call the Fordist mode of accumulation are also to be found in Mandelian long-wave theory or the ‘social structure of accumulation’-approach. for example. growing economic inequality has meant increasingly divergent realities in LGBT people’s lives. In LGBT communities. these debates are not directly relevant to this article. political and intellectual life process in general’.14 The decline of Fordism has also had implications for LGBT identities. Alternative scenes of various sorts (not always necessarily less commercial) have proliferated.

20. declining birthrates and advancements in birth-control made procreation less crucial as a focus of at least middle-class sexuality. Wekker 1999. and in which both partners in relationships consider themselves part of the same lesbian/gay community (a bizarre notion to millions of men around the world who fuck men or boys without considering themselves gay. Althusser 1971. who do not radically change their gender-identity in adopting a lesbian/gay sexuality (unlike transgendered people in a great variety of cultures). and sexual desire and object-choice more crucial .18 the expansive long wave that lasted from the mid-1890s to the mid-1910s). the rapid spread among the middle-classes of medical and later specifically psychoanalytical visions of sexuality. The last section discusses the political implications of these changes and the challenges facing twenty-firstcentury LGBT communities. P. Greenberg 1988 provides the most comprehensive survey available of the range of same-sex sexualities. Floyd 2009. In this same To understand these features better.brillonline. The growing importance of consumption and desire helped foster a shift in the construction of gender under capitalism.detected in a number of more-or-less common features . As John D’Emilio explained in a seminal article. 8 P. middle-class men and women (particularly women with education and professions) increasingly had 18.21 The result was the reification of sexual desire based on gendered object-choice. 16. at the material basis of the emergence of lesbian/gay identity by the 1970s. to conceptions of masculinity and femininity that were (in Judith Butler’s term) more ‘performative’. p. 17. Floyd 2009. Marx 1968.22 and ‘the invention of heterosexuality’ as well as homosexuality as sexological and social categories. Fernbach (Fernbach 1981.1163/156920611x6064 12. 71–5) gave an early and clear account of the uniqueness of lesbian/gay identity among historically existing forms of same-sex sexuality. and second at the material basis of factors that have been fracturing it. It then 15. The Fracturing of LGBT Identities under Neoliberal Capitalism. as opposed to the many other forms of same-sex identity that have existed in human history. and to millions of women at the less This kind of gay identity emerged in developed capitalist countries in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries mainly among middle-class layers (middle-class consumption was particularly crucial to capitalaccumulation in explicit end of the ‘lesbian continuum’). 2011. pp. jac] I.20 In this same period.19 defined to a greater extent by patterns of consumption. latter-day gay icon Oscar Wilde). and above all through gender-nonconformity. http://booksandjournals. they respond to the increasingly repressive character of the neoliberal order through their stubborn affirmation of sexual practices that are still – or are increasingly – stigmatised. this article looks briefly. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. is (or was) an identity reserved for people whose primary sexual and emotional ties are with their own sex. the economic and social resources to live independently of their families and to defy convention. capitalist development in this way created the conditions for the rise of gay identity. 162. LGBT identity and culture emerged and were formed under the development of modern capitalism Drucker 11 [Peter.4 (2011) 3–32 9 contrast. 06/29/15. first. Classic gay identity Classic lesbian/gay identity. Rich 1983.23 Working-class and poor people even in developed countries. 57–66.4 (2011) 3–32 examines the ways in which economic changes have been ideologically mediated in new expressions of gender and sexual identity. Butler 1999. particularly among transgendered and other queers. say. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. tended well into the twentieth century to focus on conceptions of manhood and womanhood rather than . by 19. who generally do not conclude heterosexual marriages or form heterosexual families (unlike. International Institute of Research and Education. p. Whether or not they are explicitly defined as queer. They also reflect the growing inequality and polarisation of neoliberal capitalism by making sexual power-differentials explicit. dress and everyday behaviour . from conceptions of ‘manhood’ and ‘womanhood’ focused on the innate character required for production and reproduction. pp. 182.

following Marx.24 Working-class men in the US in particular continued to form relationships between transgendered people (‘fairies’) on the one hand and non-transgendered. police. open lesbian/ gay/bisexual (LGB) communities possible in the developed countries for the first time in history. as evidence from both the US and the Netherlands emerging lesbian/gay communities and organisations in the postwar period tended increasingly to squelch effeminacy among gay men and masculinity among lesbians. higher funding for education and expansion of a social safety-net (in developed Materialism 19. the second wave of feminism was key in drastically reining in the butch-femme patterns that were still largely hegemonic in 1950s lesbian subcultures (or at least in turning them into ‘a subterranean sorts. and various forms of social insurance cushioned the blows that hit working people during dips in the business-cycle. while Magnus Hirschfeld’s studies of same-sex relations among largely working-class men led him to uphold a transgender ‘third sex’-model. anti-war. workingclass living standards in capitalist countries went up rapidly under the Fordist order.26 After 1945. Drucker 1997. 121. openly lesbian/gay lives were the constraints of the law. Working-class family-structures and gender-rôles also changed. however. 23. above all. following Foucault 1978. p. often married men on the other. Among the preconditions for these . This made a dent in the pronounced gender-polarisation that had been characteristic of both working-class heterosexuality and homosexuality in the first decades of the 21.4 (2011) 3–32 shows. and on children to save them from poverty in old age. pp. While ‘Fordist mass consumption was. pp. an attempt to secure a broad and sustained accumulation of capital’. Drucker / Historical twentieth century.27 At the same time. for broad working-class layers – the Second World-War made waged work at least temporarily normal for even respectable working-class and middle-class women. Foucault 1978. Within this broad hedonistic culture it became possible for a growing minority to form same-sex relationships and networks. p. Full employment The combination of increased economic possibilities and a reconfiguration of gender-rôles helped many more people in the 1950s and 1960s shape a sexually hedonistic culture extending beyond the largely middle-class limits of the earlier nonconformist milieu of the 1910s and 1920s. in which increases in labourproductivity were matched to a large extent by increasing real wages that sustained increasing effective demand. 24. 118–23. 43–5.reified conceptions of sexuality.30 The first lesbian/gay legal victories in the 1970s made mass. and sometimes a reality. For the first time since the mid. and give sexual objectchoice a greater rôle in their lives and identities. 29 Supplementing the attempts of early lesbian/gay groups to discipline their members’ gender-norms. countries at least) decreased people’s economic dependence on parents to support them as students or young people. inspired by a wave of other social rebellions: black. youth. Chauncey 1994. 26. calls ‘free’ labour – as well as students and others were also able to live independently of their families. the diversification of consumer-marketing that it entailed created space for an ‘underground circulation of homoerotic images’ in ‘an increasingly less underground gay male [and lesbian] network’ . In fact. 37. employers. landlords. Floyd 2009. In the same period in Germany. D’Emilio 1983a. 25. feminist and (at least in some European countries) working-class. game’). for the first time masses of working-class people – living off what D’Emilio. on spouses to help pay the rent. As a result.28 What remained to prevent people from living meant more job-opportunities for some people who had previously been marginalised.25 or to engage in sex with other men for money or social benefit without taking on any distinctive sexual identity. 10 late-nineteenth century – when the family-wage had become a cherished ideal. Katz 1995. a homosexuality defined as masculine was notably championed by the middle-class ‘Community of the Special’. and social pressure of many The lesbian/gay movements of the 1960s and ’70s rebelled against these constraints. 22.

the fact that the millions of people who came out around the 1970s had a certain relative social homogeneity. Differences that existed in the 1970s became far greater in the 1980s and 1990s.33 privatisation of many public enterprises and social services . pp. jac] The depressive long wave that began by 1974–5 was met by the late 1970s with a neoliberal offensive. The contradictions of these emancipatory movements in a time of workingclass weakness and growing inequality were played out in many of the ideological debates of the 1980s and ’90s.31 even in the New Left. an increase in the wealth and II. banking and real-estate sectors. 177– 8. See Floyd 2009. A lthough gender-norms relaxed to a certain extent in the 1960s and ’70s. 174. Califia 2003. which made autonomous lesbian/gay lives possible. this led to a true devaluation of masculinity and femininity only in the context of a radical-feminist critique. reaching levels far higher than those existing during the Depression.34 The less pronounced differences in income and job-security in 31. pp. far less controversial 40 years ago. pp. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. One study of wage-trends shows that among manufacturing workers in the US. 125. Racism was always a reality. Mike Davis noted ‘extreme income/skill polarization’ in the growing US healthcare. however. employed and unemployed. One factor complicating the neoliberal offensive was the difficulty of rolling back some of the achievements of black. p. 29. women’s and lesbian/gay movements. resulting in a ‘splitlevel economy’ and ‘reshaping the traditional income pyramid into a 12 P. This offensive included (to be very schematic): a shift to ‘Toyotist’ production-techniques and to ‘lean production’ generally. 32. an increase in inequality among countries (through the debt-crisis and structural-adjustment policies) and within countries (through regressive tax and welfare-‘reforms’ and attacks on unions). Class and sexual differences always existed . and a relatively favourable political/cultural climate. 30. p. pp. Warmerdam and Koenders 1987. business-service. http://booksandjournals. liberalisation and deregulation. 167–8. This offensive among other things fragmented the world’s working classes. The homogeneity of 1970s lesbian/gay communities was of course relative. The recovery after 1994 brought inequality down again. permanent and temporary workers.brillonline.communities were the general increase in people’s living standards and economic security. Floyd 2009. Big differences (re) surfaced between better and worse-paid workers. which were the backdrop to the rise of lesbian/gay identity.4 (2011) 3–32 11 were fewer barriers to a common sense of identity. taking advantage of new technologies that ‘accelerated the speed and dispersed the space of production’. 3. thanks in part to generational bonds of the baby-boom and in part to the narrowing of economic divides in the 1950s and ’60s. so that there 27. 28. International Institute of Research and Education. hinders the development of individual identities and renders LGBT resistance impossilbe Drucker 11 [Peter. P. which was never hegemonic. 06/29/15.4 national working classes in the 1960s. became a thing of the past. native-born and immigrant. 168–9. The Fracturing of LGBT Identities under Neoliberal Capitalism. 6. Hennessy 2000.1163/156920611x6064 12. Floyd 2009.32 Capitalism fractures LGBT society. 83). Gays in the post-Fordist economy power of capital at labour’s expense. Floyd 2009. 34. 169. p. p. for reasons that go deeper than an inevitable sortingout. but only to just below that of the worst years of the 1930s’ (Galbraith and Cantú 2001. economic globalisation. white and black. and luxury-consumption that increasingly replaced mass-consumption as a motor of economic growth. The relative ease with which women and men coexisted in the early years of gay liberation lasted only until women became too fed-up with the treatment they often received at the hands of gay men. 2011. were dismissed as outmoded and counterproductive (until the 2008 crisis (2011) 3–32 . Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. 153. ‘inequality soared in the 1970s and 1980s. D’Emilio 1983b. Women’s equality and racial equality became steadily more established as political commonplaces (in rhetoric if not in reality) at the same time that redistributive and counter-cyclical economic policies. gender-relaxing countercultural influences coexisted with Third-Worldist macho posturing.

LGBT media in dependent countries rely to some extent on lesbian/gay media in the capitalist metropoles for their material and imagery. 265–8. Given that dependent countries as a whole have suffered especially with the decline of the old forms of capitalaccumulation. pp.4 (2011) 3–32 13 The 1970s. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. xv. This applied notably to sexual and emotional relations among middleclass gay men and lesbians. 79–97. 39. the ideological and cultural sway of gay identities in LGBT communities has spread beyond the more privileged social layers in which people’s lives fit these identities most comfortably. even if in other ways they provide a reference-point in struggles for sexual emancipation. What has the effect of all this been on LGBT people. commercial gay scene are often dependent on it as a market for potential (short or long-term) partners. Altman 1982. 35. 36. Figures from the US Federal Reserve show that income-inequality increased further at the end of the 1990s (Andrews 2003). pp.35 both economic success and gay-rights reforms have some cause to be contented with the progress they have made: ‘inside a cozy brownstone. and in much of Africa with scarcely a breathing-space). In many ways ‘gay’ and ‘lesbian’ are still largely middle or upper-class. constructing 37. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. 826–8. But this did not prevent the growth of middle-classes in the South with incomes far above their countries’ averages and linked to global consumer-capitalism – including gay consumer-capitalism. 214–18). pp. ’80s and ’90s and the first decade of the new millennium were also years in which open LGBT communities and identities became more prominent in much of the dependent world. Western-oriented lesbian/gay identities seem in this context to have a complex and contradictory relationship with other same-sex sexualities that co-exist with them in the dependent world. capitalism can feel pretty good’. 37 The period of slower growth and neoliberal reaction in the global North was a time of recurrent and devastating crisis in many parts of the South even before the generalised crisis of 2008 (notably in Latin America after 1982. flipping through Out magazine and sipping an Absolut and tonic. and in the tolerant public space fostered by gay-rights victories. new income hourglass’ (Davis 1986. even celibate or monogamous people who are at least temporarily not in the market for a partner still tend to define themselves in the culturally hegemonic categories of lesbian. Altman 2000. Drucker 2009.36 While all social relations under capitalism are reified – distorted so that relations between people are perceived as relations with or even between things – the shift under neoliberalism to economic growth founded increasingly on middle-class overconsumption raised the reification of human relations among neoliberalism’s beneficiaries to new heights. P.39 In the developed capitalist countries. Gluckman and Reed 1997. despite the proliferation of websites and zines defining identities and subcultures for minorities within the minorities.38 In both developed and dependent capitalist countries. communities and movements? The end of the Fordist expansive long wave was not bad news for everyone by any means. Even poor transgendered and queer people whose lives are most remote from the images of the gay mainstream sometimes incorporate aspects of gay mainstream-culture into their aspirations and fantasies. continuing to underlie Market-friendly lesbian/gay identities prospered in commercialised spaces. p. commercial gay scenes continued to grow. in much of Southeast Asia after 1997. Commercialised. predominantly middle-class. in Brazil for several years after 1998. Many relatively better-paid lesbian/gay people who benefited from lesbian/gay identity. communities and identities there have taken on very contrasting forms. pp.prompted massive redistribution of wealth to the world’s biggest banks and various forms of stimulus). in the construction of two-income households among better-off gays and to a lesser extent lesbians.4 (2011) 3–32 their identities in part from images that may be borrowed and adapted from very different social realities. Particularly among some middle-class and upper-working-class social layers that prospered in the 1980s and ’90s. especially but not only in developed capitalist countries. in Mexico again after 1994. gay mainstream. first in Latin America and later in many Asian and African countries. 38. This hegemony of lesbian/gay identity over much of the . and not for all LGB people specifically. bisexual or straight. Oetomo 1996. 14 P. curled up next to a health-insured domestic partner in front of a Melissa Etheridge video on MTV. Even those who are economically least well-equipped for the more fundamentally. Drucker 2000a. pp. the most widely circulated books. 26–7. periodicals and videos tend to be those most closely linked to the new. US or Eurocentric concepts. gay.

the less polarised gender-rôles in the broader culture. P. p. sometimes form heterosexual relationships at later ages and as a result often decrease their participation in the community – was also none too visible. In the earlier. identifies ‘social class as a major axis of power which positions LGBT people unequally and unjustly’ . ‘ “Undifferentiated” accounts of gay life tend to narrate relatively well-resourced and privileged experience as gay experience. and. The fact that people continued to come out and join the community at all ages – or. were always people with at least one foot in the straight world.LGBT world. had been a higher proportion of the visible communities expanded. had played a leading rôle in the 1969 Stonewall rebellion found that as social tolerance of lesbians and gays in general began to increase in the 1970s. McDermott 2011. 64. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19.4 (2011) 3–32 15 people who were still half ‘in the closet’. the fracturing of LGBT scenes in recent decades also has a class-dimension. the influx of more ‘normalseeming’ lesbians and gay men diluted the prominence of transgendered people . social tolerance for gender-nonconformity in many lesbian/gay spaces decreased once more. for that matter. emphasise the fluidity of sexual identity and speculate about universal bisexuality tended to fade away with time as the community’s material reality became more sharp-edged. and marginalisation of its own sexual minorities. . Lesbians’ and gay conceived and lived. provides arguments to those who downplay the importance of class in ‘mixed-class’ LGBT communities. and normatively promote this as a script for how gay life should be Lesbian/gay spaces are not islands. But cultural commonalities and cross-class relationships do not make lesbian/gay identity and spaces class-neutral . and the physical coexistence of LGBT people of different classes in lesbian/gay spaces. more clearly demarcated from a majority defined as straight. any more than the existence of sexual relationships between masters and slaves meant that slavery was not a significant factor in them. discipline. In lesbian/gay milieu. Seidman 2011. smaller community of the immediate post-Stonewall years. which had initially facilitated the emergence of lesbian/gay identities. The tendency of many early theorists of lesbian/gay liberation to question the categories of heterosexuality and homosexuality. For example. three aspects of the lesbian/gay identity that stabilised by the early 1980s fit well with the emerging neoliberal order: the community’s self-definition as a stable minority. they were generally seen as 40.40 It is true that the class-segregation that characterised early-twentieth-century LGBT scenes eased in the Fordist period.42 Moreover. Both in the centres and at the margins of the world-capitalist system. and were in any event generally marginal to the developing lesbian/gay culture. as the next section shows. The lesbian/gay-rights movement The decline of butch/femme rôle-playing among lesbians and of camp culture among gay men also contributed to a hardening of the genderboundaries that remain central to capitalist societies. The fact that a fair proportion of those in the bars and bathhouses expressed a profound social fact about lesbian/gay life as it took shape specifically under neoliberalism. less able or less inclined to hide. its increasing tendency towards gender-conformity.’41 men’s self-definition as a minority group. but one which few people announced with fanfare. Although the temporary relaxation of gender-norms in the 1960s had created some space for playful gender-bending. now increasingly restricted the room available for more gender-polarised lesbian/gay identities. if not completely out of bounds . even lived to some extent in certain neighbourhoods). at the same time To the extent that lesbians and gays were increasingly defined as people who inhabited a certain economic space (went to certain bars. nongenderconforming gay men and lesbians. patronised certain businesses. they were more ghettoised than before. in the US at least. as lesbian/gay addition. but heavily influenced by the structures of class in the surrounding societies: research on young LGBT people’s schooling in Britain. rebelling against the postwar tightening of genderaccordingly ran less risk of seeming sexually subversive of the broader sexual order of gendered capitalism. full-fledged drag often seemed anomalous and even embarrassing in the context of the LGB communities thus increasingly defined themselves in ways that placed transgendered people – whose communities predated the new lesbian/gay identity by millennia – and other visible nonconformists on the margins. 41. The drag queens who. tended to be discreet in order to avoid unpleasantness. 42. bathhouses and discos. which built on the reification of sexual desire that progressively consolidated the categories of gay and straight over the course of the twentieth century. Heaphy 2011. sometimes even married people with children. for example. Kevin Floyd’s androgynous imagery that was in vogue in the early 1970s. was always an open secret.

but rather strongly differentiated by period. while neoliberalism has in many ways undermined the direct and obvious domination of wives and neoliberal cutbacks in social services. And. an ideological factor has also played a crucial rôle in . same-sex marriage and adoption can be the culmination of some LGBT people’s integration into the productive and reproductive order of gendered capitalism. thought could ‘reinforce traditional gender roles and values of appropriate female behavior’. as the decline of Fordism put welfare-state programmes under pressure. In any event. was the time in developed countries when space for transgendered sexualities (and thus Floyd’s ‘radical uncertainty’) was at its historical nadir. p. 64. Browne 2011. Rubin 1982.4 (2011) 3–32 locations within a global-capitalist totality that is neither static nor uniform. Yet the rise of same-sex-coupleheaded nuclear families redefines and even reinforces rather than overcomes the gay-straight divide. class. The late 1970s.46 As the number of children being raised in households headed by same-sex couples has risen. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. the break-up of straight families or other trajectories) necessarily remain distinctive. p. This professional layer has provided the solid social base for the most moderate currents of LGB movements. some already apparent by the late 1970s and early ’80s. same-sex marriage and adoption can serve to legitimise and regulate the growing rôle that lesbian and gay couples are playing in social production. by privatising the provision of basic needs.4 (2011) 3–32 17 capitalist societies. it would be implausible to dismiss the correlation as pure coincidence. radical uncertainty about whether gay male sexual practice necessarily feminizes any the relation between gender and sexuality is configured differently at different times and 43. While gay- the increased centrality of consumption to LGB identity resulted in a series of shifts in its sexual contours. who were making their careers inside mainstream businesses and institutions.identification of ‘an ongoing. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. others emerging only in the ’90s or later. But when sexual identities and imagery took on more unequal and genderpolarised forms at just the time when the surrounding societies were undergoing a sharp. This conservative turn in the broader society was accompanied by a shift among gay men from the largely androgynous imagery and occasional gender-bending of the early 1970s to the more masculine ‘clone’-culture that took hold by the early ’80s. This conformity was congenial for the growing number of gay men and lesbians who pursued professional. as it still tends to be in some parts of the dependent world. adoption. in fact. 18 P. sometimes cringed at manifestations of a lesbian/gay community that marked them off too much from other people of their class. without necessarily renouncing or hiding their sexuality but preferably without ‘flaunting’ it. 44 A higher degree of gender-conformity among LGB people facilitated their incorporation into a neoliberal social and sexual order. 214. gender. business or political careers in a number of 44. Another layer of middle-class or middleclass-identified lesbian/gay people.4 (2011) 3–32 families (through sperm-donorship. 16 P. but who tended to be spoken for by those among them who were – preferred in general to keep LGB communityexpressions culturally inoffensive. spontaneous sea-change in all LGBT people’s felt male sexuality was masculinised and lesbianism feminised. not totally transmuted by the social developments of a decade or two. for of the men involved’43 does not do justice to the ways in which example. a renewed emphasis on the centrality of the family to social reproduction helped put a brake on the relaxation of gender-norms that had characterised the 1960s. Feminine forms of selfpresentation that lesbian feminists once frowned on had also become more common and acceptable among ‘lipstick-lesbians’ by the 1990s – a ‘celebration of femininity’ that Gayle Rubin. Individual desire and psychology are more resilient than that and are shaped over the course of lifetimes. 46. consumption and reproduction. daughters by husbands and fathers under the original Fordist gender-régime. Obviously these shifts did not reflect an instantaneous. for example. for those most dependent on the welfare-state in countries such as Britain and the Netherlands legal recognition of their partnerships can lead to cuts in benefits. 78–9. that transgendered sexuality was more common in the working class than in the middle-class in developed countries in the early-twentieth century. and it would be a mistake to read too much into them. We have seen.45 While legal same-sex marriage or partnership can in this context secure new benefits for middle-class and privileged working-class lesbians and gays. Even the lesbian/gay middleclass layers that live off gay businesses and nonprofits – far from all of whom were among the real economic winners of recent decades. Many of these people would like to be able to pursue their careers in straight companies and institutions while being open about their same-sex relationships – fewer people are willing to contract heterosexual marriages these days and to keep their homosexual lives completely hidden and marginal – and for the rest deny or minimise differences between them and middle-class straights. since the ways in which lesbians and gay men form 45. Brenner 2003. pp. Floyd 2009. desires or sexual practices. In some cases the winds of erotic fashion undoubtedly have shallower causes than profound socioeconomic change. have been restoring the centrality of the family-unit to the social reproduction of labour – in classed ways . Paradoxically. long-term rise in inequality. at the cusp of the transition from Fordism to neoliberalism. In the twenty-first century. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. P. and the processes of combined and uneven development . which have often seen same-sex marriage as the culminating moment in the process of gay emancipation.

transgendered people.50 47. 241.51 A more discrimination). cited in Wolf 2009. Jeffrey Escoffier has noted that ‘the gay market. though to different degrees in different countries. the net result (contrary to unfounded claims made not only by anti-gay ideologues but also by some gay publications) was that. p. 54. p. like markets in general. and new forms of antagonism to black and immigrant communities (especially of Muslim origin) have grown up in European countries. 48. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. more likely to be cut off from broader family-support networks. by race and by gender’. Lower-income LGBs. On the contrary. There has been. P.52 Transgendered people are even worse off: a 2006 study found that in San Francisco 60% of them earned less than $15. racism has intensified even more in the US. Mepschen. As a result. One of the first notable mutations in LGBT identity with the rise of neoliberalism was the rôle that SM and leather played in the more masculine culture that took hold among gay men by the early 1980s. clerical/sales or service-jobs but less likely to have managerial jobs. tends to segment the lesbian and gay community by income. p. Duyvendak and Tonkens 2010. and as the social safety-net has frayed .117 compared to $49. as attacks on poor people and minorities have multiplied. 38–9.4 (2011) 3–32 19 Whatever the causes (less ability or willingness to meet gendered jobexpectations. particularly same-sex couples raising children together. polarisation within LGBT communities has been particularly great.54 This is especially true of same-sex couples. and nearly 9% had no source of income. street-youth and LGBT people of colour have been under assault in various ways in recent decades.4 Social polarisation within LGBT communities has coincided with greater prominence for forms of sexual identity and practice that focus explicitly on gender and power-differences and rôle-playing. unions have been weakened.integrating lesbian/gay people into the neoliberal order: the instrumentalisation of lesbian/gay rights in the service of imperialist and Islamophobic ideologies.49 The heteronormative constraints of many economic sectors – the pressures to abide by a heterosexual norm of behaviour – seems to drive many ‘low-wage service workers . III. 20 P.47 Particularly but not only in countries such as the Netherlands48 and Denmark. . Transgender Law Center and San Francisco Bay Guardian 2006. 106. Puar 2007. their income is. since two women living together are in a sense doubling the economic disadvantages they both experience as women. a proliferation of alternative sexual or gender-identities. p. 147. and inequality has grown. though far from all. Badgett 1997. 2. both gay men and lesbians were under-represented in the higher-income brackets (with family-incomes of $50. While one gaymale leather-bar opened in New York as early as 1955 (2011) 3–32 policing. p.000 or more). migration to more competitive job-markets. at least in the US. pp. to accept a lower wage than they would be paid elsewhere in exchange for the relative comfort of working in a queer environment’. less than men’s. 52. Contrary to much right-wing anti-gay rhetoric. cited in Wolf 2009. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. by class. Badgett and Gates 2007.56 . 131.53 The expansion of LGBT communities centred on straight counterparts in 2005 ($43. Sears 2005. where both same-sex partnership-rights and anti-immigrant racism are strongly developed. LGBTs are. . the relatively homogeneous lesbian/gay identities that had taken shape in North America and Western Europe by the 1970s were challenged and fragmented over the following decades. Some. Data gathered by the US National Opinion Research Center’s General Social Survey in the 1990s suggested that lesbian and bisexual women were still far less likely than other women to have professional or technical jobs and more likely to have service or craft/operative jobs. Escoffier 1997. only 25% had fulltime jobs.777). moreover. the prosperous couples focused on by glossy lesbian/gay magazines were never typical of LGBTs in general. xxiv. while gay and bisexual men were more likely than other men to have professional/technical. this homonationalism has been key to consolidating and taming lesbian/gay identity.000 or less). 68–9. the welfare-state has been shredded. which Jasbir Puar has defined as ‘homonationalism’ . 53.55 Across the capitalist world. 50. Romero. recent study showed that men in samesex couples were still earning significantly less on average than their women in samesex couples earn more on average than straight married women. 81. while gay men in particular were overrepresented in the lower-income brackets (with familyincomes of $30. Young LGBTs and sexworkers in particular have been victims of intensified forms of coercive 51. in particular.300 a year. 55. Social and sexual roots of alternative identities The apparent uniformity of lesbian/gay culture in the mid-1970s in fact helped disguise social and economic fractures opening up among LGB people. pp. Jacobs 1997. p. In this context. Baumle. of these alternative identities represent challenges to the basic parameters of the gay/straight divide that emerged and was consolidated through much of the twentieth century. more-or-less outside of the mainstream commercial scene. inequalities resulting from wage-differentials have affected them with particular intensity. 49. while gay commercial scenes did not improve the situation of lower-income LGBTs. of course. Badgett and King 1997.

p.57 Soon SM came ‘to be linked with male homosexuality in the eighties as firmly as effeminacy and an attack on gender roles was in the sixties and early seventies’. The sense has persisted that lesbians in general play less of a rôle in commercial scenes and persevere more in trying to sustain alternative scenes. pp. 65. Pagano. The consolidation of Reaganism and explosiveness of the issue quickly placed it beyond the pale of discussion. only from 1976 on did leather-culture become a subject of attention and debate in the broader lesbian/gay community .65 One aspect of the underlying social reality is that the lower young queers’ incomes were and the more meagre their job-prospects. Linden. Rubin defend butch-femme vigorously. gay male or lesbian scenes. Russell and Star (eds. Thatcherism by the mid-1980s coincided for LGBT people with the onslaught of the AIDS epidemic.58 while SM clubs such as New York’s Mineshaft became ‘an arena for the masculinization of the gay male’. pp. in Dennis Altman’s term. virtually all the men in the scene were masculinised in the process. Ira has contributed to this sense. the issue of intergenerational sex. p. race. 219. It was as if SM.60 As Gayle Rubin put it. ‘class. 60. p. while divisions between ‘tops’ and ‘bottoms’ that would earlier have been widely rejected on liberationist grounds became acceptable and sometimes blatant. The state enforces a related point of view. Self-identified queers refused ‘to be comfortable on the social periphery – in the ghettos’. and US Senator Jesse Helms’s successful move to block UN recognition of any LGBT group that condones ‘paedophilia’.and many more followed by the early 1970s. But Tattleman. 244–8. lipstick-lesbianism and sex-wars of the 1980s were only an initial phase in a longer-term fracturing of LGBT identity. which was the subject of a major confrontation during the organisation of the first US national lesbian/gay-rights march in 1979. While of course some lesbians. the very the ‘clone’ and SM subcultures. In hindsight. which made the notion of modelling lesbian/gay households on traditional straight ones all the more implausible for them. Hollibaugh and Moraga 1983. Rubin 1982. especially for young people. P. the fact that women trying to survive independently of men have lower incomes on average and are thus more likely to be working-class or poor while lesbian feminists had put working-class and poor women under great pressure in the 1970s to abandon butch-femme relationships that had been common among them for decades. . 103. p.59 Paradoxically at this stage. Nestle 1989. and gender neither determine nor correspond to the roles adopted for S/M play’.4 (2011) 3–32 with ethnic-style minority-group politics. making it hard in many cases to say to what extent poverty was a cause of alienation. 222. ‘Economic changes . as a ritual of ‘catharsis’. This generation had also grown up in far more diverse and changeable familystructures. some currents perceived powerdifferences between adults and youths as precluding the possibility of consent to sex.64 However. p. particularly in San 1982. and the kind of segregation that fit 62. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. extent of young people on the bottom of the unequal social hourglass that had resulted from economic restructuring. of both acting out and exorcising the growing violence and inequality of the broader society.63 The most explosive issue in the ‘sex-wars’ was. 58. made up to a large the trajectory of the middle-class baby-boom generation. Vance (ed. 20. 64. .61 By the early 1980s. 59. which left many unable to see a place for themselves in the by then established gay middle class. pp. While some men who survived the epidemic followed a gay variant of many younger people who came of age in the era of AIDS and neoliberalism found the road to a safer middle-class existence strewn with obstacles. 61. Beginning in the mid-1980s a queer social milieu emerged.’66 Above all initially in English-speaking developed-capitalist countries – the developed countries where social polarisation is greatest – young queers resisted disco-culture. like some gay men. briefly. In some milieus of young rebels. 250–9. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. Sears 2005. served.) 1989. 195. p. Lesbian-feminist culture in a sense already struck a divergent note in the 1970s. 280. to what extent the choice of a queer lifestyle contributed to more-or-less would be usual in mainstream straight. Patterson 2000. are middle-class or rich. Califia 1982. a bar-centred ghetto. Califia 1982. as shown in hundreds of prosecutions of LGBT people each year under age-of-consent laws. 191. ‘Staging Masculinity at the Mineshaft’. gender and sexual categories have become more fluid than Economic marginalisation and cultural alienation were closely interlinked in the emergence of a queer milieu. Altman 1982. p. 63. some lesbians began in the 1980s to 56. cited in Moore 2004. 22 P. Drucker 1993. Altman 1982.62 At about the same time some lesbians took a visible part in SM culture. 66.4 (2011) 3–32 21 Francisco. 29.67 English-speaking queer scenes have been echoed in some ways by queers in squatters’ milieus in continental Western Europe. forms of sexuality that diverged from the perceived feminist norm also affected the previously hegemonic lesbian-feminist culture. This dovetailed with a general upheaval in the lesbian world through conflict between currents that defined themselves as ‘anti-pornography’ and others that defined themselves as ‘pro-sex’. 397–404. . the repeated prosecutions of the Canadian gay paper Body Politic for discussing the issue in print. 57. the less on average they identified with or wanted to join the lesbian/gay community that had grown up since the 1960s and ’70s. a trauma experienced as a sharp generational break. Going beyond understandable and legitimate concerns about coercion and abuse of authority. while celebrating ‘difference and power’.) 1982. meant more part-time and contract work.

Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. full-time jobs that have become scarcer and more coveted commodities in post-Fordist economies. P. but there does appear to be a correlation. the dominant trend since the 1980s. sexuality and culture was that poor and working-class LGBT people in the dependent world were less likely than middle-class LGBs to have identities (let alone with lesbian/gay identities. based particularly on the reality of more prosperous LGB people’s lives. style or performance that it becomes as much a matter of consumer-choice and an expression of reification as the middle- Nevertheless. commercialised 67. the more visible transgendered people are. p. Non-homonormative other72 – identities defined by marginalisation on the basis of age. 193.4 (2011) 3–32 aspects of their identities. p. that are often rightly or wrongly associated with sexualities that are neither hetero. for example. The relationship between alternative identities and marginalised sexual practices is elusive. region and/or ethnicity have overlapped with the growth or persistence of subcultures that have been marginal in the commercial scene because they constitute (sometimes extensive) niche markets at best and illicit ones at worse.voluntary poverty. young or black has impelled many of them towards developing or adopting identities that have broken to some extent with the dominant patterns of postFordist gay identity. Africa and Latin America. Dependent capitalist countries have been the site over the last forty years of social constructions of sexuality that are neither completely different from the predominant lesbian/ gay identities in imperialist countries in the 1970s nor merely expressions of a single ‘modern’. p.69 Sexualities that were indigenous to the dependent world’s precapitalist or early-capitalist social formations (such as the traditional transgender identities of Southeast Asia and Latin America) have persisted. 24 P. If economic pressures made integration into the dominant lesbian/gay culture a dubious proposition for many young and disadvantaged queers in developed countries. 70. Drucker 1993. But the more attached people are to their sexual identities. As we have seen. 265–8. p. Not coincidentally. while coexisting The result of this intersection of dependent development. 72. Seidman 1997. antidiscrimination laws that protect LGB people . Califia 2003. and to what extent some queers were middle-class gays – particularly students and academics – dressing and talking like down-and-outs. incomes) that facilitated their integration into a Westernised. There are. pp. the more reluctant many of them become to give them up at work or in public. the overall correlation between lower incomes and queer selfidentification seems clear.70 class gay identities it rejects. Voluntary or involuntary. to fail to conform to dominant gender-norms. globalised identity . 69. See. The economic marginalisation that they experience tended to make post-Fordist lesbian/gay identity at least as problematic and alien for them as for young self-identified queers in North America or Britain. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. the less likely they are in most societies to get one of the well-paid. xiv. While these counter-identities have shown little sign of coalescing into any overarching alternative identity – on the contrary.71 They were more likely to be transgendered people. 29. the nonconformist sexual and genderidentities that have grown up among more marginalised layers have tended to be non-homonormative: to identify with broader communities of oppressed or rebellious people. 140–1.nor homonormative.68 In other cases queerness may be defined so much by dress. more likely to be subject to violence. Drucker 1993. some people are virtually or entirely incapable of hiding 71. Marginalisation of millions of LGBT people worldwide because they are poor. tend increasingly towards gender-conformity. and marginalise its own sexual minorities. was for the lesbian/gay community to define itself as a stable and distinct minority. class. particularly effeminacy in men or butchness in women. Drucker 1996. Oetomo 1996. the barriers have been all the greater for poor and working-class LGBTs in Asia. Hennessy 2000. Paradoxically. and/or to emphasise power-differentials that dominant lesbian/gay imagery tends to elide. 68. tell-tale signs of sexual deviance often lead to management’s excluding people from professional or service-jobs or to fellow workers’ hostility that impels people to avoid or flee certain workplaces. pp. different counteridentities can and do clash with each they do share a number of features that correspond to structural similarities in their bearers’ positions under neoliberal capitalism. in some cases perhaps only for a period of a few years of ‘float[ing] in and out of deviance or propriety’. 29. and more likely to be dependent on family and/or community-structures for their survival.4 (2011) 3–32 23 gay scene. Moreover. By contrast . of course. many LGBTs who limit their sexual rebellion to the safety of a particular brand of bar. in the absence of general guarantees for workers’ job-security or free expression at work. permanent.

The thousands of transgender hijras in South Asia. 80. Amber Hollibaugh proclaimed that her vision of butch/femme was not a reaffirmation of existing gender-categories but a new system of ‘gay gender’. p. purge them of ‘old-fashioned’ aspects of their identities. The medical experts not only tend to prescribe sexreassignment surgery as the standard cure for intense gendernonconformity but also tend to urge transexuals to adapt (perhaps somewhat less rigidly than in the past) to the norms of their ‘new gender’.82 Just the same. Califia 2003. thanks in part to a crosspollination of butch/femme with SM which creates space for ‘butch bottoms’ and ‘femme tops’. has expressed his identification with Santiago’s downtrodden locas [transvestites] and his rejection of the gay-male model he encountered in New York.78 Forms of gender-bending have shifted over the decades. and leatherfashion and accessories. younger transgendered people seem more likely to take on gender-identities that are difficult to subsume (if at all) under existing feminine or masculine rôles. Califia links this new trend among transgendered people to SM people’s attitude towards ‘body-modification’: ‘A new sort of transgendered person has emerged. More recently. and with queer milieus that have only emerged since the late 1980s in rebellion against the lesbian/gay mainstream. drag has always to a certain extent subverted mainstream gender-rôles through ‘veneration of the strong woman who defies social expectations to assert herself’. Califia 2003. Among LGBTs. less skilled.77 and Judith Butler has argued that drag subverts gender by exposing it as a ‘performatively enacted signification’. for example. Chilean writer Pedro Lemebel. 87. do not often seem to share European and North American queers’ interest in transcending or blurring gender-categories. or simply change each others’ genitals without resorting to official medicine. p. 76. 81. This is not a outspoken or who walks the dykiest. a new manager can fearlessly fire the one who has her nose pierced or who is most These factors help explain the correlation that exists between subaltern social positions and various alternative sexual scenes and identities that do not fit into standard post-Fordist lesbian/gay moulds. 74. Drucker 1993. pp. On the contrary. the queer generation has 73. different forms of transgender are radically subversive of the lesbian/gay identity that emerged under Fordism. 113. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. claims for some of the stigmatised sexual practices that were made during the sexwars of the early 1980s. Califia 2000. and to some extent recast. p.83 To a greater or lesser extent. cited in Robson 1997.79 These more flexible and ambiguous forms of transgender can be associated simultaneously with the myriad forms of transgender that have existed for millennia around the planet. which themselves arose only in the 1950s and ’60s. n. as defined by a wing of the medical establishment. cannot be legitimately classified as either gay or . or make them come out in ways that would tear them away from their families and communities without providing them with equivalent support-systems. less organised and lower-paid – that have expanded since the 1970s. but rather as transgendered as opposed to male or female.76 By contrast with the earlier period. middleclass-dominated lesbian/gay community. SM has been less in the forefront – SM seems less politically laden now than it was in the sex-wars of the early 1980s – and gender-bending and transgender all the more. as Ruthann Robson has noted: ‘If a company employs four lesbians. The contradictions of gender and power have been particularly visible in transgender and gender-bending subcultures since the 1990s. p. 154. in diluted form. Sears 2005. 79. of course. however. even many intersex people (born with genitals that do not identify them as unambiguously male or female) ‘are perfectly comfortable adopting either a male or female gender identity’. 26 P. 186–9.80 Queer-identified transgendered people do not necessarily reject hormonetreatments or surgery. In the 1980s. 29.4 (2011) 3–32 25 tended more to play with issues of inequality and power-difference in other ways that expose their artificiality and facilitate their subversion. 13. increasingly visible and militant among the poorest people of their region and notably at the 2004 World Social Forum in Mumbai. come to permeate the broader sexual culture. p. 78. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. identifying with neither gender. Part of the younger queer generation has taken up.74 The correlation has been rather with particular sectors of the working class – on average younger. 175. South Asian hijras. very old and very new. 44. 52–85. New forms of transgender contrast with the forms of transexuality. For that matter. tattooing.’73 straightforward correlation between non-homonormative identities and working-class affiliation. 75. but they can be selective in what they do or do not choose for themselves. p. Butler 1999. in a way that the would-be allencompassing acronym LGBT fails to successfully subsume in a single social subject. the same people) have sometimes reacted against self-defined queer or other sexually dissident groups when such groups demanded visibility of them that would make their lives more difficult in particular workplaces or communities. p. ‘Today lesbian butch/femme is acquiring more flexibility than it had in the ’70s when I came out’. including in dependent countries. 100.4 (2011) 3–32 More traditional poor and working-class transpeople for their part can often struggle for years to save the money for their operations. P. Robson 1992. working-class lesbians and gays and lesbians and gays of colour (sometimes. In doing so they have rebelled against homonormative ‘confining straightjackets that inserted some queers as the tolerated “others” within the existing social relations of gender and sexuality and marginalized others’. 77. gays or bisexuals. as seen in the spread of piercing.81 Often these transpeople do not see themselves as transitioning from male to female or vice versa. in a sense. Altman 1982.75 ‘ “Queer” [thus] potentially includes “deviants” and “perverts” who may traverse or confuse the homo/hetero division’.in general may be of less than no use to the sexually marginalised. pp. They are thus. p. says Patrick Califia. Hennessy 2000. Transexuals who identify as straight (albeit ‘born in the wrong body’) often question what they have in common with lesbians. SM seems to have become less central to LGBT culture as it has increasingly. 224. one who approaches sex reassignment with the same mindset that they would obtaining a piercing or a tattoo’. many LGBTs in dependent countries have been trying in their own ways to resist pressures to claim them for a homogeneous. As Dennis Altman points out.

Marxists should combat heterosexism and bourgeois hegemony among straights. sexual. 1. p. Mansilla 1996.1163/156920611x6064 12. One may doubt.84 A very diverse and straight. in the forms that oppressed people’s own experience proves to be most effective. transgendered and other queers can raise the hackles of many on the Left. 230. it useful to privilege any particular existing form of sexuality in present-day struggles for sexual liberation. The lesbian/gay identity that emerged by the 1970s had much to commend it from the broad-Left’s point of view (once the Left had By contrast. Hollibaugh and Moraga 1983. cultural. working-class and poor LGBTs. Class struggles and LGBT struggles are not mutually exclusive-queer conceptions of sexuality solve for a free society Drucker 11 [Peter. lesbian/gay identity has been undergoing simultaneous construction and fracturing . Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. cited in Wolf as in radical struggles over production. genderconformist. The Fracturing of LGBT Identities under Neoliberal Capitalism. 23. Nor is largely overcome its initial homophobia). These communities and identities are being fractured in large part by fundamental changes in the productive and reproductive order of gendered capitalism . Young queers. 279. since their sexuality strikes many as at variance with the mores to be expected and hoped for in an egalitarian. p. p. Socialists’ aim should not be to replace the traditional ‘hierarchical system of sexual value’85 with a new hierarchy of our own. 86. whether any sexuality existing under capitalism can serve as a model for sexualities to be forecast or desired under socialism . consumerist lesbian/ gay mainstream.4 (2011) 3–32 27 racial/ethnic and other differences within LGBT communities. This will require seeking new tactics and forms of organising within LGBT movements . Rubin 1989. however. then. Stonewall lesbian/gay movement waged an effective fight against discrimination and won many victories on the basis of an identity widely shared by those engaged in same-sex erotic or emotional relationships. and in some cases challenge the very social and conceptual basis of straight or lesbian/gay self-definition. non-homonormative sexual identities do not necessarily win them easy acceptance among feminists or socialists. P. Drucker 2000a. Implications for liberation Palaversich 2002. But this classic lesbian/gay identity has not been the only basis in history for movements for sexual emancipation. 84. and blanket hostility to straights and nonqueer-identified gays where it exists among 85. the basic imperative is to welcome and stimulate self-organisation and resistance by people subjected to exploitation. 28 P.brillonline. marginalisation or oppression. http://booksandjournals. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. Nor can transgendered queers who insist that they have moved beyond male and female. sexual history has first of all to be ‘able to talk realistically about what people are sexually’. p.4 (2011) 3–32 self-identified queers. Resisting the retreat from class in LGBT activism and queer studies. 396. peaceful. gender. 82. who today include straights. It is thus no surprise that they have tended to some extent to define distinct identities. As Amber Hollibaugh pointed out many years ago. transgendered people and other marginalised groups have increasingly found themselves in objectively different situations from people in the consolidating gay mainstream. jac] Recognising the deep roots of the fracturing of same-sex identities necessarily puts in question any universalism that ignores class. International Institute of Research and Education. cited in IV. in a spirit Our central concern must be to advance the sexual liberation of the working class and its allies. 06/29/15. p. In the German . 2011. homonormativity and bourgeois hegemony among LGBs.86 And in radical struggles over sexuality. 104. rational future. 83. The forms taken by alternative. diffuse set of alternative sexual identities has been diverging more and more from the post-Fordist.In capitalism both North and South in this time of crisis. Herndon 2006. LGBs and – particularly among its most oppressed layers – transgendered and other queers. exclusion. p. The postof ‘anything goes’. This is not to say that Marxists should simply adopt a liberal attitude of unthinking approval of sexual diversity in general.

89 Rather than privileging same-sex sexualities more common among the less oppressed.88 Today in the dependent world as well. which emerged initially in the US and Britain in the early 1990s. celebrating both as Lukács had rejected both. On other issues. On sexual politics in the global-justice movement. while transgender and gender-polarised patterns persisted longer in the working class and among the poor.homophile-struggle from 1897 to 1933.92 At the same time. P. for example. p. the diversity of LGBT communities has resulted in an alliance-model of organising as an alternative or a supplement to the model of a single. tended to put forward polarised ‘third sex’-theories. an alliance-model has in some cases facilitated the process of negotiating unity among constituencies – such as transgendered people on the one hand and lesbian/gay people on the other93 – who are unlikely to feel fully included in any one unitary structure. In the dependent world particularly. Oetomo 1996. is not. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. . we should not uncritically accept an ideology that defines individuals and their happiness on the basis of a quest for a partner of the ‘right’ gender. such as trade-unions. the wing of the movement closer to the social-democratic Left. p. 74–5). Another important consideration is the challenge that alternative. developing an inclusive.94 self-given by the individuals’. practices. the Left should be particularly supportive of those same-sex sexualities more common among the most oppressed. pp. and collective aspirations’ (Floyd 2009. however polarised. or to prove their adaptability to the dependent world. nonhomonormative sexualities can sometimes pose to the reification of sexual desire that the categories of lesbian. bisexual and straight embody . Floyd here reproduces it upside down. 89. transgender identities seem to be more common among the less prosperous and less Westernised. pp. the petrifaction of specific rôles and sexual identities. unified organisation. is inherent to sexuality.87 This is what one might predict on the basis of the evidence that egalitarian gay identities were at first primarily a middle-class phenomenon.91 In countries where civil rights and same-sex marriage have been won. variable history of sexually nonnormative discourses. criminalisation and discrimination as well as more ambitious struggles for equality. see Drucker 1993 and Drucker 2010.4 (2011) 3–32 29 radical challenge to mainstream lesbian/gay organisations. in Gloria Wekker’s words. Kevin Floyd argues that ‘the reifying of sexual desire needs to be understood as a condition of possibility for a complex. p. the new homonormativity shows no signs of succumbing to queer assaults in the foreseeable future. in which ‘all laws are male and female elements’. 132. the values of ‘play and display’ triumph over those of ‘productiveness and performance’. Califia 2003. the women’s movement and the globaljustice movement. Having earlier recalled Lukács’s later criticism of the conflation of objectification and reification in his History and Class Consciousness. 37. may well express itself in other forms’. broad. 93. it is still far from marginalised.90 How will LGBT communities and movements be structured in a time of increasingly divergent identities? Self-defined queer activist-groups. The broadest possible unity across different identities remains desirable in basic fights against violence. the entire human 91. 90. to take root among the racially and nationally oppressed. see Drucker 2009. imaginaries. . queer conception of sexuality can be seen as a way to move towards that ‘truly free civilization’ that Herbert Marcuse described a half-century ago in Eros and Civilization. for example in parenting. fostering the development of a truly queer conception of sexuality that. gay. 92. the alternate adoption of subject and objectpositions in an interplay between different human individuals. subjectivities. 30 P. See Fernbach 1998. Marxists question the fantasy of consumers under neoliberalism that obtaining the ‘right’ commodities will define them as unique individuals and secure their happiness. Drucker / Historical Materialism 19. Drucker 1997. on the contrary. For discussions from an anticapitalist perspective of the potential and limits of queer radicalism. 256. Objectification. Wekker 1999. collective formations. p. and possessing In a more visionary perspective. the process of seeking new horizons and finding appropriate forms of organising seems likely to be a prolonged one – especially since the LGBT social and political landscape seems likely to remain more fragmented and conflict-ridden than it was in the immediate post-Stonewall period. is ‘multiple. and the ‘instinctual substance’ of ‘the perversions . They pose a 87. sites. have also appeared in recent years in a number of countries in continental Europe. however superficially egalitarian. Chauncey 1994. While lesbian/gay identity has lost the central place it occupied in the LGBT world of the 1970s and ’80s. although they have yet to show much of an orientation towards large-scale mobilisation. dynamic.4 (2011) 3–32 personality is eroticised. 88. 265–8. reification. Magnus Hirschfeld’s Scientific-Humanitarian Committee. LGBT rights can be best defended by working and demanding space within broader movements. malleable.95 . 94. 51. It can constitute a united front between those whose identities fit the basic parameters of the gay-straight divide and those whose identities do not.


AT structural violence
War turns structural violence
Folk 78 [Jerry, Professor of Religious and Peace Studies at Bethany College,
“Peace Educations – Peace Studies : Towards an Integrated Approach,” Peace &
Change, volume V, number 1, Spring, p. 58]
Those proponents of the positive peace approach who reject out of hand the work of
researchers and educators coming to the field from the perspective of negative peace too easily
forget that the prevention of a nuclear confrontation of global dimensions is
the prerequisite for all other peace research, education, and action. Unless such a
confrontation can be avoided there will be no world left in which to build
positive peace. Moreover, the blanket condemnation of all such negative peace
oriented research, education or action as a reactionary attempt to support and
reinforce the status quo is doctrinaire. Conflict theory and resolution, disarmament studies, studies
of the international system and of international organizations, and integration studies are in themselves neutral.
They do not intrinsically support either the status quo or revolutionary efforts to change or overthrow it. Rather
they offer a body of knowledge which can be used for either purpose or for some purpose in between .

It is
much more logical for those who understand peace as positive peace to integrate
this knowledge into their own framework and to utilize it in achieving their
own purposes. A balanced peace studies program should therefore offer the student
exposure to the questions and concerns which occupy those who view the field essentially from the point
of view of negative peace.

The alt lacks a mechanism for resolving global violence -- the impact is
global war
Moore 4 [Dir. Center for Security Law @ University of Virginia, 7-time Presidential
appointee, & Honorary Editor of the American Journal of International Law,
Solving the War Puzzle: Beyond the Democratic Peace, John Norton Moore, pages
If major interstate war is predominantly a product of a synergy between a potential nondemocratic aggressor and
an absence of effective deterrence,

what is the role of the many traditional "causes" of war?

Past, and many contemporary, theories of war have focused on the role of specific disputes
between nations, ethnic and religious differences, arms races, poverty or social injustice, competition for
resources, incidents and accidents, greed, fear, and perceptions of "honor," or many other such factors. Such
factors may well play a role in motivating aggression or in serving as a means for generating fear and

while some of these may have more potential
to contribute to war than others, there may well be an infinite set of motivating factors,
or human wants, motivating aggression. It is not the independent existence of such
motivating factors for war but rather the circumstances permitting or encouraging high
risk decisions leading to war that is the key to more effectively controlling war.
And the same may also be true of democide. The early focus in the Rwanda slaughter on "ethnic
manipulating public opinion. The reality, however, is that

conflict," as though Hutus and Tutsis had begun to slaughter each other through spontaneous combustion,
distracted our attention from the reality that a nondemocratic Hutu regime had carefully planned and

Certainly if we were
able to press a button and end poverty, racism, religious intolerance, injustice, and
orchestrated a genocide against Rwandan Tutsis as well as its Hutu opponents.I1

endless disputes, we would want to do so. Indeed, democratic governments must
remain committed to policies that will produce a better world by all
measures of human progress. The broader achievement of democracy and the
rule of law will itself assist in this progress. No one, however, has yet been able to
demonstrate the kind of robust correlation with any of these "traditional" causes of
war as is reflected in the "democratic peace." Further, given the difficulties in
overcoming many of these social problems, an approach to war exclusively
dependent on their solution may be to doom us to war for generations to

Extinction outweighs
Wapner, professor and director of the Global Environmental Policy
Program at American University, 2003
(Paul, “Leftist Criticism of "Nature" Environmental Protection in a Postmodern Age,”
Dissent Winter 2003 http://www.dissentmagazine. org/menutest/archives/2003/
wi03/wapner.html, ldg)
Even the most radical postmodernist
must acknowledge the distinction between physical existence and non-existenc e. As I
All attempts to listen to nature are social constructions-except one.

have said, postmodernists accept that there is a physical substratum to the phenomenal world even if they argue about the different

This acknowledgment of physical existence is crucia l. We
can't ascribe meaning to that which doesn't appear. What doesn't exist can manifest no
meanings we ascribe to it.

character. Put differently, yes, the postmodernist should rightly worry about interpreting nature's expressions. And all of us should

But we need not
doubt the simple idea that a prerequisite of expression is existence . This in turn
be wary of those who claim to speak on nature's behalf (including environmentalists who do that).

suggests that preserving the nonhuman world-in all its diverse embodiments-must be seen by eco-critics as a fundamental good.
Eco-critics must be supporters, in some fashion, of environmental preservation. Postmodernists reject the idea of a universal good.
They rightly acknowledge the difficulty of identifying a common value given the multiple contexts of our value-producing activity. In

fact, if there is one thing they vehemently scorn, it is the idea that there can be a
value that stands above the individual contexts of human experience . Such a value would
present itself as a metanarrative and, as Jean-François Lyotard has explained, postmodernism is characterized fundamentally by its

Nonetheless, I can't see how postmodern critics can do
otherwise than accept the value of preserving the nonhuman world . The nonhuman is the
"incredulity toward meta-narratives."

extreme "other"; it stands in contradistinction to humans as a species. In understanding the constructed quality of human

postmodernism inherently advances an ethic of
respecting the "other." At the very least, respect must involve ensuring that the
"other" actually continues to exist. In our day and age, this requires us to take responsibility for protecting the
experience and the dangers of reification,

actuality of the nonhuman. Instead, however, we are running roughshod over the earth's diversity of plants, animals, and

Postmodern critics should find this particularly disturbing. If they don't, they
deny their own intellectual insights and compromise their fundamental moral

Responsibility to future generations only framework that
allows for ethical responsibility.
Kurasawa, Professor of Sociology at York University, 2004
(Fuyuki, “Cautionary Tales: The Global Culture of Prevention and the Work of
Foresight”, Constellations

according to which the moral worth of a deed depends upon whether the a grasp the rupture it establishes with the presentist assumptions imbedded in the intentionalist tradition of Western ethics. while the correspondence between intentions and results is crucia l. priori “principle of the will” or “volition” of the person performing it – that is. Jonas’s strong consequentialism takes a cue from Weber’s “ethic of responsibility. ldg) We must not obscure the issue by characterizing this type of case as the sacrifice of individuals for some abstract "social entity. Hans Jonas’s “imperative of responsibility” is valuable precisely because it prescribes an ethicopolitical relationship to the future consonant with the work of farsightedness. thanks to its I want to expand the notion of cosmopolitan universalism in a temporal direction. his or her intention – should become a universal law. intentionalism can be explained by reference to its best-known formulation. the question is whether some persons must bear the inescapable cost for the sake of other persons. a chrono-cosmopolitics that formulation of a universal duty of care for humankind that transcends all geographical and socio-cultural borders. ldg) What can be done in the face of short-sightedness? Cosmopolitanism provides some of the clues to an answer. Jonas reformulates the categorical imperative along these lines: “Act so that the effects of your action are compatible with the permanence of genuine human life.” the “passionate devotion to a cause” elevating the realization of a vision of the world above all other considerations.28 Ex post facto evaluation of an act’s outcomes." Instead. is a substantive and future-oriented ethos on the basis of which civic associations can enact the work of preventive foresight. the latter must adopt a thicker regulative principle of care for the future than the one currently in vogue (which amounts to little more than an afterthought of the nondescript ‘don’t forget later generations’ ilk). and of whether they correspond to the initial intention. intergenerational solidarity would consist of striving to prevent our endeavors from causing large-scale human suffering and damage to the natural world over time. Robert Nozick. 1996 (David. takes seriously a sense of “intergenerational solidarity” toward human beings who will live in our wake as much as those living amidst us today. Kantian Consequentialism. I would hold. consequentialism reconnects what intentionalism prefers to keep distinct: the moral worth of ends partly depends upon the means selected to attain them (and vice versa). the Kantian categorical imperative. conviction without the restraint of caution and prudence is intensely presentist.26 But for a farsighted cosmopolitanism to take root in global civil society.” or “ Act so that the effects of your action are not destructive of the future possibility of such life.” which stipulates that we must carefully ponder the potential impacts of our actions and assume responsibility for them – even for the incidence of unexpected and unintended results. philosophy professor Bates College. Pages 453 – 475.Volume 11 Issue 4. Blackwell. that his is the only life he has. Neither the contingency of outcomes nor the retrospective nature of certain moral judgments On the contrary. argues that "to use a person in this way does not sufficiently respect and take account of the fact that he is a separate person. A variant of this logic is found in Weber’s discussion of the “ethic of absolute ends. Jonas goes further than Weber in breaking with exempts an act from normative evaluation. presentism by advocating an “ethic of long-range responsibility” that refuses to accept the future’s indeterminacy. we need to begin thinking about a farsighted cosmopolitanism. gesturing instead From a consequentialist perspective. so that it can become applicable to future generations and thereby nourish a vibrant culture of prevention. then. toward a practice of farsighted preparation for crises that could occur. pg 145-146." 12 But why is this not equally true of all those whom we do not . At the same time. Consequently.29 By contrast." It is not a question of some persons having to bear the cost for some elusive "overall social good.30 Maximizing all lives is the only way to affirm equal and unconditional human dignity Cummiskey.”31 What we find here. for example. is peripheral to moral judgment.27 Fully appreciating Jonas’s position requires that we In brief.

that is. In order to avoid this conclusion. then equal consideration suggests that one may have to sacrifice some to save many. needs to justify agent-centered constraints. . however. But we have seen that Kant's normative theory is based on an How can a concern for the value of rational beings lead to a refusal to sacrifice rational beings even when this would prevent other more extensive losses of rational beings? If the moral law is based on the value of rational beings and their ends. even most Kantian deontologists recognize that agent-centered constraints require a nonvalue-based rationale. what would a conscientious Kantian agent. the non-consequentialist Kantian ( GMM429). then what is the rationale for prohibiting a moral agent from maximally promoting these two tiers of value? If I sacrifice some for the sake of through our failure to act? By emphasizing solely the one who must bear the cost if we act. an agent motivated by the unconditional value of rational beings. choose? A morally good agent recognizes that the basis of all particular duties is the principle that "rational nature exists as an end in itself" If one truly believes that all rational beings have an equal value. an unconditional and incomparable worth" that transcends any market value ( GMM436). The concept of the end-in-itself does not support the view that we may never force another to bear some cost in order to benefit others. Rational nature as such is the supreme objective end of all conduct. each with only one life. unconditionally valuable end. If one focuses on the equal value of all rational beings. we fail to sufficiently respect and take account of the many other separate persons. As we saw in chapter 1. but persons also have a fundamental equality that dictates that some must sometimes give way for the sake of others (chapters 5 and 7). who will bear the cost of our inaction. then the rational solution to such a dilemma involves maximally promoting the lives and liberties of as many rational beings as possible (chapter 5). and I do not deny the unconditional value of rational beings. Persons may have "dignity. In such a situation. I do not use them arbitrarily.

. Therefore. The more we conform to the “economic man” model and the more free we believe ourselves to be. internally. 9 As David Hume. silently. the more we need watching. They are also small economical machines designed to increase profits and reduce costs. calculate his personal interests and pursue his personal goals while taking collective interests into account. Therefore. predecessor of Bentham. and governments must indirectly influence their decisions so that while they pursue personal interests. All of society—including all institutions. Happiness is the overarching goal. The new system of laws. Security is a condition of collective happiness. a governments. utilitarian philosophers tried to design a socio-political system in which individuals would be free to make choices according to their own calculations while orienting behaviors toward the common Freedom and security are thus two aspects of the same political practice. humans are rascals. 10 The importance of surveillance in this new form of power should now be clear: it is intended to influence each individual’s calculation of probabilities. they still contribute to the greater collective good.AT Util Utilitarianism in the context of surveillance is key. This is Bentham’s key point. “Discipline and Prevent: The New Panopticon Society. pointed out. pg. Humans are calculating beings who seek to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. establish the relations he desires. humans are governed by a quest for personal satisfaction and want to maximize it at all times and in all places .” Revue du MAUSS. and surveillance in the name of security is the primary means of attaining it. Therefore. Laval 12—Professor of Sociology at the Université de Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense (Christian. 47-72)//FJ According to Bentham’s utilitarianism. Bentham also thought that everyone was a potential delinquent. but also that they must be carefully dissuaded from acting in ways that go against collective interests and instead encouraged to make choices that are best for all. and the institutional cogwheels must be designed to encourage each person to This means that individuals must be free to make their own decisions and choices. The paradox is that while these “self-centered calculators” supposedly make free choices. 40. This consideration is important for understanding the philosophy behind the panopticon. since we are by nature economic beings governed by our interests. agent who can move through it freely. each interest. and at a distance by integrating itself into the calculation of probability of being caught each person makes before committing a crime or of being rewarded before carrying out a good deed. it is only right that governments should take this fact fully into account. they cannot be trusted since they will spontaneously defend their own selfish interests . and pursue the business of his choosing must have interiorized within his calculation of pleasure and pain the relative weight of the punishments and the best government acts on behaviors indirectly. the balance between rewards and punishments. their choices are shaped by the expectation of reward or punishment from the normative system instituted and maintained by Here lies a paradox: if individuals pursue personal interests. and standards— must adapt to the fact that the goal of all institutional systems and the primary aim of governments is to produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number while regulating and influencing behaviors so that the satisfaction of individual interests leads to the greatest possible sum of happiness for society at large. No. laws. they must be under constant surveillance. In other words. which would require keeping a constant eye on potential delinquents. rewards his actions may produce. 2/2012. Although social space is now open to all.

94%.” but that their willingness to pay does not vary greatly with the probability of the occurrence of the event. a study of ninth graders in California found that adolescents an alarmist The perceived risk of dying by earthquake When seized by fear. people are more likely to favor the more “alarming” version. were the same. people make probability determinations that they would otherwise not make. surveyed prior to 9/11 perceived a lesser risk of dying than those surveyed a few weeks after the attacks.72 . 99%.71 Another study found that people perceived a greater risk from a terrorist event causing the same number of casualties as a non-terrorist propane tank explosion or release of an infectious disease.64 Specifically. Moreover.’”63 In fact.60 Flying remains. participants’ median willingness to pay ranged from $7 to avoid the 1% risk to $10 to avoid the 99% risk. these decisions do not track the variations in probability. people disregarded this fact. 1996–2000.58 What are termed “dread risks. One study asked participants what they would pay to avoid increased from 24. For example. W.69 The results demonstrate that people are willing to pay a lot to avoid the low probability of an “affect-rich outcome. “Presumed Imminence: Judicial Risk Assessment in the Post-9/11 World” way to communicate threats while facilitating effective responses in the public. even one in which trustworthy sources elaborate on the minimal risk. increases perceptions of the risk’s probability . and the Director at the Institute for Global Security Law and Policy. numerous Americans stopped flying and a good proportion of those people chose to drive instead. the willingness to pay to avoid the $20 penalty ranged from $1 to avoid the 1% chance to $18 to avoid the 99% chance.AT: Predictions Bad Evaluate high magnitude predictions first .cgi? article=1561&context=faculty_publications)//HH Consider the following study’s findings: “[W]hen people are asked how much they will pay for flight insurance for losses resulting from ‘terrorism. a far less risky endeavor than driving.” powerfully impact human behavior.66 participating in an experiment in which there was a chance they would be subjected to a painful electric shock or to a $20 penalty. people perceived the high outrage threat as a higher risk and expressed a greater intention to limit that threat. respondents believed there was a 34.59 Consider that in the three months after the 9/11 insurance from all causes. even when the risks of a high outrage occurrence such as nuclear waste radiation. and a low outrage event. The increase in road traffic led to 353 more fatalities nationwide “in the last [three] months of 2001” when compared to the last quarter of the preceding five years. crediting the accounts that describe more dangers as more informative.”56 attacks occurred..68 In contrast. even with the specter of terrorism. high-consequence events. or 100% risk of shock.33% after the attacks. a psychological study further determined that just the discussion of a low-probability risk.” “worst-case scenarios.” or “low-probability. but the perception of such a risk increased to 64.Assistant Professor of Law at the Case Western Reserve University School of Law. like radon exposure. leading people to fear increased risks from sources well beyond terrorism.62% chance of dying by a tornado before 9/11.57 Moreover. (Avidan Yet.70 Similarly. there may even be reason to believe that the fear engendered by the 9/11 attacks has contagion effects.62 Also at work here may be When differing accounts of risk are presented.’ they will pay more than if they are asked how much they will pay for flight The specter of terrorism and the emotional wallop it entails leads people to make significant judgments in error regarding the likelihood of certain harms. Cover ’14 .67 Faced with a 1%. Kip Viscusi characterizes this outcome as one of “‘irrational asymmetry: respondents overweigh [] the value of a high risk judgement.64% to 41. http://scholarlycommons.

and confirmatory bias on the other . This is the antithesis of the strategic environment is inherently unpredictable. the greater the impact of preconceptions. and scepticism of analysis is necessary. is that the appreciation for uncertainty subverts exactly the value that it professes to serve: flexibility. Moreover. but if they are not made explicit and subject to analysis and debate regarding their application to particular strategic contexts. latter rather than the former may be a reasonable measure of strategic rigidity. Accordingly. As political scientist Richard Betts found in a study of strategic surprise. this style of decision-making is self-reinforcing. both insidious and ironic. so the extent to which a strategy is based on the undue emphasis in planning on uncertainty creates an intellectual temptation to cognitive dissonance on the one hand. It is much All the same. It should follow. toward the status quo. International Institute for Strategic Studies. not long-term strategic planning. December 1. 2006.. Why is this important? What harm can an imbalance between complexity and cognitive or analytic capacity in strategic planning bring? Stated simply. a high degree of variability in planning factors can exact a significant price on planning. Facts on the ground change faster than belief systems.15 And even a robust decision-making process sensitive to cognitive limitations necessarily sacrifices depth of analysis for breadth as variability and complexity grows. Ambiguity is a fact of life.. flexibility. they remain only beliefs and premises. Even at their best. Without careful analysis of what is relatively likely and what is relatively unlikely. A strategist dismissive of explicit models of prediction or cause and effect is likely to have a much higher threshold of resistance to adjusting strategy in the face of changing circumstances . there is danger in the opposite extreme as well. what will be the possible bases for strategic choices? A decision-maker with no faith in prediction is left with little more than a set of worst-case scenarios and his existing beliefs about the world to confront the choices before him. “The Problem of Uncertainty in Strategic Planning”. Ebsco)//HH If not sufficiently bounded. Those beliefs may be more or less well founded. variability in strategic calculation should be carefully tailored to available analytic and decision processes. and attempting to subordinate those factors to some formulaic. clarity. At their worst. abounds with conflicting data.’16 The decision-making environment that Betts describes here is one of political-military crisis. harder to be proven wrong if changing or emerging information is systematically discounted on the grounds that The result may be a bias toward momentum in the current direction. and allows no time for rigorous assessment of sources and validity. takes conflicting data for granted and substitutes a priori scepticism about the validity of prediction for time pressure as a rationale for discounting the importance of analytic rigour. then. Fitzsimmons ’06 . In this way. the intuition and judgement of decision-makers will always be vital to strategy.Even if predictions aren’t perfect. rather than rational judgements. . the personal beliefs of decision-makers fill the void. The greater the ambiguity. the alternative is political ignorance . (Michael. where analysis is silent or inadequate. It is important not to exaggerate the extent to which data and ‘rigorous assessment’ can illuminate strategic choices. that in planning under conditions of risk. some of the pathologies of crisis decision-making. deterministic decision-making model would be both undesirable and unrealistic. But a strategist who sees uncertainty as the central fact of his environment brings upon himself ambiguity allows intuition or wishfulness to drive interpretation .Defense analyst. in ‘an environment that lacks But handling even this weaker form of uncertainty is still quite challenging. He invites ambiguity. such decisions may be poorly understood by the decision-makers themselves. such decisions are likely to be poorly understood by the organisations charged with their implementation . The complexity presented by great variability strains the cognitive abilities of even the most sophisticated decisionmakers. And the effect.leads to worse political decision-making.

irregular conflict. teaches Irregular Warfare and US National Security at NDU and Georgetown. ways. et al. And as these limits become increasingly evident subsequent to the present period of euphoria over the theory’s potential utility.” in ltzer_Gorka. or so we are told. National Defense University) In this emergent epoch of multiple contradictions that I have labeled "fragmegration" in order to summarily capture the tensions between the fragmenting and integrating forces that sustain world affairs. The links here are profoundly causal: the more uncertainty has spread since the end of the Cold War.” Parameters. “The Complexity Trap. the more are analysts inclined to seek panaceas for instability and thus the more have they latched onto recent strides in complexity theory in the hope that it will yield solutions to the intractable problems that beset us. thus rendering the causal dynamics ever more relevant to the course of events. the search for panaceas.AT complexity theory Their concept of predictions is nonsensical in the political sphere Rosenau 97 – (James. President Obama’s words above echo an increasingly common narrative in the American foreign policy and national security establishments: the forces of globalization.pdf We live in a world of unprecedented complexity.2 a little noticed—and yet potentially significant—discrepancy prevails between our intellectual progress toward grasping the underlying complexity of human systems and our emotional expectation that advances in complexity theory may somehow point the way to policies which can ameliorate the uncertainties inherent in a fragmegrative world. Sebastian L. 2 . David S. In short. a reaction against it may well set in and encourage a reversion back to simplistic.. and that can serve as a brake on undue enthusiasm for particular courses of action. No less important. and the strides in complexity theory—are huge. either/or modes of thought. interactive. that can alert observers to otherwise unrecognized problems. But these benefits can be exaggerated and thus disillusioning . For despite the strides. and still intensifying. The complexity thesis is wrong---makes policymaking impossible and destroys hegemony Gorka et al 12 (Dr. Director of the Homeland Defense Fellows Program at the College of International Security Affairs. and National Security. 3 then have made crafting sound national security strategy more elusive than ever before. Global Politics. there are severe limits to the extent to which such theory can generate concrete policies that lessen the uncertainties of a fragmegrated world. all the circumstances are in place for an eventual disillusionment with complexity theory. and means .army. rising nonstate actors. Complexity theory does have insights to offer. and proliferating destructive technologies If “strategy is the art of creating power” by specifying the relationship among ends. http://www.. Hence the central purpose of this paper is to offer a layman’s appraisal of both the potentials and the limits of complexity theory—to differentiate what range of issues and processes in world affairs it can be reasonably expected to clarify from those that are likely to remain obscure. Spring 2012.carlisle. all these links—the uncertainty. professor emeritus of international affairs – George Washington University. Alberts and Thomas J. Such a development would be regrettable. eds. “Many Damn Things Simultaneously: Complexity Theory and World Affairs. Czerwinski. It provides a cast of mind that can clarify. National Defense University. V.

” 4 And as former State Department Director of Policy Planning Anne-Marie Slaughter recently stated. We then underscore that this idea is dangerous. et al. given the consequences of an addiction to complexity. inasmuch as choosing any particular course of action would preclude infinitely adaptive responses in the future . Finally. The latest Quadrennial Defense Review nature. there is a “universal awareness that we are living through a time of rapid and universal change. is all the We challenge these declarations and assumptions—not simply because they are empirically unfounded but.” Next.” 9 Disturbingly. climate change. Not since the fall of the Soviet Union or the end of World War II has the international terrain been affected by such farreaching and consequential shifts. the National Intelligence Council’s Global Trends 2025 argues that the international system is trending towards greater degrees of complexity as power is diffused and actors multiply. it appears. in contrast to the “closed system” of the twentieth century that could be controlled by mankind.carlisle. and complexity of change are increasing. teaches Irregular Warfare and US National Security at NDU and Georgetown.” one in which the assumptions of the twentieth century make little sense. “The Complexity Trap. scope. it characteristic of today’s global landscape: . http://www.” V.the existence of unprecedented complexity would seem to make this art not only uniquely difficult today but also downright dangerous. it seems. Director of the Homeland Defense Fellows Program at the College of International Security Affairs. ¶ begin by showing the rather unsavory consequences of the current trend toward worshipping at complexity’s altar we question whether the world was ever quite as simple as today’s avowers of complexity suggest. we now live in an “open system” defined by its supremely complex and protean Unparalleled complexity. offer an escape from the complexity trap. Each of these threats and potential threats— al Qaeda. 6 begins its analysis with a description of the “complex and uncertain security landscape in which the pace of change continues to accelerate. Y” article that occasioned her comments argued that. Sebastian ltzer_Gorka. distinctive international security environment. The orientation for the multi-thousand-member group of Young Professionals in Foreign Policy calls “conquering complexity” the fundamental challenge for the millennial generation.” one “in which the pace. and so on—can conjure up a worstcase scenario that is immensely intimidating. National Defense University. we hope to underscore that Complexity minimizes commitment to legitimate problems –establishing priorities key Dr. Gorka et al 12.” 7 In a similar vein. the younger generation of foreign policy and national security professionals seems to accept and embrace these statements declaiming a fundamental change in our world and our capacity to cope with it. Complexity. thus revealing the notion of today’s unprecedented complexity to be descriptively false . because they negate the very art of strategy and make the realization of the American national interest impossible .pdf These competing views of America’s national security concerns indicate an important and distinctive prioritization is simultaneously very difficult and very important for the United States. Throughout. we and thus becoming a member of the “Cult of Complexity. the pre-9/11 challenges to American national security were “amateur night compared to the world today. global disease. is the hallmark of our strategic age . 8 The Director of National Intelligence’s Vision 2015 terms our time the “Era of Uncertainty. China. 5 The “Mr. with an emphasis on the need for prioritization in today’s admittedly today’s obsession with complexity results in a dangerous denial of the need to strategize . nuclear proliferation. As Secretary of Defense Robert Gates memorably described..¶ These invocations of complexity permeate today’s American national security documents and inform Washington’s post-Cold War and -9/11 strategic culture. We rage. Spring 2012. Given the difficulty of combining estimates of probabilities with the levels of risk associated with these threats. far more importantly.

31 As Michael Doran recently argued in reference to the Arab Spring. That this exposition has not been forthcoming. butterfly effects. and scope of complexity science. complexity induces deciding not to decide.”32¶ Complexity theory is terrible pseudoscience Phelan 1 (Steven E. the inability to differentiate science clearly from pseudoscience in complexity studies is also problematic. On another level. but prioritization demands wise allotment of resources and attention in a way that commits American power and effort most effectively and efficiently. It is my contention that much of the work in complexity theory has indeed been challenging to establish priorities. one could be forgiven for thinking that . William G. 30 In fact. 120–36 Copyright © 2001. these hallmarks of complexity theory remind strategists of the importance of revisiting key assumptions in light of new data and allowing for tactical flexibility in case of unintended consequences. they are the stock-in-trade of the strategist and planner. but not impossible. Australia. Such choices and trade-offs are difficult. or is the subject of controversy.D. 3(1). “What Is Complexity Science. in psychology from the University of Melbourne .) The need for a special issue of Emergence on the question “ What is complexity science?” is disturbing the voluminous literature generated in recent years on chaos and complexity theory must contain a clear exposition of the definition. Director of the Center for Innovation & Entrepreneurship. We can prioritize without being procrustean. self-organizing systems that exhibit patterns in the absence of centralized authority. Phrased differently. Some priorities need to be set if the United States is to find the resources to confront what threatens it most. Inc. Sound strategy requires hard choices and commitments. that is. many writers in this field have used the symbols and methods of complexity science (either erroneously or deliberately) to give the illusion of science even though they lack supporting on several levels. in marketing from Monash University. or emergent properties. and a B. Today’s world of diverse threats characterized by uncertain probabilities and unclear risks will overwhelm us if the specter of complexity seduces us into either paralysis or paranoia. “the United States must train itself to see a large dune as This is not to deny the possibility of nonlinear phenomena.. At one level. is disconcerting.A. but it need not be inflexible. mission.B. Allowing pseudoscience to penetrate a field of study lowers the credibility of that field with mainstream scientists and hinders the flow of resources for future development. Really?” EMERGENCE. If the United States is going to respond proactively and effectively to today’s international environment. prioritization encourages deciding which decisions matter most. an M. 33 If anything. Complexity suggests a maximization of flexibility and minimization of commitment. prioritization is the key first step—and precisely the opposite reaction to the complacency and undifferentiated fear that the notion of unprecedented complexity encourages. But a model in which everything is potentially relevant is a model in which nothing is. in economics from La Trobe University.S. Rohrer Professorial Chair in Entrepreneurship. Ph. something more formidable than just endless grains of sand. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

in turn. In this essay I will argue that we can still understand the emergence of novel forms of causality without attributing it to the introduction of unprecedented physical laws. In non-technical discussions the phrase 'the whole is more than the sum of the parts' is often quoted to convey this sense of novelty generated via ascent in scale.complexity needs to be meaningfully capable of describing an empirical example of emergence otherwise it is a buzzword. Professor of Anthropology and Human Evolutionary Biology at University of California Berkeley. I offer a test for distinguishing between science and pseudo-science in complexity studies and it is important vigorously to reject pseudo-scientific theories. Some of the more elaborate examples of these phenomena have been the topics of so-called chaos and complexity theories. Deacon. This conception of emergence is often described as 'strong emergence' because it implies a dissociation from the physics relevant to the parts and their relationships. This phrase originates with Aristotle and captures two aspects of the emergence concept: the distinction between a merely quantitative difference and a qualitative one.the standard of complexity science should be prescriptive. obscured the meaning and agenda of the science of complexity . It is contrasted with 'weak emergence' that does not entail introduction of any new physical principles. In the second section. This proliferation of pseudo-science has. In the first section. and effects involving the combination of elements whose patterns of interaction contribute to global properties that are not evident in the There is something a bit misleading about this way of phrasing the relationship that harkens back to a something-from-nothing conception. leading to a definition of complexity science. Exactly what 'more' is being appealed to. I will argue that only to the extent that an unbroken chain of causal principles links such higher-order phenomena as consciousness to In the last decades of the twentieth century the concept of emergence has taken on a merely descriptive function in many fields. I examine the relationship between complexity and science. and thus as emergence only with respect to human observers and their limited analytic tools. if not the parts and their relationships. biology. This more general conception of emergence has . increasing use of computational simulations to study complex systems. Indeed. and simulations of nonequilibrium thermodynamic processes.” 2006 Over the past few decades.he is the foremost expert on different orders of emergence in thermodynamic. This shift from a largely philosophical to this more descriptive usage of the term emergence has been strongly influenced by the more basic physical processes will we have an adequate theory of emergence. and neurological systems. provide several examples of the latter. It is applied to any case of the spontaneous production of complex dynamical patterns from uncorrelated interactions of component parts. I also describe why for scientists working in the area There is zero empirical basis for extending complexity to social systemsthey have their epistemology backwards. The latter is often seen merely as a redescriptive variant of standard reductionistic causality. The purpose of this article is twofold: to provide a working definition of complexity science. and have become commonplace in computational models of dynamical systems.evidence and plausibility (Shermer. is seldom made explicit.this is the d-rule for adjudicating complexity in physics and biology Terrence W. This is a play in three acts. expectation that new classes of physical laws come into existence with increases in scale and the interaction effects that result. and to use this definition to differentiate complexity science from complexity pseudo-science. This additive conception has often led to the components themselves. “Emergence: The Hole at the Wheel’s Hub. In the final section. 1997). cellular automata. I will undertake an examination of science and the factors differentiating science from nonscience. this compositional usage has become more and more prominent as scientists in different fields have encountered similar transitional patterns in systems as diverse as liquid convection patterns and the appearance of unprecedented social dynamics.

Evolutionary and mental processes are also treated as producing emergent effects. The exemplars of emergent phenomena that serve as guides for this analysis occupy a middle position in the taxonomy of different emergent dynamics that I describe below. merely mechanistic phenomena. how variant forms of these processes are related to one another. Executive Director Institute of Global Dynamics Systems Canberra.been adopted by many other fields where complex interaction effects may be relevant. Nevertheless. The term will only be applied to well-understood more complex living phenomena and downward to simpler. They serve as a useful starting point because they allow us to extrapolate both upward to I decry using emergence as an anti-reductionistic code word in holistic criticisms of standard explanations. provided by identifying the emergent architectural features of known physical processes? Complexity can’t explain human interactions—it doesn’t account for cooperation Snooks 07 (Graeme D. suggests that more subtle distinction between kinds of emergence may be necessary (see below). They represent a well-understood set of physical and computational systems that all share a formamplifying. the concept of emergence is a place holder.. Australia. since 2010 “SELFORGANISATION OR SELFCREATION? FROM SOCIAL PHYSICS TO REALIST . though the complexity of evolution. indicating points where standard reductionistic accounts seem to be incomplete in explaining apparent discontinuities. we can gain critical perspective on the apparent discontinuities between simple mechanistic and teleological models of causality. form-propagating. empirical processes. emergence serves only as a philosophically motivated promissory note for a missing explanation that. and yet I will argue that it does indeed mark the transition to unprecedented and indecomposable causal architectures. In this use. what more besides a taxonomic exercise is By providing an explicit account of how apparent reversals of causal logic come about. I think that with care a technical usage tied to a well-characterized class of empirical exemplars can be articulated for which a clear theory of emergent processes can be formulated. These phenomena are often called self-organizing. the purpose of the present essay is to outline a technical sense of emergence that explicitly describes a specifc class of causal topologies (i. then. 1989-2010. critics argue. This approach avoids engaging the pointless semantic debates about the completeness of reductionism or dealing with metaphysical questions about the ontological status of emergence. Foundation Timothy Coghlan Research Professor Institute of Advanced Studies Australian National University. form-replicating feature. It may be wondered. In this negative usage. is needed to flll in a gap. self-constituting causal structures) and then attempts to show how this may help to explain many of the attributes that have motivated the emergence concept. This feature is exhibited irrespective of whether they are physical or computational phenomena. not to mention cognition compared with dynamical systems. Because of this terminological promiscuity there is likely to be no common underlying causal principle that ties all these uses togethe r.e. and what aspects of their dynamic organization are most critical to the development of these attributes. because their regularities are not externally imposed but generated by iterative interaction processes occurring in the media that comprise them. such as in the social sciences. In contrast.

One problem with this line of argument is that the results of organised games are not encouraging. Cooperation is seen as a way of avoiding the descent into chaos. unnecessarily. The often-expressed hope of social physicists is that ‘cooperation can evolve’. in hope rather than conviction.DYNAMICS” Social Evolution and History. it is suggested that game theory – another supply-side approach – might provide the answer all concerned social physicists are looking for. that the checks and balances required to prevent the order of human society from descending into chaos are not sufficiently robust (Nazaretyan 2005a-c. These scholars are concerned. This algorithm is a mathematical formulation showing that the process of biological/technological transformation over the past 4. He found that there is no ‘best’ way to play these games. As my demand-side dynamic-strategy theory shows. because strategic agents are past masters at managing feedback. as it all depends on who the participants are and what tactics (‘strategies’ . and will continue to occur. This would be a happy outcome indeed. with the result that the exponential growth of life and human society has occurred over the past 4. because game theory was the joint product of the statistical physicist John Von Neumann and the economist Oskar Morgenstern. we have no reason to despair’ (Ball 2004: 563). not an increasing. It is believed that through repeated interactions.000 myrs has occurred exponentially (Snooks 1996: 79–82. And cooperation is problematical for social physicists because complexity theory cannot explain it persuasively. at a constant. convinced of the importance of self-organisation theory. 2005c). robust checks and balances do in fact exist.sociostudies. Cooperation is vital because the idea of order on the edge of chaos – self-organised criticality – is a frightening one for physicists who have little understanding of the self-sustaining nature of human society.1. Panov 2005). Robert Axelrod (1984) organised a series of internet tournaments to discover how interactive games could be most effectively played. Their unwarranted concern is primarily the result of the limitations of a supply-side complexity theory. are concerned about the implications of the Snooks-Panov algorithm. 6. Snooks 2005a: 229–231. which resulted in the celebrated Theory of Games and Economic Behavior in 1944.compound rate of growth (Snooks 2005b. players in the game of life will learn from past errors and develop ‘mutual trust’. It is for the above reasons that some physical and social scientists. In the late 1970s. 402–405. Indeed. How do social physicists attempt to resolve this dilemma – of cooperation or chaos – which is of their own making. 92–95.000 myrs. Panov 2005). Self-organisation theory is all about physical interaction – or primitive competition – not about working together on a joint life pursuit. Human society is not about to launch itself into the chasm of chaos. The role of governments in compelling cooperation and punishing transgressors is usually considered but finally rejected by all except those with authoritarian Cooperation is a vital but problematical concept in social physics. even in a world that lacks altruism. March. One commentator writes: ‘If we know that cooperation is possible. no supply-side theory – whether it beneo-Darwinist or game theoretic – can deal successfully with cooperation as it appears in the real world (Snooks 2003). So. online: http://www.

the rules of engagement are set by strategic demand in any life system. Social physics is. they were always ultimately vulnerable to rogue defectors. It is. of course. And. Second. It suggests that life resembles a supply-side computer world in which the rules of interaction are determined and arbitrarily changed by an all-powerful being from outside the system. trust is invested by individuals in the successful strategic pursuit – reflected in an increasing material prosperity – and not in each other. under conditions of extreme crisis. This brings us to the third and most fundamental problem. the demand side that provides the ‘directionality’ lacking in self-organisation theory. This is the process of strategic exchange. like one hand clapping. is the outcome of a successfully unfolding dominant dynamic strategy. Competition. which changes as the dominant dynamic strategy this context is a misnomer) they are convinced in advance will win – which merely demonstrates that the physical interaction model makes little sense. Cooperation is the outcome. the implications of this approach for our understanding of reality are metaphysical. The anxiety expressed by social physicists about sustaining order on the edge of chaos is the outcome of a fundamentally flawed theory – a science fiction. And in this process. In reality. They are merely the result of arbitrary rules that can be changed to obtain the outcomes one desires. only ‘social stratology’ – a new study of the dynamics of the strategic pursuit. or interaction. The only solution to this problem is a robust general dynamic theory that is capable of generating all the necessary rules of engagement endogenously. When the success of the strategic pursuit wanes. as it focuses solely on the supply-side interaction between agents. as we have seen. this brings us back to the very reason that game theory was resorted to by social physicists in the first place! It is also clear from any realist stance that game theory is not well founded. There can be no social physics. calls forth a joint response from all active agents in any society. both trust and cooperation decline and. Even a small band of defectors could totally destroy a cooperative culture. First. as in ACE ‘artificial’ societies. evaporate completely. of ‘strategic exchange’. . Social physicists have failed to recognise the existence. Order. as I have mentioned before. which is hardly a solution for liberal democracies. What did emerge clearly from these games is that even when convinced cooperators made initial gains. requires ‘God’ to make it work – to generate order and prevent chaos. Strategic demand. which is the central feature of a demand-dominated general dynamic theory. between agents is a phenomenon that is secondary to ‘strategic cooperation’. it fails to appreciate the existence of a dominant demand side that shapes the social order as well as the rules of engagement. let alone the role. Game theory. games like ‘prisoners’ dilemma’ and ‘tit-for-tat’ (in its various forms) are highly artificial and unrealistic. In doing so. therefore. Some have concluded that only a strong and harsh central government could prevent this.

Body Scanners Defense .

throughput and convenience. Ait84 is "Dual Mode" and acquires 5 views of the passenger. turbans. by acquiring dual mode 5 view- AIT84 is able to screen the feet. Other scanners are unable to screen these items and passengers are subjected to additional hand searches and delays.. The agency had developed protocols to assure that Congress voted to require all body scanners to have privacy-protecting software. hijab.S. it's all over now as system that uses radio waves and produces less detailed body imaging. airports.17 General Use" standard that is recognized by the TSA. a TSA screeners who saw imagery of passengers never saw the passengers themselves. the agency said. Smith in 1992 (Secure 1000). Many single pose portals are now installed at US airports . no date ("Body Scanner Continued" http://www.far surpassing the capabilities of other body scanners. all dual these systems is now 20 years old. The millimeter wave machines raise fewer from the privacy perspective. ¶ Ait84 acquires these Dual Mode images within the passenger dose limits prescribed by the "ANSI N43. this allows single pose (front and back) scanning which is more convenient in high throughput applications. and the TSA announced in February it was phasing out backscatter systems because they could not meet the new standard. thereby improving detection of the hardest to find threats that can be hidden in private/groin areas or on the sides of the body. But spokesman said. Furthermore. and some casts and prosthetics .cnn. Vendors have recently introduced twosided systems by placing two of the base units face-to-face. "I think Rotenberg of the Electronic Privacy Information Center. Travelers will still go through other full-body scans that rely on a radiation from the X-rays underpinning those scans.html) Current backscatter X-ray body scanners are based upon the technology invented by Dr. http://www. Ait84 is a next generation body scanner. New scanners solve Tek84.tek84. In this way. Persons would stand in front of the refrigerator-sized machine and be scanned at least twice (front and back poses) and perhaps as many as four times (additional left and right side poses) to attain full coverage over the body. The TSA maintained that the backscatter machines.the fundamental design of Ait84 is a two-sided (single pose) system designed from scratch." Airport passenger screening that produced particularly realistic full-body images using backscatter technology.Squo Solves Status quo solves—full-body scanners being removed now. Ahlers 13—(Mike M. “TSA removes body scanners criticized as too revealing. manufactured by Rapiscan Systems. . Others also expressed health concerns about low doses of the Transportation Security Administration says it has met a June 1 deadline to remove all 250 backscatter machines from U. 5/30. utilizing state-of-the-art technology to overcome three problems of current technology:¶ First." said Marc privacy and virtually no health The harshest critics labeled them "virtual strip searches. The last backscatter machines were removed about two weeks ago.thereby improving images. burqa. All 250 units were removed at Rapiscan's expense. AIT84 provides fair and equal screening for all persons . ¶ Second. These systems were designed as single sided units .com/bodyscanner-more. were safe and effective. mode images are acquired within the same scan time required by current technologies. Well.” CNN. that (the elimination of backscatter machines) has to be considered a victory .

Alt to Scanners is Worse
Full-body scanners don’t invade privacy rights and the
alternative is worse.
Cendrowicz 10—the Brussels correspondent for TIME magazine (Leo, “Can
Airport Body Scanners Stop Terrorist Attacks?,” TIME,
Even following the attempted attack on the Northwest flight, critics remain
resolutely opposed to the machines. "A knee-jerk reaction which sees body scanners, with their
known drawbacks of passenger delays and privacy threats, as a magic solution is a bad move," says Sarah
Ludford, a British member of the European Parliament. "In the Christmas Day case, as in the 9/11 and 7/7

Advocates of civil
liberties agree. Simon Davies, director of the London-based human-rights watchdog Privacy International,
[London] bombings, the failure was not to join the dots of available information."

describes the scanners as a "fashionable and unproven technology" and an "assault on the essential dignity of

Phipson, president of
Britain-based Smiths Detection, the world's largest maker of full-body scanners , insists that the
machines only produce images that show the outlines of the human body,
not anatomical parts. "The privacy concerns are valid," he says. "But our software can blur out
parts of the body. And the scanners are far less intrusive than the traditional
pat down of the body." At the U.S. airports where scanners have been installed, security officers
must look at the images in isolated rooms and are not allowed to have any piece of
equipment, such as a camera or mobile phone, that could be used to capture or
copy the images.
passengers that citizens in a free nation should not have to tolerate."



Even if body scanners aren’t perfect, they’re the best option we have.
Mowery et al. 14—sixth-year graduate student at UC San Diego Department of
Computer Science and Engineering (Keaton, “Security Analysis of a Full-Body
Scanner,” Proceedings of the 23rd USENIX Security Symposium, August 2014, pg.
Despite the flaws we identified, we are not able to categorically reject TSA’s
claim that AITs represent the best available tradeoff for airport passenger
screening. Hardened cockpit doors may mitigate the hijacking threat from firearms and knives; what is
clearly needed, with or without AITs, is a robust means for detecting explosives. The millimeter-wave
scanners currently deployed to airports will likely behave differently from the
backscatter scanner we studied. We recommend that those scanners, as well as any future AITs—
whether of the millimeter-wave or backscatter [34] variety— be subjected to independent, adversarial testing, and
that this testing specifically consider software security

TSA Accountable
TSA regulations check
TSA, no date (
TSA recognizes the concerns members of the transgender community may have
with undergoing the security screening process at our Nation’s airports and is committed
to conducting screening in a dignified and respectful manner . These travel tips will explain
the various screening processes and technologies travelers may encounter at security checkpoints. ¶ Preparing for
Travel¶ Making Reservations: Secure Flight requires airlines to collect a traveler’s full name, date of birth, gender
and Redress Number (if applicable) to significantly decrease the likelihood of watch list misidentification.
Travelers are encouraged to use the same name, gender, and birth date when making the reservation that match
the name, gender, and birth date indicated on the government-issued ID that the traveler intends to use during

If a traveler has
any medical equipment or prosthetics in a carry-on bag, the items will be allowed
through the checkpoint after completing the screening process . Travelers may ask
that bags be screened in private if a bag must be opened by an officer to resolve an alarm. Travelers
travel.¶ Packing a Carry-on: All carry-on baggage must go through the screening process.

should be aware that prosthetics worn under the clothing that alarm a walk through metal detector or appear as
an anomaly during Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT) screening may result in additional screening, to include a

Travelers may request a private screening at any time during the
security screening process.¶ Contacting TSA in Advance of Travel: Travelers may contact TSA prior to a
thorough pat-down.

flight through the TSA Contact Center at 1-866-289-9673 and ¶ The Screening

Screening can be conducted in a private screening area with a
witness or companion of the traveler’s choosing. A traveler may request private screening or to
Process¶ Private Screening:

speak with a supervisor at any time during the screening process. ¶ Travel Document Checker: The traveler will
show their government-issued identification and boarding pass to an officer to ensure the identification and
boarding pass are authentic and match. Transgender travelers are encouraged to book their reservations such
that they match the gender and name data indicated on the government-issued ID. ¶ Walk Through Metal Detector:

Screening with advanced
imaging technology is voluntary and travelers may “opt out” at any time . Travelers who
Metal detectors are in use at all airports. ¶ Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT):

“opt out” of the AIT screening are required to undergo a thorough pat-down by an officer of the same gender as

TSA has upgraded all millimeter
wave advanced imaging technology units with new software called Automated Target
Recognition to further enhance privacy protections by eliminating the image of an
actual traveler and replacing it with a generic outline of a person.¶ Pat-Down: A pat-down may be performed
the traveler presents.¶ New Advanced Imaging Technology Software:

if there is an alarm of the metal detector, if an anomaly is detected using advanced imaging technology, if an

If a pat-down
is chosen or otherwise necessary, private screening may be requested. Pat-downs
are conducted by an officer of the same gender as presented by the individual at
the checkpoint.¶ Prosthetics: A TSA Officer may ask you to lift/raise your clothing to screen a prosthetic (only
if doing so would not reveal a sensitive area). Sensitive areas should not be exposed during the
screening process.¶ Behavior Detection Program: Behavior Detection Officers screen travelers using nonofficer determines that the traveler is wearing non-form fitting clothing, or on a random basis.

intrusive behavior observation and analysis techniques to identify potentially high-risk passengers. Officers are
designated to detect individuals exhibiting behaviors that indicate they may be a threat to aviation and/or
transportation security. Individuals exhibiting specific observable behaviors may be referred for additional

TSA recognizes
that exhibiting some of these behaviors does not automatically mean a person has
terrorist or criminal intent. Referrals for additional screening are solely based on
specific observed behaviors.¶ Reporting Travel Issues or Concerns¶ Travelers who believe
they have experienced unprofessional conduct at a security checkpoint are
encouraged to request a supervisor at the checkpoint to discuss the matter
immediately or to submit a concern to TSA’s Contact Center at: TSAscreening, which can include a pat-down and physical inspection of carry-on baggage. ¶

Travelers who believe they have experienced discriminatory
conduct because of a protected basis may file a concern with TSA’s Office of Civil Rights &
Liberties, Ombudsman and Traveler Engagement at: Civil Rights for Travelers.¶ Travelers
may also file discrimination concerns with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties at: Civil Rights and Civil Liberties.¶

TSA Cares solves
MDA, no date ("TSA Cares to Aid Travelers with Disabilities"
People with disabilities, and especially those who use wheelchairs or other assistive equipment, have at
times experienced overly intrusive and embarrassing TSA searches ; been forbidden to
board planes with some types of respiratory equipment; and in some instances not
been allowed to fly at all.¶ TSA Cares is a new toll-free telephone help line that the
agency says should alleviate those problems.¶ Travelers who hope to expedite their passage
through the security webs at most airports are advised to call (855) 787-2227 at least 72 hours before
their flight. The TSA Cares system operates Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Eastern time, except on
federal holidays. Callers can ask questions about screening policies and procedures,
and what they can expect at security checkpoints.¶ One thing that hasn’t changed is the
requirement that everyone still must be screened before entering airports’ secure areas. The fashion in
which the screening is conducted will depend on passengers’ physical abilities and
any assistive devices they may bring with them. That’s where a call to TSA Cares
may help avoid miscommunication.¶ If problems still arise at the terminal, all travelers
are guaranteed the right to speak to a TSA supervisor simply by asking to do so. ¶
For those who have bumped heads with TSA screeners in the past, this new program may seem like it’s a decade

The agency explains that it consulted with a large number of disability rights
and medical condition advocacy organizations — 70 of them, including MDA — before
designing and putting into action the TSA Cares program. The agency meets with a
coalition of those groups quarterly to determine how well it’s doing at meeting
their expectations.

TSA self-reflexive
TSA, 2013 ("TSA Hosts 11th annual disability and multicultural coalition
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) hosted nearly 40 disability and
multicultural organizations at the 11th Annual TSA Coalition Conference held at

Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, Sept. 19, 2013. The TSA Disability and Multicultural Coalition

include leaders from organizations representing various disabilities, cultural and
religious communities.¶ The annual conference brings together coalition members and
TSA senior leaders to discuss advances in transportation security screening and achievable best
practices to improve the screening experience for coalition members and their
constituencies.¶ “TSA commends the coalition for its devoted advocacy work on behalf of so many travelers,” said
TSA Deputy Administrator John W. Halinski, who spoke at the conference to discuss TSA’s risk-based, intelligence-

conference reinforces TSA’s ongoing
commitment to the best and most efficient transportation security for all travelers,
driven approach to transportation security. “The

and disability etiquette and disability civil rights . National Center for Transgender Equality.¶ Passenger Support Specialists:¶ The Passenger Support Specialist (PSS) program is comprised of Transportation Security Officers and Supervisors who have received special training to provide assistance and resolve traveler-related screening concerns. Training for Passenger Support Specialists includes enhanced training from TSA and the disability and multicultural community on assisting individuals with special needs. more than 27.including the multicultural community and those with disabilities . ¶ More than 40 disability groups.”¶ This year’s conference focused on improving the security screening experience for travelers with disabilities and individuals from religious and cultural groups. National Council on Disability. Office of Civil Rights and Liberties. Many passengers were referred to TSA’s Disability Branch in Washington for additional support for their upcoming travel. Travelers requiring special accommodations or concerned about checkpoint screening may ask a checkpoint officer or supervisor for a Passenger Support Specialist who will provide on-the-spot assistance.” said Kimberly Walton. TSA Cares will serve as an additional. Muslim Public Affairs Council. communicating with passengers by listening and explaining.000 specially trained TSA employees are voluntarily committed to assisting passengers who require additional assistance during security checkpoint screening. National Council on Independent Living and Sikh American Legal Defense and Education Fund. Travelers may call TSA Cares toll free at 1-855-787-2227 prior to traveling with questions about screening policies. we have significantly expanded our unique Passenger Support Specialists program. National Association of the Deaf. ¶ # # #¶ TSA Cares:¶ TSA Cares is a help line to assist travelers with disabilities and medical conditions.000 passengers with disabilities and their families have called TSA Cares seeking information. dedicated resource specifically for passengers with disabilities.¶ Coalition members and event attendees provided feedback and ideas from their respective communities in order to engage in a dialogue about the security screening process. The groups represented included: American Diabetes Association. procedures and what to expect at the security checkpoint. Ombudsman and Traveler Engagement. TSA recommends that passengers call 72 hours ahead of travel to for information about what to expect during screening. multicultural groups and federal agencies attended the conference. the conference included an overview of TSA Pre✓™ and an opportunity to engage in an optional TSA Pre✓™ demonstration. including enhanced employee training and the continued progress of risk-based security initiatives. medical conditions or other circumstances or their loved ones who want to prepare for the screening process prior to flying . Since its launch in December 2011. Speakers from TSA shared the latest information regarding new TSA screening initiatives. Additionally. We are committed to the ongoing education of our workforce to accommodate the needs of travelers from the various disability and multicultural groups. Improving the quality of our training remains a top priority .”¶ “As TSA continues to evolve.¶ . “ More than 3. TSA assistant administrator.

2010 ("The Small Price to Pay for Our Safety". The TSA isn’t our enemy. Just a year later. However. When people move around. Rep. Anyone arrested. ¶ Just think. and movements are tracked by telephone companies and other intermediaries. Our enemy is Al Qaeda. ¶ How soon we forget.¶ In a recent New York Post editorial. Peter King pointed out that. their paths are registered on building access cards or subway fare cards or automobile toll devices. But Foucault helped made it attractive to liberal intellectuals. we can’t always rely on luck.+simon&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8] In urban areas. Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab boarded a plane with a powerful plastic explosive sewn into his underwear.S.. most people’s activity outdoors and in the common spaces of buildings is recorded most of the time. Brother government steps in to keep those who want to harm this country off our airplanes. http://liherald. 2492211. schools. this society looks like the Panopticon – a prison designed as a circular tower so that the inmates can be easily observed by a to install cameras to monitor children or protect against burglars. okay. The threat to our airport security didn’t end with Sept. Surveillance cameras are everywhere. and substance . and this is one instance when I can say that I don’t mind if Big More than 40 million people were expected to travel over the Thanksgiving weekend. U. His government agencies all engaged in repressive forms of surveillance analogous to the Panopticon. To him.29218? content_source=&category_id=34&search_filter=&event_mode=&event_ts_from= &list_type=most_commented&order_by=&order_sort=&content_class=&sub_type =&town_id=) Are we willing to sacrifice our safety to protect our personal freedoms ?¶ You know what I think? Keeping us safe in the “friendly” skies should be our top priority . and the United States. in the criminal justice system typically surrender a variety of personal information and often have to submit to ongoing monitoring. Stanford Public Law Working Paper No. friends. Professor of Law at Columbia University . and many who fear arrest. October 2014. The health system extracts and records detailed information about their psychic and bodily functions. unfortunately. water and energy consumption is monitored. “In Defense of the Panopticon. if Abdulmutallab had been forced to go through the body scanner or pat-down. paranoid political style has been associated traditionally with the right and the less educated. the media has once again slanted the debate and created a let’s make everybody naked on the body-scanners. 14-412. “If you listen to the debate you get the impression that one day the TSA said.” Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. Last Christmas Day. centrally located authority figure. Richard Reid pleaded guilty to terrorism for his attempt to blow up an airplane by detonating a shoe bomb. hospitals. We must ask ourselves. Michel Foucault adopted it as a metaphor for what he regarded as the insidiously pervasive forms of social control in contemporary society.are documented by time. All their credit card transactions – which for many people. place. internet searches.” Surveillance is inevitable and doesn’t cause violence Simon 14 [William H. In .Law School. Even within the home. https://www. Jeremy Bentham originated the Panopticon idea as a low-cost form of subjugation for convicted criminals. and some people choose To many people. And without any idea of the eight or nine years of what’s gone on before and what’s been tested. Luckily he was unable to detonate the explosive on the plane and was apprehended. he never would have been able to board that plane. Their telephone and e-mail means nearly all of their transactions -.Aff impacts exaggerated Security outweighs and they exaggerate Al D'Amato. 11. He wrote.

For No impact outside of vague buzzwords that can be mystically asserted in any context – assign it zero political value or predictive power Mwajeh 5 [Z Al-Mwajeh. Electronic surveillance is not precisely the same thing as Jacobean eyes-on-the-street. urban vibrancy. the experience of being observed by diverse strangers induces. nor can they be realized in praxis. So is Julie Cohen. the elaborate individualized calibration of tortures in 18th and 19th contribution was largely a matter of style. It makes people willing to go out into new situations and to experiment with new behaviors. giving the watcher greater power to influence or direct the subject of surveillance. there is the idea of guilt by association. the moral implications of his arguments. “CRITIQUE OF POSTMODERN ETHICS OF ALTERITY VERSUS EMBODIED (MUSLIM) OTHERS”. not anxiety or timidity. First. or anticipated gaze of others. They are aporiatic. but people differ in their rhetorical predispositions toward them. century penology is used to make us feel uncomfortable about the graduated responses to noncompliance in Orwell’s image of television cameras transmitting images from inside the home to the political police is used to induce anxiety about devices that monitor electricity usage so that the hot water tank will re-heat during off-peak hours.pdf?sequence=1] key postmodernism tenets of radical alterity. The individualist streak in American culture tends to exalt individual choice in a way that makes social influence suspect. Eyes-on-the-street implies a tacit social pact that people will intervene to protect each other’s safety but that they will refrain from judging their peers’ non-dangerous behavior. monitoring of every first move or false start will. incline choices toward the bland and the mainstream. August 2005. Foucault disdained individualism. When Neil Richards writes in the Harvard Law Review that surveillance “affects the power dynamic between the watcher and the watched. What people experience as voluntary choice is substantially conditioned by unconscious internalized dispositions to conform to norms. imagined. https://dspace. Thus. but it does offer the combination of potentially benign intervention and the absence of censorious judgment that Jacobs saw as conducive to autonomy. at the margin.iup. but he purported to disdain morality (“normativity”) and refused to acknowledge. and a key mechanism of such conformity is the actual.” We have come a far cry from Jane Jacobs’s idea of “eyes on the street” as the critical foundation of Jacobs. much less defend.” he is channeling Foucault.Foucault was the most moralistic of social theorists. Almost everyone who thinks about it recognizes that such pressures are potentially benign. but an empowering sense of security and stimulation . The resemblance between some feature of a strikingly cruel or crackpot regime of the past or in fiction (especially in 1984) and a more ambiguous contemporary one is emphasized in order to condemn the latter. incommensurability and undecidability cannot be easily thematized in writing. Indiana University of Pennsylvania The School of Graduate Studies and Research Department of English. when she writes in the Stanford Law Review: “Pervasive contemporary drug treatment The second trope of the paranoid style is the portrayal of virtually all tacit social pressure as insidious. He gave intellectual respectability to the three principal tropes of the paranoid style. but he introduced a conception of “power” that was so vague and sinister that it could be applied to make almost any social force seem creepy. I also think that . The only way to explicate their meanings and possibilities is through using modernist vocabulary they initially oppose and However.

Rather. usually a priori reducing its uniqueness or sublimity to the known. Acting ethically demands sharing power and taking risks. but also due to the fact that representation itself is a logocentric institution. or we know that acting ethically toward the other entails more than theorizing about what form the most ethical relation should take. a practice that exposes the practical limitation and limited accessibility of such cherished concepts (or nonconcepts). in Levinasian thought. Rather. mystic. or coextension with. Consequently. Such Other resembles Levinas’s (Biblical) conception such modernist reductive practices. it is an Other in the sense of eliding comprehension and representation.deconstruct. Defining or embodying the other violates its alterity and sublimity. too. We may embrace the other or theorize about embracing and preserving alterity as ethics per se. a situation that problematizes their political value and descriptive power in the realm of action. As a result. (sometimes Biblical) allusions and traditions. Limitations of important. discursive and political situations. and intersect with. The metaphor of the ‘embrace’ may in it turn conceal a whole repertoire of idealism. but in lived realities. any grand appeal such ethics may initially spark becomes questionable when juxtaposed to our existing realities and the factors that regulate self/other different modes of relations. the theoretical formulas may not function in the first place as the seems so good to be true or realizable. consciously or subconsciously. For . we may indulge alterity ethics in closed and limited contexts that favor our train of thought and take that for a sufficient action.g. For example. quantifiable and predictable. To curb alterity escapes all modernist categories as it is an Other not in a relational or quantifiable way. It represents the other or the object from the perspective of the Same. at least if taken literally. thematizing these aporiatic concepts. there is a general tendency to posit self and others in terms of difference and opposition. to argue for prioritizing alterity as a new ethical turn is not the same as to motivate and effect such prioritization. motivations and values. All representational endeavors reduce. The terms other and self do not only designate metaphysical figures or linguistic relations.7 Moreover. Hence. the abstract and idealized postmodern concepts verge on. what they supposedly represent not only due to imperfect linguistic mediums. pre-ontologically.’ not in Dr. More problematically. when in fact these are relative and operational terms. I think that the demands that ‘alterity’ as a generalized abstract term exert differ from those raised by placed and temporalized others. Blaming Western Metaphysics. or ontology. Actually. or fail to capture. Worse. philanthropy. I attempt to dislodge postmodern ethics from its speculative and elitist tendencies through turning to self-other ethical relations in various literary. the Study and Methods In this study. In such cases. alterity is embraceable. there is an urgent need to know how well Levinas’s concept of ‘absolute alterity’ or Derrida’s concept of ‘undecidability’ fares in political situations. Levinas’s alterity cannot be substantiated. one lapses into cryptic and even incantational figurative language. I focus on bridging the gaps between theory and practice in order to expose the rifts and blind spots in postmodern ethics of alterity. More the ethics of alterity usually soars above urgent concrete issues that involve politically and economically charged self-other transactions. Levinas’s other is ‘disembodied. realizing/effecting such a formula is a different story. knowing the other is incompatible with preserving its alterity. Laing’s sense (e. they also describe ontological realities. for the imbalanced self-other relations somehow brackets subject’s role and agency in the self-other various equations. looks more like an aesthetic ideal/condition that cannot be achieved as we always meet the other in context with our conceptions. their translation into. we are either. 6 Statement of the Problem. Levinas’s of God as absolute Alterity where our epistemological categories or mind cannot contain or represent Him. For example. but we may still live according to dialectical ‘alterity-blind’ institutions and practices. In other words. others fall on a spectrum of difference (sometimes opposition) from self according to various criteria. acknowledging and maintaining theory/practice divisions. and logocentrism/humanism. Sometimes. Theoretically speaking. The Divided Self). While I agree that Levinas’s “infinite obligation to the other” sounds uplifting. sometimes Levinasian ethics the demand to meet the other on a neutral ground. lived realities become basically hypothetical. Polarizing self and other risks ossifying them into rigid negatively defining entities at the expense of their interdependence and mutual constitution.

This does not deny that there exists a ‘cause-effect’ relation between thought and lived realities. Alterity-centered postmodernism shows how modernist epistemology has failed to establish self-other relations as basically ethical by relegating the other to the status of a hierarchically inferior object or difference . such divisions may be divisions of convenience rather than of actuality as if the political and ethical belonged to different modes of living. It is his desire to remove self other relations from under modernist epistemological reductions and pragmatic/utilitarian arrangements that he wants to go back to a pure self-other encounter—before self-other dialectics. most of the writings about postmodernism—engage strenuous debates and often deploy elitist philosophical and theoretical elitist debates alienate larger audiences and may even thrive at the expense of addressing concrete self-other transactions .roots of ‘unethical’ self-other relations cannot be automatically corrected by theoretically replacing modernist self-centered by alterity-centered ethics. But practically. responsibility and obligations. economic and media systems. dominant epistemological. sexism. cherished postmodern key terms—such as undecidability. Levinas’s move. Hard lived realities demand resolutions and involve recalcitrant stakes . while racism. Furthermore. and other variables. To solely dwell on the linguistic/discursive as the origin of self/other imbalance is to overlook the complex and intricate relations among discourses and actions. the ethical turn toward alterity loses its halo when one considers the diminutive role played by human agency and intentionality. But the downside to such critique is the transformation of the modernist individual/self into postmodernist subject. Levinas’s dictum to pre-ontologically encounter alterity makes sense. Once one crosses the threshold of speculating about selfother relations into considering them in light of indispensable concrete constituencies of race. gender. I think that we do not need to submit to modernist disciplinary jargon. precede the ontological. economic and political systems . Nor are their relations reducible to cause-effect ones where Western Metaphysics’ privileging the subject and reducing the other/object is the causer. and nonjudgmentalism—become anomalous. To a certain degree. however. nationality. Leaping back into the pre-ontological stems from Levinas’s ontological or epistemological consciousness. all become paradoxical. however. has to be contextualized. power grid. Very often divisions of convenience nor do we need to separate the ethical from the political or from the ontological. He wants to encounter the other before reductive logic moves in. Yet such a move ends in an impasse. Emphasizing the negative side of constructivism—being constructed by external or upper systems— postmodernism glosses over the subjects’ other various roles in sustaining and continuing. In other words. modernist subjects are primarily products of metaphysically pre-ordained itineraries sidestepping other senses such as being a subject by initiating and performing actions by choice. If subject primarily means subjected to. The postmodernist subject may not be more than a node or a surface/cite constructed by linguistic. the ethics. but one cannot be reduced to the other in any straight predictable manner . I believe Ethics is intrinsic to action. there has to be some mutual trafficking between metaphysics and lived realities. To put it differently. a practice that limits their accessibility and descriptive value. . The irony is that one just cannot exit that ethics is not a formula or a prescription we choose to apply or we choose to leave behind. or actually does. and colonial exploitation are the effects. alterity. Furthermore. sometimes disrupting. he thinks that the ethical should. Thus. these debates are inflated and divorced from the stakes involved in political self-other lived transactions.

but we cannot change it. . Levinas’s ethical dictum exposes the working of unconscious ethnocentrism or conscious bias in our self-other relations.’ or a basic revelation about our human conditions: We are always in relation to—indebted to—the other. or for some it constitutes a ‘moral principle.the ontological and still use its structures and vocabularies . systems and existence. unless we always foreground alterity. Consequently. alterity ethics is both a meta-ethical argument. We may choose to elide such a realization. Still.

and that the influence of liberalism . 1] Adding to the dangerousness of this logic of control.building research is without value. it has been argued that the liberal peace-building project is an exercise in global bio-politics or governmentality. Volume 13. Senior Lecturer of IR at the University of Sussex.building discourse constitute a questionable foundation for the analysis of contemporary peacemaking. Vol. peace-building is represented any number of theoretical perspectives. Conflict. of the destruction wrought by World Bank-IMF policies and of the frequent complicity of peacebuilding projects in coercive processes of state-building. ‘reflecting the hegemony of liberal values that reigns in global politics’. It should be noted here that . York University. My contention is not that the above parameters are unnecessarily limiting. these shared emphases within liberal peace. Issue 1. pushed forward by a decentralised plurality of institutions irrespective of the particularity of war-endings and peace agreements. to be crucial determinants of these processes.37 From a post-colonial perspective. 3. is that while there is a crisis of undecidability in the domain of life. peace-building has been critiqued as part of a transnational neo-liberal project. We start by considering one agreements and their negotiation on the other. Ph. and the degree of global consensus over the liberal peace. Thus as a liberal project. in which global consensus is counterposed Yet for all this trans-theoretical consensus. are significantly overstated within liberal peacebuilding discourse.39 Right across this variegated theoretical terrain. "The myth of liberal peace-building". strategy and geopolitics continue . Rose believes that bio-politics has become corresponds to a similar crisis at the level of law and the national state. founded on liberal ideas. that states. provides much compelling evidence of the hubris of liberal internationalism.36 Invoking Foucault. and can generate significant interpretive errors . Sciences and Technology. liberal peace-building has been described as a colonial project. it despite the new forms of biopolitical control in operation today. dispossession and subjugation. nor the dominant element within contemporary peace processes. as ever. this is not to suggest that the liberal peace-building literature is by local dissensus or disorder. candidate in the Graduate Programme in Social & Political Thought.” Journal for the Arts. without merit: the critical literature. “Life and Law: Agamben and Foucault on Governmentality and Sovereignty. however. and aiming to restructure Southern societies in accordance with Northern metropolitan ideology. ‘cast in the mould of colonialism’. To advance this case. 2013] Most of the above features are shared right across the liberal peace-building debate and have been advanced from it has been claimed from a constructivist perspective that contemporary peace-building is rooted in liberal ‘international norms’ .at: biopolitics impact The thesis of biopolitics is wrong---it’s based on a faulty understanding of liberalism Selby 13 [Jan.38And in neo-Gramscian terms. which aims to govern and construct liberal populations and subjectivities. No. What this will reveal is that Biopolitical control is no longer a threat---crisis of the sovereign state has caused violence to be abandoned Short 5 [Jonathan. Security & Development.D. but that the remainder of this paper is on the relations between post-conflict peace-building on the one hand. my focus in liberal peace. in particular. Again. March 13. and peace peace-building is neither a discrete sphere of action.

"the idea of 'society' as a single. has suffered a precipitous decline thanks in large part to a crisis of the perceived unity of the national state as a viable political project (ibid. bio. and some lives have less value than others. co-extensive with a national territory and the powers of a national political government" no longer serves as premises of state policy (ibid.political competition among nation-states. Drawing on a sequential reading of Foucault's theory of the the territorial state.: 3). a national destiny. and outright extermination.: 5). in terms of bio. national identity has been overshadowed by a diverse cluster of identifications. the primary institution of enclosure.politics was linked to the project of the expanding national state in his opinion. were enacted (ibid.generally less dangerous in recent times than even in the early part of the last century. If Rose is more optimistic about bio-politics in 'advanced this notion of 'national fitness'. bio-political programmes of the molar enclosure known as the nation-state have fallen into disrepute and have been all but abandoned. At that time. the .politics sets itself the task of eliminating "differences coded as defects". it is because a national population.: 5). many of them transcending the national governmentalization of the state here. Under these conditions. Rose argues. bio-politics involved a process of social selection of those characteristics thought useful to the nationalist project . National culture has given way to cultural pluralism. and in pursuit of this goal the most horrible programs of eugenics. according to Rose.: 5). Disciplinary-pastoral bio. has become subject to fragmentation along a number of lines. such a politics has the obligation to exercise this judgement in the name of the race or the nation" (2001: 3). liberal' societies. forced sterilization. if heterogeneous. In disciplinary-pastoral society. domain with a national culture. Rose claims that territory on which they take place. Hence. while the same pluralization has affected the once singular conception of community (ibid. "once each life has a value which may be calculated. To quote Rose once again.