You are on page 1of 64

Linear Systems

• Systems of Linear Equations
• Solving Systems of Equations by
Substitution

1

Systems of Equations
A set of equations is called a system of
equations.
The solutions must satisfy each equation in the
system.
If all equations in a system are linear, the system
is a system of linear equations, or a linear
system.

Systems of Linear Equations:
A solution to a system of equations is an
ordered pair that satisfy all the equations in
the system.

A system of linear equations can have:
1. Exactly one solution
2. No solutions
3. Infinitely many solutions

3

By multiplication 4 . By graphing 2. By addition (also called elimination) 4.Systems of Linear Equations: There are four ways to solve systems of linear equations: 1. By substitution 3.

2. Plot the ordered pairs and sketch the graphs of both equations on the same axis. The coordinates of the point or points of intersection of the graphs are the solution or solutions to the system of equations. 5 . Find ordered pairs that satisfy each of the equations.Solving Systems by Graphing: When solving a system by graphing: 1. 3.

Solving Systems by Graphing: Consistent Inconsistent One solution No solution Lines intersect Lines are parallel Dependent Infinite number of solutions Coincide-Same line 6 .

Linear System in Two Variables Three possible solutions to a linear system in two variables: One solution: coordinates of a point No solutions: inconsistent case Infinitely many solutions: dependent case .

2x – y = 2
x + y = -2
2x – y = 2
-y = -2x + 2
y = 2x – 2

x + y = -2
y = -x - 2
Different slope, different intercept!
8

3x + 2y = 3
3x + 2y = -4

3x + 2y = 3
2y = -3x + 3
y = -3/2 x + 3/2
3x + 2y = -4
2y = -3x -4
y = -3/2 x - 2
Same slope, different intercept!!
9

x – y = -3
2x – 2y = -6
x – y = -3
-y = -x – 3
y =x+3
2x – 2y = -6
-2y = -2x – 6
y=x+3

Same slope, same intercept!
Same equation!!

infinitely many solutions) of solution exists within a system. no solutions.Determine Without Graphing: • There is a somewhat shortened way to determine what type (one solution. b = y . solve the equations for y. (i. remember that m = slope. • Write the equations in slope-intercept form: y = mx + b..intercept).e. 11 . • Notice we are not finding the solution. just what type of solution.

One solution – the lines will have different slopes. Infinitely many solutions – the lines will have the same slope and the same intercept. but different intercepts. 12 . No solution – the lines will have the same slope.Determine Without Graphing: Once the equations are in slope-intercept form. compare the slopes and intercepts.

there is no solution to the system of equations. The lines are parallel.Determine Without Graphing: Given the following lines. without graphing. determine what type of solution exists. 13 . Equation 1: 3x = 6y + 5 Equation 2: y = (1/2)x – 3 Writing each in slope-intercept form (solve for y) Equation 1: y = (1/2)x – 5/6 Equation 2: y = (1/2)x – 3 Since the lines have the same slope but different y-intercepts.

. Substitute the expression found in step 1 into the other equation. and solve for the remaining variable.Substitution Method: Procedure for Substitution Method 1. 4. 3. 2. Solve one of the equations for one of the variables. Now solve for the remaining variable. Substitute the value from step 2 into the equation written in step 1.

y  x3 y  4  3 y  1 The answer: ( -4 . Solve the following system of equations by substitution. -1) . x  ( x  3)  5 2 x  3  5 2 x  8 x  4 Step 3: Substitute –4 into 1st equation and solve. x  y  5 Step 2:Substitute x+3 into 2nd equation and solve.Substitution Method: 1. y  x3 Step 1 is already completed.

Step 2: Substitute Step 3: Solve the equation. The second equation is already solved for y! x+y=5 x + (3 + x) = 5 2x + 3 = 5 2x = 2 x=1 .1) Solve the system using substitution x+y=5 y=3+x Step 1: Solve an equation for one variable.

What do you think the answer would be if you graphed the two equations? . x+y=5 (1) + y = 5 y=4 (1. 4). 4) (1) + (4) = 5 (4) = 3 + (1) The solution is (1. Step 5: Check your solution.1) Solve the system using substitution x+y=5 y=3+x Step 4: Plug back in to find the other variable.

2) Solve the system using substitution 3y + x = 7 4x – 2y = 0 Step 1: Solve an equation for one variable. 3y + x = 7 -3y -3y x = -3y + 7 Step 2: Substitute 4x – 2y = 0 4(-3y + 7) – 2y = 0 . It is easiest to solve the first equation for x.

-12y + 28 – 2y = 0 -14y + 28 = 0 -14y = -28 y=2 4x – 2y = 0 4x – 2(2) = 0 4x – 4 = 0 4x = 4 x=1 .2) Solve the system using substitution 3y + x = 7 4x – 2y = 0 Step 3: Solve the equation. Step 4: Plug back in to find the other variable.

2) Solve the system using substitution 3y + x = 7 4x – 2y = 0 Step 5: Check your solution. (1. 2) 3(2) + (1) = 7 4(1) – 2(2) = 0 .

The solution set of a linear system of equations contains all ordered pairs that satisfy all the equations at the same time. Example 1: Is the ordered pair a solution of the given system? 2x + y = -6 Substitute the ordered pair into each equation. 2) B) (3. A) (-4.Deciding whether an ordered pair is a solution of a linear system. -12) 2(-4) + 2 = -6 2(3) + (-12) = -6 (-4) + 3(2) = 2 (3) + 3(-12) = 2 -6 = -6 -6 = -6 2=2 -33  -6  Yes  No . x + 3y = 2 Both equations must be satisfied.

4)} .Substitution Method Example Solve the system. Substitute x = 1 in y = x + 3. 3 x  2 y  11 x  y  3 Solution y  x  3 3 x  2( x  3)  11 3 x  2 x  6  11 5x  5 x 1 y  1 3 y4 (1) (2) Solve (2) for y. Solution set: {(1. Solve for x. Substitute y = x + 3 in (1).

One way to find the solution set of a linear system of equations is to graph each equation and find the point where the graphs intersect. Example 1: Solve the system of equations by graphing. A) x + y = 5 B) 2x + y = -5 2x .Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables Solving Linear Systems by Graphing.1)} .2)} Solution: {(-3.y = 4 -x + 3y = 6 Solution: {(3.

Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables Solving Linear Systems by Graphing. . 3) The graphs are the same line. 2) The graphs are parallel lines. (Slopes are equal) In this case the system is “inconsistent” and the solution set is 0 or null. the solution is “consistent” and the equations are “independent”. (Slopes and y-intercepts are the same) In this case. There are three possible solutions to a system of linear equations in two variables that have been graphed: 1) The two graphs intersect at a single point. the equations are “dependent” and the solution set is an infinite set of ordered pairs. The coordinates give the solution of the system. In this case.

Step 6: Check the solution and write the solution set. Step 1: Solve one of the equations for either variable Step 2: Substitute for that variable in the other equation (The result should be an equation with just one variable) Step 3: Solve the equation from step 2 Step 4: Substitute the result of Step 3 into either of the original equations and solve for the other value. .4-1 Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables Solving Linear Systems of two variables by Method of Substitution.

-3)} Step 5: Check the solution and write the solution set.3y =13 Step 1: Choose the variable y to solve for in the top equation: y = -4x + 5 Step 2: Substitute this variable into the bottom equation 2x . .3(-4x + 5) = 13 2x + 12x . Example 6: Solve the system : 4x + y = 5 2x .15 = 13 Step 3: Solve the equation formed in step 2 14x = 28 x=2 Step 4: Substitute the result of Step 3 into either of the original equations and solve for the other value.4-1 Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables Solving Linear Systems of two variables by Method of Substitution. 4(2) + y = 5 y = -3 Solution Set: {(2.

4)} -2x . Example 7: Solve the system : 1 1 1 1 1 1 y rewrite as  4[ x  y  ]  2 x  y  2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 x  5 y  22 x Solve : 2x  y  2 -2x  5 y  22 y = -2x + 2 -2x + 5(-2x + 2) = 22 -12x = 12 x = -1 Solution Set: {(-1.10x + 10 = 22 2(-1) + y = 2 y=4 .Systems of Linear Equations in Two Variables Solving Linear Systems of two variables by Method of Substitution.

Your Turn: 3x – y = 4 x = 4y .17 .

Your Turn: 2x + 4y = 4 3x + 2y = 22 .

Clearing Fractions or Decimals    .

Systems without a Single Point Solution .

(parallel lines) Substitution Technique ( A) ( B)    y  3 x  5 y  3 x  2  3 x  5  3 x  2  3x  3x 5 2 2 2 7  0 inconsiste nt .0 = 4 untrue Inconsistent Systems .how can you tell? An inconsistent system has no solutions.

(it’s the same line!) Substitution Technique    ( A) 3y  2x  6 ( B)  12 y  8 x  24 ( B) 8 x  12 y  24 x  32 y  3 ( A) 3 y  2( 32 y  3)  6 3y  3y  6  6 6  6 dependent .0 = 0 or n = n Dependent Systems – how can you tell? A dependent system has infinitely many solutions.

34 .

Also note that we are trying to determine when the total cost at each garage will be the same. To do this. Notice how the original equations are set up based on the data in the question.Modeling Examples: The reason to learn about systems of equations is to learn how to solve real world problems. 35 . set the two cost equations equal to each other and solve. You will see this type of problem often. Study Example 8 on page 360 in the text.

It can also be solved by substitution. 36 .Modeling Examples: Study Example 9 on page 361 in the text. This is a mixture problem. Once the equations are set up. the 2nd equation is multiplied by 100 to remove the decimal. Notice how the original equations are set up based on the data in the question. Note: The example is solved using the addition method. so make sure you know how to do this. This is a common occurrence.

37 .Modeling Examples: 4. Read problem 40 on page 362 of the text – “basketball game”.

Modeling Examples: 4. First assign the variables: let x = # of 2 point shots let y = # of 3 point shots 38 . Read problem 40 on page 362 of the text – “basketball game”.

Read problem 40 on page 362 of the text – “basketball game”.Modeling Examples: 4. First assign the variables: let x = # of 2 point shots let y = # of 3 point shots Writing the 1st equation: They made 45 goals in a recent game x + y = 45 39 .

Writing the 2nd equation: 40 .Modeling Examples: 4 continued.

Modeling Examples: 4 continued. some 3 pointers. for a total score of 101 points 2x + 3y = 101 41 . Writing the 2nd equation: Some 2 pointers.

Modeling Examples: 4 continued. the equation says 2 times the number of 2 point shots plus 3 times the number of 3 point shots totals 101 points. some 3 pointers. 42 . for a total score of 101 points 2x + 3y = 101 In words. Writing the 2nd equation: Some 2 pointers.

Modeling Examples: 4 continued. The two equations are: x + y = 45 2x + 3y = 101 43 .

entire 1 2x + 3y = 101 44 . multiply the st equation by –2.Modeling Examples: 4 continued. The two equations are: -2( x + y = 45 ) Lets eliminate x.

multiply the st equation by –2. The two equations are: -2( x + y = 45 ) Lets eliminate x. entire 1 2x + 3y = 101 -2x + -2y = -90 2x + 3y = 101 45 .Modeling Examples: 4 continued.

The two equations are: -2( x + y = 45 ) 2x + 3y = 101 -2x + -2y = -90 2x + 3y = 101 y = 11 Add down to eliminate x.Modeling Examples: 4 continued. 46 . so x = 34.3 point shots. x + 11 = 45. Substitute y into the 1st equation. 34 .2 point shots and 11 .

Modeling Examples: 5. 47 . Read problem 44 on page 363 in the text – A Milk Mixture.

Read problem 44 on page 363 in the text – A Milk Mixture.Modeling Examples: 5. First assign the variables: let x = # gallons of 5% milk let y = # gallons of skim (0%) milk 48 .

49 .Modeling Examples: 5. First assign the variables: let x = # gallons of 5% milk let y = # gallons of skim (0%) milk Writing the 1st equation: x + y = 100 This is because they want to make a mixture totaling 100 gallons of milk. Read problem 44 on page 363 in the text – A Milk Mixture.

Modeling Examples: 5. Continued Writing the 2nd equation: 50 .

so we multiply 0.05x + 0.035(100) Basically. we are multiplying the 1st equation by the percent butterfat of the milk.0y = 0. 51 .Modeling Examples: 5. since we want 100 total gallons. Continued Writing the 2nd equation: 0.035(100).5%. Our final mixture should be 3.

Continued The two equations are: x+ y = 100 0.035(100) 52 .Modeling Examples: 5.0y = 0.05x + 0.

This gives us the following system of equations: x + y = 100 50x + 0y = 35(100) 53 . multiply the 2nd equation by 1000 to remove the decimal.Modeling Examples: 5. Continued The two equations are: x+ y = 100 0.0y = 0.05x + 0.035(100) Next.

The answer follows on the next slide. Continued The two equations are: x+ y = 100 0.035(100) Next.05x + 0.0y = 0. multiply the 2nd equation by 1000 to remove the decimal. This gives us the following system of equations: x + y = 100 50x + 0y = 35(100) Solve the system (use substitution since the 2nd equation has only one variable). 54 .Modeling Examples: 5.

Continued The answer is 70 gallons of 5% milk and 30 gallons of skim (0%) milk.Modeling Examples: 5. 55 .

Modeling Examples: 6. 56 . Read problem 48 on page 363 in the text – School Play Tickets.

Modeling Examples: 6. Read problem 48 on page 363 in the text – School Play Tickets. First assign the variables: let x = # of adult tickets sold ($5 per ticket) let y = # of student tickets sold ($2 per ticket) 57 .

First assign the variables: let x = # of adult tickets sold ($5 per ticket) let y = # of student tickets sold ($2 per ticket) Writing the 1st equation: x + y = 250 Since a total of 250 tickets were sold.Modeling Examples: 6. 58 . Read problem 48 on page 363 in the text – School Play Tickets.

Continued Writing the 2nd equation: 59 .Modeling Examples: 6.

and set it equal to the amount of money collected. Continued Writing the 2nd equation: 5x + 2y = 950 Basically. we multiplied the 1st equation by the price of the tickets.Modeling Examples: 6. 60 .

Do you see how this is similar to example #4? The 2 and 3 point shots? 61 . Continued Writing the 2nd equation: 5x + 2y = 950 Basically. we multiplied the 1st equation by the price of the tickets.Modeling Examples: 6. and set it equal to the amount of money collected.

Continued The two equations are: x + y = 250 5x + 2y = 950 62 .Modeling Examples: 6.

Continued The two equations are: x + y = 250 5x + 2y = 950 Can you solve the system using either substitution or addition? The answer follows on the next slide.Modeling Examples: 6. 63 .

Continued The answer is 150 adult tickets were sold. and 100 student tickets were sold. 64 .Modeling Examples: 6.