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# Automobile Engineering / A0816

Section -A
Q-1.1) Unsprung Weight :- unsprung weight is the mass of a vehicle's suspension,
wheels, and components directly connected to them rather than supported by the
suspension. Unsprung weight includes the mass of components such as the wheel
spindles, wheel bearings, tires, and a portion of the weight of driveshafts, springs,
Q-1.2)
There are few parameters to be kept in mind. They are listed as follows:
1) Toe-in/Toe-out - When a pair of wheels is set so that their leading edges
are pointed slightly towards each other, the wheel pair is said to have toein. If the leading edges point away from each other, the pair is said to
have toe-out.
2) Caster- Caster is the angle to which the steering pivot axis is tilted
forward or rearward from vertical, as viewed from the side. If the pivot
axis is tilted backward (that is, the top pivot is positioned farther rearward
than the bottom pivot), then the caster is positive; if it's tilted forward,
then the caster is negative.
3) Camber is the angle of the wheel relative to vertical, as viewed from the
front or the rear of the car. If the wheel leans in towards the chassis, it
has negative camber; if it leans away from the car, it has positive camber.

## Q-1.3) Weight transfer :- In the automobile industry, weight transfer customarily

refers to the change in load borne by different wheels during acceleration. This is
more properly referred to as load transfer, and that is the expression used in the
motorcycle industry.
Effects:- the major forces that accelerate a vehicle occur at the tires Since these
forces are not directed through the vehicle's CoM, one or more moments are
generated whose forces are the tires' traction forces at pavement level, the other

one (equal but opposed) is the mass inertia located at the CoM and the moment
arm is the distance from pavement surface to CoM. It is these moments that cause
variation in the load distributed between the tires. Often this is interpreted by the
casual observer as a pitching or rolling motion of the vehicles body. A perfectly
rigid vehicle without suspension that would not exhibit pitching or rolling of the
body still undergoes load transfer. However, the pitching and rolling of the body of
a non-rigid vehicle adds some (small) weight transfer due to the (small) CoM
horizontal displacement with respect to the wheel's axis suspension vertical travel
and also due to deformation of the tires i.e. contact patch displacement relative to
wheel.
Q-1 .4)
Electronic Ignition is now standard for the majority of new vehicles. It offers easier
starting, smoother running, improved fuel economy and lower emissions when
On certain types of older or high mileage vehicles, distributor wear may affect the
timing and cause a loss of performance, whilst sparking at the points burns the
contacts and wastes energy.
Some classic vehicles suffer from "fragile" electrics which may be affected by
vibration or damp. An electronic ignition system will eliminate these problems
allowing the machine to be used with greater confidence and to its full potential.
Legislation against pollution is set to become even tougher. Electronic ignition
systems allow most of the available energy to reach the spark plug and improve
combustion. As such, they are an important and simple weapon in the war on
pollutants, helping to keep classic machines where they belong - out on the road,
not in museums.
Q-1 .5) jump start :- A jump start, also called a boost, is a method of starting an
automobile or other vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine when the
vehicle's battery has been discharged .A second battery (often in another vehicle) is
temporarily connected to provide starting power to the disabled vehicle. Once the
disabled vehicle's engine is running, its alternator or generator should recharge the
dead battery, so the second battery can be disconnected.

Most motor vehicles use a battery that provides power to a starting electric motor
for the engine.When the engine is running, electrical power from its alternator
restores the charge to the battery in preparation for the next start. When a battery is
discharged, as for example by headlights left on while the engine is off, the car's
engine will not "turn over" when the ignition key is turned and the vehicle will not
start.
Section -B
Q 3.
For starting the engine it is sufficient to rotate it about 100 rpm. The main types of
starting drives in present days are:
1. Bendix drive:
i.
Folo-thru bendix drive
ii.
Compression spring type bendix drive
iii. Rubber spring type Bendix drive
2. Over running clutch type drive
3. Dyer drive
Bendix Drive:
A Bendix drive is a type of engagement mechanism used in starter motors of
internal combustion engines. The device allows the pinion gear of the starter
motor to engage or disengage the flywheel of the engine automatically when
the starter is powered or when the engine fires, respectively.
Over running type clutch drive: In mechanical or automotive engineering, a
freewheel or overrunning clutch is a device in a transmission that disengages
the driveshaft from the driven shaft when the driven shaft rotates faster than
the driveshaft. An overdrive is sometimes mistakenly called a freewheel, but
is otherwise unrelated. The condition of a driven shaft spinning faster than
its driveshaft exists in most bicycles when the rider holds his or her feet still,
no longer pushing the pedals. In a fixed-gear bicycle, without a freewheel,
the rear wheel would drive the pedals around.
Q. 4
a) An automatic is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can
automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver

## from having to shift gears manually. Most automatic transmissions have a

defined set of gear ranges The automatic gear transmission's primary job is
to allow the engine to operate in its narrow range of speeds while providing
a wide range of output speeds.
Without a transmission, cars would be limited to one gear ratio, and that
ratio would have to be selected to allow the car to travel at the desired top
speed. If you wanted a top speed of 80 mph, then the gear ratio would be
similar to third gear in most manual transmission cars.
The key to the modern automatic transmission is the torque converter. It
takes the place of a clutch in a manual transmission.
A direct descendant of an earlier component called a fluid coupling, the
torque converter offers the advantage of multiplying the turning power
provided by the engine. It is connected to the motor by means of a metal rod
known as the transmission shaft (sometimes called the input shaft), which
fits next to but does not touch the engine crankshaft.
A torque converter is like a giant doughnut. The impeller and the turbine (the
two fans in the analogy above) face one another inside the round metal
casing. The impeller is on the engine side, the turbine on the tranny side.
Both of these components have blades that catch the transmission fluid and
cause them to spin.
b) A clutch is a device used to transmit the rotary motion of one shaft to another
when desired.
Single Plate Clutch: A single disc or plate clutch consists of a clutch plate whose
both sides are faced with a frictional material. It is mounted on the hub which is
free to move axially along he splines of the driven shaft. The pressure plate is
mounted inside the clutch body which is bolted to the flywheel. Both the pressure
plate and the flywheel rotate with the engine crank shaft or the driving shaft. The
pressure plate pushes the clutch plate towards the flywheel by a set of strong
springs which are arranged radially inside the body. The three levers (also known
as release levers or fingers) are carried on pivots suspended from the case of the
body. These are arranged in such a manner so that the pressure plate moves away

from the flywheel by the inward movement of a trust bearing. The bearing is
mounted upon a forked shaft and moves forward when the clutch pedal is pressed

When the clutch pedal is pressed down, its linkage forces the thrust release bearing
to move in towards the flywheel and pressing the longer ends of the levers inward.
The axial pressure exerted by the spring provides a frictional force in the
circumferential direction when the relative motion between the driving and driven
members tends to take place. If the torque due to this frictional force exceeds the
torque to be transmitted, then no slipping takes place and the power is transmitted
from the driving shaft to the driven shaft.
Q:-5 Common problem in rare axle
1. Noise :- The rear differential consists of many gears with their teeth
entwined in each other. With so many moving parts, the precision with
which they are arranged and oriented, matters a lot. If the lubricant levels of
the differential lubrication mechanism have gone down or if the arrangement
of the pinion and rest of the gears is messed up, then rear differential noise

occurs. When the ring gear or the pinion is not adjusted properly, then the
contact between the gear teeth is improper and causes friction.
2. Rear Differential Leak
Another common rear differential problem, which often goes un-noticed is
leaking of lubricant. As discussed in the previous point, if lubricant levels
drop down, then friction between gears increase. Over a period of time, this
may lead to major wear and tear in the gears. Thats why you need to keep
an eye on rear differential leak if it ever occurs. If the lubricant level has
dropped down substantially, noise may occur. You must immediately correct
the leak and replenish the oil level to normal, to prevent any further wear
and tear. Hope this brief guide on rear differential problems was a helpful
maintenance schedule, then problems will rarely arise. At the slightest doubt
of problems with the rear differential, it is best to get your car to a service
center for checkup. Ignoring the signs of a bad rear differential may
ultimately cost you a lot in car repairs.

## Q-6 DLH Brake

two cylinder hydraulic actuated brake. The dual
leading shoe design permits balanced, equal torque
action in both forward and reverse directions. Each
shoe transfers its force into an anchor pin during
forward direction stops and into an adjustment bolt
during reverse direction stops. The two wheel
cylinders balance the forces within the brake. The
DLH brake has manual brake adjustment.

!
Hydraulic Brakes
9. Clean and inspect all parts. Refer to Section 4.
Assemble DLH Brake
.
1. Before assembly, apply a thin layer of Meritor
specification 0-616 brake lubricant such as Texaco
Thermatex EP-2 grease or equivalent (listed on
page 31) to the following parts:
b. Anchor pins, anchor pin holes and anchor
pin slots.
c. Push rod ends of the wheel cylinders.
d. The surfaces of the guide washers that slide
against the brake shoes.
2. Install the wheel cylinder to the spider. Tighten the
wheel cylinder capscrews to 15-20 lb. ft.
(20-27 Nm).
3. Install the two adjustment bolt and star wheel
assemblies into their threaded holes. The end of
each adjustment bolt must extend into the slot for
the shoe approximately 0.125 inch (3.175 mm).
Install each star wheel clip with its screw and lock
washer.

!
4. Install the two anchor pins, with their slots in
position to engage the shoes, in the anchor pin
holes.
5. Install both shoe guide bolts into their holes from
the back of the spider and assemble one spacer
and one washer on each bolt.
6. Place one shoe in position to engage the anchor
pin slot, the adjustment bolt slot and the wheel
cylinder push rod. Install a shoe guide washer
and nut to the shoe guide bolt.
7. Put the other shoe in position to engage the
opposite anchor pin slot, adjustment bolt and
wheel cylinder push rod. Install a shoe guide
washer and nut to the shoe guide bolt.
8. Tighten the shoe guide nut on each shoe guide
bolt until there is no clearance between the
washer and the shoe. Loosen the nut 1/2 turn
and install the cotter pins.
9. Install the four shoe return springs.
The bleeder cylinder can be installed at either
the top or bottom positions on the brake. In either
installation the bleeder outlet MUST be installed at
the top of the cylinder.
10. Install the hydraulic brake tube assembly to the
two wheel cylinders.
11. Connect the hydraulic line and install the brake
drum and wheel.
12. Bleed the hydraulic system after all brakes are
Q7 Treatment of exhaust gases to reduce pollutants:
There are basically two types of methods to treat exhaust gases from the engine
to reduce pollutants:
1. Fresh air is sent into the exhaust manifold. The fresh air supplies additional
oxygen required to complete the combustion of any hydrocarbons or carbon

monoxide in the exhaust gases producing instead, the water and Carbon
dioxide which are harmless.
A few such systems are discussed below:
i)
Air injection system: In this system compressed air id injected into
each exhaust port slightly downstream of the exhaust valves. The
injected air mixes with extremely hot fully and partially burned
exhaust gases and causes oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons.
Effectiveness of such system depends on Strength of air fuel mixture,
Temperature and pressure of exhaust gas and mixture reaction, time
available for exhaust gas-air mixture and heat losses from exhaustreaction zone.
ii)
Pulse air-injection reactor (PAIR) system: Some engines do not
require all the air supplied by the pump in the air injection system.
Such engines may be provided with PAIR the system employs the
pressure pulses of the exhaust to pull air into the exhaust system.
When exhaust valve opens, exhaust gases rush ot at high speed. Due
to their inertia more gases are pulled out as the valve closes, causing a
momentary vaccume in the exhaust ports. Negative pressure in the
exhaust manifold moves air from the air cleaner through the check
valves and pipes into the exhaust ports. This system has an advantage
over the air injection system because there is less power consumption.
2. The exhaust gases from the engine are passed through the catalytic
converters. A catalytic converter is a cylindrical unit about the size of a small
silencer and is installed into the exhaust system of the vehicle such as car,
scooter, motorbike etc. it is place in between the exhaust manifold and the
silencer. Inside the converter there is a honeycomb structure of cyramic or
metal, which is coated with alumina base materials and there is second coat
of platinum or rhodium or combination of both. This catalyst causes a
chemical reaction that normally does not happen in the given conditions. As
a result a catalytic reaction, as the exhaust gases pass over the converter
substrate, toxic gases such as CO, HC. AND NOx are converted into CO 2.
H2, N2.

## Basic source of problems in propeller or drive shaft:

1. Shudder as car accelerates from stop or low speed: Drive shaft some times
shudders or vibrates as ther car accelerates or stops suddenly. This may be
caused by Loose U-joint or defective centre bearing. To rectify this problem
on must Tighten U-joint or have it replaced and get the centre bearing
replaced.
2. Loud clunk in driveshaft when shifting gears is also one of the major
problems. It may damage the joints and gears also. It is caused manely due
to worn u joints. To rectify this problem one must get the u joint replaced.
3. Roughness or vibration at any speed is caused if propeller shaft is
unbalanced or dented or worn u joints or lubrication system of u joint not
working properly. If clamps of U joints are losend, they also cause noise and
vibration.
Problems in rear axel:
The rear axle transfers turning power from the transmission to the rear wheels to
move your vehicle. Over time, wear or damage to internal components will cause
the rear axle to leak, become noisy or fail to operate properly. Check for common
trouble spots on your rear axle before beginning to disassemble components for a
replacement job. Taking the time to diagnose a rear axle problem might end up
saving you time and money.
Basic source of problems in rear axel:
Q. 9
Power Steering
There are a couple of key components in power steering in addition to the rackand-pinion or recirculating-ball mechanism.

## Necessity of Power steering : It helps drivers steer vehicles by augmenting

steering effort of the steering wheel. Hydraulic or electric actuators add controlled
energy to the steering mechanism, so the driver needs to provide only modest effort
regardless of conditions. Power steering helps considerably when a vehicle is
stopped or moving slowly. Also, power steering provides some feedback of forces
acting on the front wheels to give an ongoing sense of how the wheels are
Working mechanism

The hydraulic power for the steering is provided by a rotary-vane pump. This
pump is driven by the car's engine via a belt and pulley. It contains a set of
retractable vanes that spin inside an oval chamber.
As the vanes spin, they pull hydraulic fluid from the return line at low pressure and
force it into the outlet at high pressure. The amount of flow provided by the pump
depends on the car's engine speed. The pump must be designed to provide adequate
flow when the engine is idling. As a result, the pump moves much more fluid than
necessary when the engine is running at faster speeds.
The pump contains a pressure-relief valve to make sure that the pressure does not
get too high, especially at high engine speeds when so much fluid is being pumped.
Rotary Valve

A power-steering system should assist the driver only when he is exerting force on
the steering wheel (such as when starting a turn). When the driver is not exerting
force (such as when driving in a straight line), the system shouldn't provide any
assist. The device that senses the force on the steering wheel is called the rotary
valve.
The key to the rotary valve is a torsion bar. The torsion bar is a thin rod of metal
that twists when is applied to it. The top of the bar is connected to the steering
wheel, and the bottom of the bar is connected to the pinion or worm gear (which
turns the wheels), so the amount of torque in the torsion bar is equal to the amount
of torque the driver is using to turn the wheels. The more torque the driver uses to
turn the wheels, the more the bar twists.
The input from the steering shaft forms the inner part of a spool-valve assembly. It
also connects to the top end of the torsion bar. The bottom of the torsion bar
connects to the outer part of the spool valve. The torsion bar also turns the output
of the steering gear, connecting to either the pinion gear or the worm gear
depending on which type of steering the car has