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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)

Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 2015, pp. 183-194, Article ID: IJMET_06_11_021
Available online at
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=6&IType=11
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
IAEME Publication

EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND
EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A
SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE
FUELED WITH JATROPHA BIODIESELDIESEL AND WASTE PLASTIC OIL-DIESEL
BLENDS
Rajan Kumar
Department of Mechanical Engineering, BIT Sindri, Dhanbad, India
M.K.Mishra
Department of chemistry, BIT Sindri, Dhanbad, India
S.K.Singh
Former Director, BIT Sindri, Dhanbad, India
Arbind kumar
Department of Mechanical Engineering, BIT Mesra, Ranchi, India
ABSTRACT
In this study different fuels are synthesized by preparing blends of jatropha
biodiesel-diesel and liquid fuel from waste plastic diesel. Various means are
employed to characterize the fuels and then their performance and emission
characteristics are studied on compression ignition engine. The results were
analyzed and the jatropha blended and waste plastic oil blended fuels are
compared considering the reference test fuel diesel. The results showed that
both types of fuels have some similar physico-chemical properties as compare
to diesel. The results of performance and emission showed that performance
wise jatropha blended fuels are slightly superior than waste plastic oil
blended fuels but the exhaust gas temperature and NOx emission of waste
plastic oil blended fuels are lower. Both the fuels have a potential for
utilization as an alternative fuel.
Key words: Waste Plastic Fuel, Jatropha Biodiesel, Alternate Fuel, Engine
Performance, Diesel, Emission.

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Rajan Kumar, M.K.Mishra, S.K.Singh And Arbind Kumar


Cite this Article: Rajan Kumar, M.K.Mishra, S.K.Singh And Arbind Kumar.
Experimental Comparison of Performance Evaluation and Emission
Characteristics of A Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha
Biodiesel-Diesel and Waste Plastic Oil-Diesel Blends. International Journal
of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 6(11), 2015, pp. 183-194.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=6&IType=11

1. INTRODUCTION
Efficient, reliable and competitively priced energy supplies are prerequisites for
accelerating economic growth. For any developing country, the strategy for energy
development is an integral part of the overall economic strategy. According to
International Energy Outlook 2013, worldwide consumption of petroleum and other
liquid fuels increases from 87 million barrels per day in 2010 to 97 million barrels per
day in 2020 and 115 million barrels per day in 2040, notwithstanding steadily rising
oil prices after 2020. Led by the emerging economies of the developing countries,
rapid economic development drives the increase in world consumption, as demand
among the more mature economies of the developed regions remains flat or declines.
The Indian economy is at a critical stage of development. During 2014-15, the growth
rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at constant prices is estimated to have
increased by 7.3%. The revival in growth of the industrial sector and softening of
international prices of crude oil led to increase in demand for petroleum products by
4.15% during April-March, 2014-15 over the same period last year. Given the limited
domestic availability of crude oil and natural gas the country is compelled to import
over 75% of its domestic requirement. [1]]. Import of Crude Oil during 2014-15 was
189.432 MMT valued at Rs. 6,87,350 crore which marked a decrease of 0.10% in
quantity terms and 20.53% decrease in value terms over the same period of last year.
The total Diesel sold in the country during 2012-13 was 69,080 TMT and Petrol was
15,744 TMT. While Diesel constitutes 44% of total consumption of petroleum
products in India, Petrol accounts for 10%.[2]. The demand of diesel fuel in india is
roughly six times that of gasoline so seeking alternative to mineral diesel is a natural
choice [3].
Persistence of high oil prices and dependence on imported oil leaves India with
some difficult choices to make. The depletion of the worlds fossil fuel reserves has
sparked considerable and urgent interest to rely on the alternate/renewable energy
sources like biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, solar energy,
nuclear energy, etc. Renewable energy and nuclear power are the world's fastestgrowing energy sources, each increasing by 2.5 percent per year.
So in this
alarming situation for sustainable growth of developing country like India some
alternative source of energy is required. Biodiesel from Vegetable oil and waste
plastic to liquid fuel is also an alternate energy source which can contribute to be an
alternate of fossil fuel. biofuels like ethanol and transesterified fatty oil esters
(commonly known as Biodiesel) match the features of oil at relatively low price.
Biodiesel is methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acid made from virgin or used vegetable oils
(both edible and non-edible) and animal fats. The main commodity sources for
biodiesel in India can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as: Jatropha
Curcas (Ratanjyot), Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja), Calophyllum Inophyllum
(Nagchampa), Hevca Brasiliensis (Rubber), and Madhuca Indica (Mahua). Out of
various non-edible oils, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) as a feedstock for biodiesel, has
been gaining the attention of various researchers all over the world.

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Experimental Comparison of Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of A


Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha Biodiesel-Diesel and Waste Plastic OilDiesel Blends

As reported, estimated plastic production in India is 8 million tons and the plastic
waste generation is 5.6 million tons/year, which is equivalent to 15342.46 tons per
day and 154.41 kg/year per capita (Central pollution control board, 2012). The
increasing quantities of plastics waste and their effective and safe disposal has
become a matter of public concern. The increasingly visible consequences of
indiscriminate littering of plastic wastes (in particular plastic packaging wastes and
discarded bags) has stimulated public outcry and shaped policy. Littering also results
in secondary problems such as drains becoming clogged and animal health problems
(both domesticated and wild). [4]. On the other hand, plastic waste recycling can
provide an opportunity to collect and dispose of plastic waste in the most
environmental friendly way and it can be converted into a resource. Waste plastics are
one of the most promising resources for fuel production because of its high heat of
combustion and due to the increasing availability in local communities. Unlike paper
and wood, plastics do not absorb much moisture and the water content of plastics is
far lower than the water content of biomass such as crops and kitchen wastes.
Plastic to oil conversion process has been studying since 1990s. Tertiary recycling
includes all those processing which attempt to convert the plastic wastes to basic
chemicals by the use of chemical reactions such as hydrolysis, methanolysis and
ammonoloysis for condensation polymers and to fuels with conventional refinery
processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, hydrocracking, catalytic cracking, coking
and Vis breaking for addition polymers excluding PVC. Pyrolysis and catalytic
conversion of plastic is a superior method of reusing the waste. The distillate product
is an excellent fuel (liquid oil). Various researchers at many places around the world
examined the feasibility of biodiesel and waste plastic oil on diesel engine [5-7] .In
this work the fuel samples consists of the blends of jatropha biodiesel-diesel and
liquid fuel from waste plastic-diesel are prepared and various tests were employed to
characterize the fuels, the performance evaluation and emission characteristics were
studied on single cylinder diesel engine. Finally experimental comparison has been
made between the jatropha biodiesel and waste plastic oil considering the reference
test fuel diesel.

2. MATERIAL AND METHODS


2.1. Materials: The following materials were used in the present study.
Table 1 Details of the materials used
Sl No.
1

Material
Jatropha biodiesel

Manufacturer
Southern online Bio Technologies Limited, Hyderabad

Diesel

Waste plastic oil

Local petrol station of Indian oil


Sustainable Technologies & Environmental Projects Private
Limited (STEPS), Vasai, Mumbai obtained by waste plastics with
catalytic cracking.

2.1.1. Preparation of fuel Samples


In order to investigate the fuel quality results and its performance and emission study
on an engine different composition of waste plastic oil and diesel were mixed with the
help of mechanical magnetic stirrer. The mixing process was carried out at an ambient
temperature of 350C and the samples were allowed to stir for one hour. Each sample is
prepared on volumetric basis of volume of 3.5 liters.

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The fuels used for the current investigation with their composition are given in
table1
Table 2 Test Fuel Nomenclatures
Sl. No.
1
2
3
4
5

Sample ID
D100
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
JB20D80
JB30D70

Composition (by vol %)


100% diesel
20% waste plastic oil and 80% diesel fuel
30% waste plastic oil and 70% diesel fuel
20% jatropha biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel
30% jatropha biodiesel and 70% diesel fuel

2.2. Methods
2.2.1. Physico-chemical Studies
Diesel-biodiesel and diesel-waste plastic oil were mixed into a homogenous blend by
magnetic stirring and prepared five fuel samples of different composition. The
properties studied were the Density, viscosity, flash point, fire point, calorific values,
Acid number, Pour point, Cold Filter Plugging point and cloud point. Standard
methods (i.e. ASTM and I.P.) were used in the experiments. . CHNS analytical data of
oil samples were determine on M/s Elementar, Germany; Vario EL III in combustion
temperature at 9500C using Helium as a Carrier gas.
2.2.2. The Engine: A single -cylinder, four-stoke 5HP; diesel engine is selected for
the study. The bore and the stoke lengths are 80mm and 110 mm respectively. The
engine ran on five different load conditions at 33%, 50%, 66%, 83% (approx.) and at
full load with at constant speed of 1500rpm.
2.2.3. Performance Test: The following engine performance parameters were
computed for above five fuel samples Torque, Brake power, Brake thermal
Efficiency, Brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific energy conversion, brake
mean effective pressure, air fuel ratio and volumetric efficiency.
2.2.4. Emission Test: Exhaust temperature has been measured and also smoke is
measured by AVL smoke meter
Table 3 Physico-chemical analyses of different fuel samples
Sample ID/Properties
Density (g/cm) at 35C
Viscosity(poise) at 35C
Flash point (oC)
Calorific Values (MJ/Kg)
Acid Number(Mg KOH/g)
Pour Point (oC)
Cold Filter Plugging point (oC)
Cloud point (oC)
Aniline Point
Diesel Index

JB20D80
0.82
0.0672
70
42.16
0.13
-5
---3
37.6
41

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JB30D70
0.83
0.0698
70
41.86
0.19
-4
1
---36.3
38

186

WPF20D80
0.832
0.0520
66
44.39
1.62
3
-3
---48.4
46

WPF30D70
0.815
0.0604
69
43.58
1.89
---------42.2
47

D100
0.80
0.0618
61
45.35
0.03
6
1
1
68.1
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Experimental Comparison of Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of A


Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha Biodiesel-Diesel and Waste Plastic OilDiesel Blends
Table 4 CHNS analytical data of fuel samples
S. No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Sample Id
JB20D80
JB30D70
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
D100

C
78.12
77.23
82.98
82.63
84.72

H
12.03
11.78
11.98
11.13
13.66

N
0.762
0.644
1.821
1.982
1.149

S
0.232
0.122
0.459
0.462
0.442

O
8.856
10.224
2.760
3.796
0.03

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


3.1. Fuel Analysis
Fuel density directly affects fuel performance, as some of the engine properties, such
as cetane number, heating value and viscosity are strongly connected to density. From
the result, it could be observed that the density of diesel 0.80 was in agreement with
all blends samples.
Viscosity affects injector lubrication and fuel atomization. Fuel atomization is also
affected by fuel viscosity. Fuels with high viscosity tend to form larger droplets on
injection which can cause poor combustion, increased exhaust smoke and emissions.
The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray
characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to
incomplete combustion. The viscosity of jatropha biodiesel blended fuel samples is
found to be higher than diesel, whereas the viscosity of waste plastic oil fuel samples
has lower viscosity than diesel.
Flash point is used in shipping and safety regulations to define flammable and
combustible materials. . The higher the flash point the safer the fuel and vice versa.
The flash point of jatropha biodiesel and waste plastic oil blends are nearly close and
higher than diesel.
Calorific Value, Heating Value or Heat of Combustion, is the amount of heating
energy released by the combustion of a unit value of fuels. Higher the calorific value,
higher the energy or heat released during combustion, lowers the fuel consumption.
The calorific value of jatropha blends is 41-42 MJ/kg and waste plastic oil blends is
43-45 MJ/kg almost similar to diesel.
The acid value determination is used to quantify the presence of acid moieties in a
fuel sample. The acid number of jatropha biodiesel blends is found to be highest and
for diesel it is lowest. The acid number of waste plastic oil blends is also found to be
higher than diesel. High acid numbers are undesirable as this lead to the corrosion of
rubber parts and cause deposits in engine so some means is required to lower the acid
number.
Cloud point and pour point are used For petroleum products and biodiesel fuels,
cloud point and pour point of a petroleum product is an index of the lowest
temperature of their utility for certain applications.
Cold filter plugging point (CFPP) is the lowest temperature, expressed in 1C, at
which a given volume of diesel type of fuel still passes through a standardized
filtration device in a specified time when cooled under certain conditions. This test
gives an estimate for the lowest temperature that a fuel will give trouble free flow in
certain fuel systems. This is important as in cold temperate countries; a high cold
filter plugging point will clog up vehicle engines more easily. The test is important in
relation to the use of additives that allow spreading the usage of winter diesel at
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temperatures below the cloud point. The tests according to EN 590 show that a Cloud
Point of +1 C can have a CFPP 10 C.
One of the relations which is developed to determine the ignition delay is diesel
index. High diesel index represents the high cetane number which implies the lower
ignition delay. The diesel index of waste plastic oil blended fuel is found to be nearly
close to diesel whereas for jatropha biodiesel blends it is lower than diesel.
From elemental analysis it is found that jatropha blends and waste plastic oil
blends contain approximately 29% and 9% more oxygen than diesel respectively. The
sulpher content of biodiesel blends is found to be lower than diesel whereas sulpher
content of waste plastic oil blends is almost similar to diesel. High sulpher in fuel is
undesirable as this lead to the formation of SO2, which values are of great importance
as this value represents both the energy loss and environmental issue. Because SO2
released to atmosphere cause acid rain by reacting with water vapors [8]

3.2. Engine performance test


A four stroke, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine was employed for the
present experimental study in order to investigate effects of the produced Fuel
samples on its performance. The diesel fuel was used in the experimental study as
reference fuel. Because it is important to emphasize that effect of the jatropha
biodiesel fuel and waste plastic oil blended fuel on the engine by comparing results
with those of the diesel fuel. The tests for all the fuel samples were performed under
the same conditions for analyzing the performance and emissions of the fuels in four
different levels of engine loads. The experiment was conducted using blended fuel
samples and commercial diesel fuel for evaluating several performance parameters
such as torque (T), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc), thermal efficiency (bt),
brake specific fuel consumption(bsfc),brake specific energy consumption(bsec) and
air-fuel ratio.
Figure. 1 show the variation of brake thermal efficiency with load. For all the
fuels tested the thermal efficiency increases with the increase in load. This may be
due to the reduction in heat losses and increase in brake power with increase in load
[9]. The jatropha biodiesel fuel samples have slightly higher thermal efficiency than
waste plastic oil blends. The lowest thermal efficiency is found to be for WPF20D80,
but at higher load it is almost equal to the diesel. Even the density and viscosity of
jatropha biodiesel blends is higher than the waste plastic oil blends and diesel, but the
brake thermal efficiency of jatropha biodiesel blends is found to be higher. This may
be attributed to that the engine supply the fuel on volumetric basis so the plunger of
engine pump discharge more fuel to meet the power output requirement and the better
combustion in case of jatropha biodiesel blends result in the higher thermal efficiency
[ 10 ].
Figure. 2 show the variation of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) with load.
For all the fuels tested the bsfc decreases with the increase in load. Among all the
fuel samples the lowest bsfc is found to be for diesel, whereas the bsfc of waste
plastic oil blends is found to be slightly higher than jatropha blended fuels. The high
bsfc in case of waste plastic fuel blends may be due to the complexity and aromaticity
of waste plastic oil.

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Experimental Comparison of Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of A


Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha Biodiesel-Diesel and Waste Plastic OilDiesel Blends
JB20D80
JB30D70
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
D100

40

Brake thermal efficiency, %

38
36
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

LOAD, %

bsfc(Brake specific fuel consumption), kg/kW-hr.

Figure. 1 Variation of brake thermal efficiency with load


0.36

JB20D80
JB30D70
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
D100

0.34
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.22
0.20
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

LOAD, %

Figure. 2 Variation of brake specific fuel consumption with load

bsec(brake specific energy consumption),MJ/kW-hr.

Brake specific energy consumption is ideal variable since it does not depend on
fuel, and this represent the energy input require developing unit power. Figure. 3
show the variation of brake specific energy consumption (bsec) with load. For all the
fuels tested the bsec decreases with the increase in load. Among all the fuels the bsec
for diesel is found to be highest. The waste plastic oil blended and jatropha biodiesel
blended fuels have almost similar values of bsec for lower to medium load range,
whereas at higher load range the jatropha biodiesel blends have lower bsec as
compare to the waste plastic oil blends. This may be due to lower calorific value and
high density of biodiesel fuels as compare to diesel [10]
16

JB20D80
JB30D70
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
D100

15
14
13
12
11
10
9
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

LOAD, %

Figure. 3 Variation of brake specific energy consumption with load

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60

JB20D80
JB30D70
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
D100

55

Air-Fuel ratio

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

LOAD, %

Figure. 4 Variation of air-fuel ratio with load

Figure. 4 show the variation of air-fuel ratio with load. For all the fuels tested the
air-fuel ratio decreases with the increase in load. This may be attributed that as the
load increases more quantity of fuel are needed to sustain the load [11]. Among all the
fuels tested the air-fuel ratio for diesel is found to be highest for entire loading,
whereas all the other fuel samples have almost similar values of air-fuel ratio.

3.3. Emission Characteristics


The emission caused by a fuel is very significant factor for choosing a fuel for the
engine. Pollution has reached dangerous levels and curbing it is of utmost importance.
JB20D80
JB30D70
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
D100

EXHAUST TEMPERATURE, C

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

LOAD, %

Figure. 5 Variation of exhaust temperature with loads


JB20D80
JB30D70
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
D100

0.10
0.09
0.08
0.07

CO,%

0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

LOAD, %

Figure. 6 Variation of CO emission with load

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Experimental Comparison of Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of A


Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha Biodiesel-Diesel and Waste Plastic OilDiesel Blends

Figure. 5 show the variation of exhaust gas temperature with load. It is observed
from figure that exhaust gas temperature increases with the increase in load. High
exhaust temperature can cause the higher energy transfer from the combustion
chamber to surrounding and high heat transfer thus decreases the thermal efficiency,
hence high exhaust temperature is not desirable [ 8 ]. The exhaust temperature in case
of jatropha blended fuel is found to be higher than diesel, whereas it is lower for
waste plastic oil blended fuel. High exhaust temperature of jatropha blends may be
attributed to poor spray characteristics and self ignition temperature of jatropha
biodiesel blends [12].
Figure. 6 show the variation of CO emission with load. Since the formation of CO
is due to the scarcity of oxygen and from the CHNS analysis shown in Table 4 as
biodiesel blends contain more amount of oxygen as compare to waste plastic oil
blends and diesel result the better combustion in case of biodiesel blended fuels than
other fuels so the CO emission is minimum and for diesel it is maximum [13].
JB20D80
JB30D70
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
D100

40
35
30

HC, %

25
20
15
10
5
0
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

LOAD,%

Figure. 7 Variation of unburned hydrocarbon emission with load


JB20D80
JB30D70
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
D100

1400

1200

NOx, ppm

1000

800

600

400

200

0
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

LOAD, %

Figure. 8 Variation of NOx emission with load

Unburned HC is also one of the responsible parameter of the emission behavior of


the engine. Figure. 7 show the variation of CO emission with load. It is observed from
the figure that jatropha blended fuels give lower HC emission than waste plastic oil
blended fuels and diesel. At higher load the waste plastic oil blended fuels overcome
this and give satisfactory results. This may be due to improper mixing at lower load
but at higher load turbulence help the proper mixing. The lower value of HC emission

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in case of jatropha biodiesel may be attributed to the better combustion of biodiesel
blends due to availability of oxygen [10].
Figure. 8 show the variation of NOx emission with load. It is observed from the
figure that NOx emission increases with the increase in load. At higher power output
condition, due to higher peak and exhaust temperature, NOx values are relatively
higher compare to low power output [13]. The NOx emission depends on the oxygen
content, adiabatic flame temperature and fuel spray characteristics [10]. The NOx
emission for jatropha biodiesel blended fuels is found to be higher than the waste
plastic oil blended fuels and diesel. This may be attributed to the high exhaust
temperature and oxygen content of the jatropha biodiesel blended fuels [14]. The NOx
emission for WPF20D80 is found to be lowest at all the loads.
JB20D80
JB30D70
WPF20D80
WPF30D70
D100

10

CO2, %

0
30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

LOAD, %

Figure. 9 Variation of CO2 emission with load

Figure. 9 show the variation of CO2 emission with load. It is observed from the
figure that CO2 emission increases with the increase in load. The more quantity of
CO2 in exhaust represents the complete combustion. Ideally combustion of
hydrocarbon fuel should produce only CO2 and water vapor [15]. The CO2 emission
for diesel is found to be higher at entire loading condition. The CO2 emission of
jatropha biodiesel blended fuels have slightly lower value of CO2 emission than diesel
and for waste plastic oil blended fuel it is found to be lowest.

4. SUMMARRY AND CONCLUSION


The observations made in the present work were the part of research work, in which
the detailed analyses on the fuel properties of fuel samples along with the
performance and emission characteristics are studied. The following conclusions can
be drawn from this study:
The entire test for characterization of jatropha biodiesel blended and waste plastic
oil blended fuels demonstrated that the density of both the fuel samples were almost
close to the density of diesel. The viscosity of jatropha biodiesel blended fuel samples
are found to be higher than diesel whereas for waste plastic oil blended fuels it is
lower than diesel. Flash point of jatropha blended and waste plastic oil fuel samples
are found to be higher than diesel that implies that both the fuel samples are safe as
per the transportation and storage aspect. Calorific value jatropha blended fuels are
slightly lower than diesel, whereas the Calorific value of waste plastic oil blended
fuels is almost close to the diesel. Acid number of waste plastic oil blended fuels is
found to be markedly high than diesel so some means must be provided to minimize

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Experimental Comparison of Performance Evaluation and Emission Characteristics of A


Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha Biodiesel-Diesel and Waste Plastic OilDiesel Blends

this. High aniline point of waste plastic oil blended fuels indicates the aromaticity of
the fuel. The Diesel index (which represent the ignition quality of the fuel) of waste
plastic oil blended fuels are found to be almost close to diesel, whereas lower diesel
index in case of jatropha blended fuel indicate the high ignition delay as compared to
diesel. From elemental analysis it is found that jatropha biodiesel blended fuels have
higher oxygen content than other fuels though the waste plastic oil blended fuels have
also remarkably higher oxygen content than diesel.
From the performance evaluation test of different fuels on engine, it is found that
the brake thermal efficiency of jatropha biodiesel blended fuels is higher than diesel,
whereas the thermal efficiency of waste plastic oil blended fuels is slightly lower than
diesel. The brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) of waste plastic oil blended fuels
and jatropha biodiesel blended fuels are almost close but higher than diesel. The brake
specific energy consumption (bsec) of waste plastic oil blended fuels and jatropha
biodiesel blended fuels are found to be equal at part load but at higher load the bsec of
jatropha biodiesel blended fuels are lower. Air-fuel ratio of waste plastic oil blended
fuels and jatropha biodiesel blended fuels are found to be almost close but lower than
diesel for entire loading.
As per the emission point of view it is found that Exhaust gas temperature of
jatropha biodiesel blended fuels is higher, whereas for waste plastic oil blended fuels
it is lower as compare to diesel. The CO emission of waste plastic oil blended fuels
and jatropha biodiesel blended fuels are found to be lowest followed by waste plastic
oil blended fuels as compare to diesel. The unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission in
case of jatropha biodiesel blended fuels is found to be lowest. The NOx emission of
jatropha biodiesel blended fuels is found to be higher and for one of the fuel sample
WPF30D70 (blend of 30% waste plastic oil and 70% diesel), it is found that NOx
emission is lowest for entire loading. The CO2 emission for diesel is found to be
highest followed by jatropha biodiesel blended fuels and then diesel. No engine
seizing, injector blocking was found during the entire operation of the engine running
with different fuel samples.

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