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Laser Trackers:

Testing and Standards


Dr. Steven D. Phillips
Dimensional Metrology Program Manager
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Large Scale Metrologists
Bala Muralikrishnan
Dan Sawyer
Chris Blackburn
Bruce Borchardt
Tyler Estler
Craig Shakarji

Overview

Briefly about Laser Trackers


B89.4.19 Standard & Tests Results
VDI/VDE 2617 Draft Standard
Final Remarks

Laser Trackers:
Coordinate Measuring Machines
Using Spherical Coordinates
R

Vertical Axis

z
Y

x
y
Horizontal Axis
X

Laser Trackers:
Optics Link the Workpiece & CMM
Allows large measurement
volumes
Bring the tracker to the
workpiece
Lower capital costs than
large conventional CMMs
Factory can be reconfigured

Laser Trackers:
Type of Ranging Systems
HeNe Interferometer
Very High Accuracy
Do NOT break beam during measurement
Requires cooperative target, e.g. retroreflector

Absolute Distance Measuring System


Good Accuracy
Can break beam & measure directly to targets
Requires cooperative target, e.g. retroreflector

Laser Radar
Non cooperative target OK
Moderate accuracy
More expensive

ASME B89.4.19 Laser Tracker Standard

Designed to Test Cooperative Target Systems


Focused on Manufacturing (Indoor) Environment
Tests Ranging and Volumetric Performance
Does not address:
Outdoor Environments

Rain; Fog

NonCooperative Targets:

Concrete; Wood; Dirt

Dynamic effects

Motion in the field of view

Available At
www.ASME.org
(search on B89.4.19)

Ranging Test using 6 Calibrated Lengths

Nest a

Target Nests
Nest b

h
L1
L2
L3
L4

1D Cooperative Target Range Facility


NIST System Configuration
Carriage can accommodate
a variety of targets
Interferometer

Instrument
under test

1-D Cooperative Target Range Facility


Target retroreflector

Reference retroreflector

1-D Cooperative Target Range Facility


Range: 60 m (200 feet)
Temperature: 20 0.2 C
Sensors:
U(T) = 0.01 C, spaced @ 10 m
U(P) = 20 Pa
U(RH) = 1 % RH
U(L) = 5 m + 3 10-7

1-D Cooperative Target Range Facility


Ranging test of an IFM tracker showing vacuum wavelength error
0 .0 2
0 .0 1

Error (mm)

0
-0 . 0 1
-0 . 0 2

1 x 10-6

-0 . 0 3
-0 . 0 4

R un #1
C o r r e c te d r u n # 1

-0 . 0 5

R un #2
C o r r e c te d r u n # 2

-0 . 0 6
-0 . 0 7

E r r o r d u e to i n c o r r e c t w a v e l e n g th

10

20

30

40

50

D is p la c e m e n t ( m )

Wavelength in instrument = 632.990400 nm


Calibrated wavelength (NIST) = 632.991061 nm
Difference = 0.6 10-3 nm
Relative length error = 0.6 10-3 nm / 633 nm = 1 10-6

60

1-D Cooperative Target Range Facility


Ranging test of an IFM tracker; passing specifications

Error (mm)

0 .0 4
0 .0 3

Run #1
Run #2

0 .0 2

Run #3
M PE

+MPE

0 .0 1
0
-0 . 0 1
-0 . 0 2

MPE

-0 . 0 3
-0 . 0 4

10

15

20

D is p la c e m e n t ( m )

25

30

35

1-D Cooperative Target Range Facility


Ranging test of an ADM tracker passing specifications

0 .0 8
Run #1
Run #2
Run #3
MPE

0 .0 6

Error (mm)

0 .0 4

+MPE

0 .0 2
0

Significantly more
points sampled than
required by B89.4.19

-0 . 0 2
-0 . 0 4
-0 . 0 6
-0 . 0 8

MPE
0

10

20

30

40

D is p la c e m e n t ( m )

50

60

1-D Cooperative Target Range Facility


Ranging test of an ADM tracker showing complex
range errors before compensation & small errors
after compensation

Ranging System Test on ADM #2-2


0.400

Error, mm

0.300

Before Cal
0.200

After Cal

0.100

0.000
0

10

15

Length, m

20

25

Volumetric System Tests:


Check Optical-Mechanical Alignments

Volumetric System Tests

Vertical Positions

Horizontal Positions
Standing axis

Target stands
b

Standing axis

A
Target nests
a

b
h

h
D

Volumetric System Tests


Right Diagonal Position

Left Diagonal Position


45 degrees

0.7A

a
0.7A

0.7A

45 degrees
Standing axis

Target nests

Standing axis

0.7A

b
Target nests
h

Large Scale Volumetric Test Facility

B89.4.19 Volumetric System Tests


(Horizontal Tests)

Back to back target SMRs

Laser
Interferometer

B89.4.19 Volumetric System Tests


(Horizontal Tests Physical Artifact)

B89.4.19 Volumetric System Tests


(Diagonal Tests)

B89.4.19 Volumetric System Tests


Volumetric test of an ADM, passing MPE specifications
Volumetric Performance Test on ADM #6
All readings in ADM mode unless otherw ise indicated
0.15

Horizontal

Vertical

Right Diagonal

Left Diagonal

User

0.10

0.05
90

18 0

270 0

9 0 18 0 2 7 0 0

90

18 0

270

9 0 18 0 2 7 0 0

90

18 0

270

9 0 18 0 2 7 0 0

90

18 0

270

9 0 18 0 2 7 0

1st reading
2nd reading
3rd reading

0.00

+MPE
-MPE
-0.05

1m
3m

-0.10

-0.15

3m
6m

3m
6m

3m
6m

6m

3m
5m

Error, mm

B89.4.19 Volumetric System Tests


Volumetric test of an IFM tracker, failing MPE specifications

Horizontal
3m

0.3

6m

Vertical

3m

6m

Right Diagonal Left Diagonal

3m

6m

3m

6m

0 0 90 180 270 0 90 180 270 0 90 180 270 0 90 180 270 0 90 180 270 0 90 180 270 0 90 180 270 0 90 180 270

1st reading
2nd reading
3rd reading
MPE

E rro r (m m )

0.2
0.1
0

1m
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3

3m

3m

3m
6m

6m

3m
6m

6m

B89.4.19 Volumetric System Tests


Simulated and actual errors for the volumetric test

Beam Tilt (X)


Error

Beam Tilt (Y)

H or
3m
0

90

H or
6m
180

270 0

90

V er
3m
180

270

90

V er
6m
180

270 0

0.4

90

RD
3m
180

270

90

RD
6m
180

270 0

90

LD
3m
180

270 0

90

Horizontal Angle
Encoder
Eccentricity (X)
Horizontal Angle
Encoder
Eccentricity (Y)

LD
6m
180

270 0 90

180

270

M e a s u re d e rro rs
S im u la t e d e rro rs

Error (mm)

0.2
0
-0 . 2
-0 . 4

5H o r

H or
3m
0

90

10

V er
3m

6m

180

270 0

90

180

270

90

180

V er
6m
270 0

90

15
180

20

R D
3m
270

90

180

270 0

2 5L D

R D
6m
90

30

3m

180

270

90

35

L D
6m
180

270

90

180

270

B89.4.19 Two Face Test

B89.4.19 Two Face Tests

Error (mm)

Two face test of an ADM tracker, passing MPE specifications

1st reading
2nd reading
3rd reading
MPE

0.1

0.05

0
Low
0

90 180 270

Mid
0

90 180 270

High
0

D minimum

90 180 270

Low
0

90 180 270

Mid
0

90 180 270

3m

High
0

90 180 270

Low
0

90 180 270

Mid
0

90 180 270

6m

High
0

90 180 270

B89.4.19 Two Face Tests


Two face test of an ADM tracker, failing MPE specifications

0.5
1st reading
2nd reading
3rd reading
MPE

Error (mm)

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
Low
0

90 180 270

Mid
0

90 180 270

High
0

D minimum

90 180 270

Low
0

90 180 270

Mid
0

90 180 270

3m

High
0

90 180 270

Low
0

90 180 270

Mid
0

90 180 270

6m

High
0

90 180 270

B89.4.19 Two Face Tests


Simulated and actual errors for the two face test

Error

Horizontal angle
encoder
eccentricity (X)

Horizontal angle
encoder
eccentricity (Y)

Low
0

90 180 270

Mid
0

90 180 270

High
0

90 180 270

Low
0

90 180 270

D minimum

Mid
0

90 180 270

High
0

90 180 270

Low
0

3m

90 180 270

Mid
0

90 180 270

High
0

90 180 270

6m

Error (mm)

0.5
Measured errors
Simulated errors

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

(Kz)

VDI / VDE Tracker Draft


Use a measurement volume 3 x 6 x 10 m with
multiple calibrated lengths created via distances
between fixed mounts
Evaluate the
observed errors
against the
manufacture's
MPE specification

VDI / VDE Tracker Draft


Projecting the lengths onto a wall and moving the
tracker makes the set up easier

VDI / VDE Tracker Draft


Probe Test to check the SMR size and form
Similar to the ISO CMM probe test

25 measurement points on a
calibrated test sphere:
Report: Size and Form error

Final Thoughts On Laser Trackers

Large Measurement Volumes; range > 30 m


Very Low Cost Compared to Large CMMs

Portable, Bring the Tracker to the Workpiece


Allows Factory Floor to be Easily Reconfigured

ADM Systems Yield Direct Measurements


No Issue with Beam Breakage or Walkout

Final Thoughts On Laser Trackers

Standardized Tracker Tests Allow


For manufacturers to specify performance
For users to test performance
Detection of most tracker errors
Test results that are metrologically traceable

(e.g., per ASME B89.7.5)

ISO Working Draft for Trackers

Combines B89 & VDI work


Improves sensitivity to errors
Includes SMR probe test
Includes workpiece CTE compensation test

Laser Trackers:
Testing and Standards

Q&A
Disclaimer:
Data on commercial products are only provided for the sake of describing
experimental results. NIST does not endorse or recommend any
commercial products or imply that this equipment is the best for any
particular application.

Steven.Phillips@NIST.gov