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Metallogenic Provinces

Geology of Ore Deposits: An Overview

By
DR. ARIFUDIN IDRUS

Laboratory of Mineral Resources


Department of Geological Engineering
Gadjah Mada University
Jl. Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur
Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia

Major tectonic plates


Lempeng Eurasia

Lempeng Amerika Utara

Lempeng Pasifik

Lempeng Afrika

Lempeng Nazca
Lempeng Hindia-Australia
Lempeng
Amerika Selatan

Lempeng Antartik

Tectonic setting vs Ore deposits

Southwest Pacific Rim

Tertiary island arcs in Indonesia

Commodity-type classification of ore deposit


(Evans, 1993):
z

Precious metals (logam mulia): emas (Au), perak (Ag), platina (Pt)

Non-ferrous metals (logam non-ferrous): tembaga (Cu), timbal


(Pb/lead), seng (Zn/zinc), timah (Sn/tin), dan aluminium (Al). Empat
pertama dikenal sebagai logam dasar (base metals).

Iron and ferroalloy metals (logam ferroalloy dan besi): besi (Fe),
Mangan (Mn), nikel (Ni), krom (Cr), molibdenum (Mo), wolfram
(W/tungsten), vanadium (V), kobal (Co).

Minor metals and related non-metals: antimon (Sb/antimony),


arsen (As), berilium (Be/beryllium), bismut (Bi), kadmium (Cd),
magnesium (Mg), air raksa (Hg/mercury), REE, selenium (Se),
tantalium (Ta), telurium (Te), titanium (Ti), Zirkonium (Zr), dsb.

Fissionable metals: uranium (U), torium (Th), radium (Ra).

Genetic classification of Ore deposits


z

Magmatic-hydrothermal-related deposits
z
z
z

Hydrothermal-diagenetic related deposits


z
z

Quartz-lode gold (orogenic gold deposits)

Chemical weathering related deposits


z

Kupferschiefer types (Cu, Pb, Zn) SEDEX


Mississippi-Valley Type (MVT): Pb-Zn-Ba-F in marine carbonates

Hydrothermal-metamorphic related deposits


z

Magmatic liquid deposits: Cr, Ni, PGM


Pegmatite (Sn, Nb/Ta, Li, Be, etc).
Hydrothermal: Cyprus-type (VMS); skarn (W, Sn, Cu, etc), porphyry (Cu,
Mo, Sn, etc); Vein/lode (Sn, W, U); Epithermal (Au-Ag).

Bauxite, Fe-laterite, Nickel and Au laterites

Mechanical weathering related deposits


z

Placer deposits (alluvial, marine): Au, Sn, Fe/Ti, REE)

Geology of Bushveld complex, RSA

Chromite layers of Bushveld complex

Model of Au-Ag low sulphidation epitermal deposit

Epithermal refers to mineral deposits that form in association with hot waters.
The deposits form within 1 km of the surface and water temperatures are about
50-200 degrees C.

CLASSIC MODEL OF PORPHYRY DEPOSITS


SAN MANUEL FAULT

SAN MANUEL
SEGMENT
?
?
Propylitic
(Chl-Ep-Carb)
Adul-Ab

KALAMAZOO
SEGMENT

?
?
Phyllic
Qtz-Ser-Py

Potassic
Qtz-Kfs-Bt+Ser+Anh

Argillic
Qtz-KlnChl

PERIPHERAL

Ccp-Gn-Sp-Au-Ag

LOW PYRITE
SHELL

Py ~2%

Py ~10%
Ccp 0.1-3%
Mo rare

Qtz-SerChl-Kfs

ORE SHELL
Py 1%
Ccp 1-3%
Mo 0.03%

PYRITE
S HELL

?
Chl-SerEp-Mag

PERIPHERAL

Ccp-Gn-Sp-Au-Ag

Mag>Py

LOW GRADE
CORE
low total
Ccp-Py-Mo

Mag>Py
& Ccp

Three major models:


1. Quartz-monzonite
2. Diorite
3. Breccia

Quartz-Monzonite
model

Quartz lode gold

Schematic illustrations showing the principal features of Archean erogenic gold deposits many of which also apply to Proterozoic and Phanerozoic examples. The main features at a
megascale are that the deposits are associated with a convergent plate margin where
metamorphism results in the production of fluids that are focused along major structural
discontinuities. At a mesoscale major shear zones within or along the margins of greenstone
belts represent district-scale hosts to mineralization that are accompanied by broad zones of
intense alteration. Individual deposits occur along second- and third-order structures. Ore
deposition is a function of fluid rock reaction and/or H2O-CO2 phase separation (after
Hagemann and Cassidy, 2000).

Quartz lode gold

Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide

VMS deposit model (Kuroko type)

Major source of Base metals, e.g. Cu, Zn dan Pb

Diagram illustrating the setting for the formation of SEDEX-type Pb-Zn ores and a scenario
which incorporates both exhalative and replacement concepts for the formation of these
ores (after compilations by Goodfellow et al., 1993; Misra, 2000).

SEDEX (e.g. Sullivan, Canada)

SEDEX Deposits

Sulphide mineral layers are enclosed by and parallel to the


sedimentary strata.

Placer Deposits
z

Placer deposit : formed by the mechanical concentration


of resistant minerals, which are released by weathering
from source rocks
Main Commodities:
Tin, Gold, Platinum, Niobium, Tantalum, Titanium, Zircon,
Diamond
Paleo-placers:
The lithified equivalents of placer deposit
Economic deposits are limited geographical distribution
z (Archean Proterozoic)
z Uranium, Canada
z Gold & Uranium, South Africa
z Tin bearing paleo-placer: Nigeria, Brazil, Malaysia

Gold placer deposit

Nickel laterite deposit: Profile

Nickel laterite deposit: Soroako

Nickel laterite deposit: Hand Auger drilling

Nickel laterite deposit: Core logging

Nickel laterite deposit: Deposit modelling

Nickel laterite deposit: Mining/exploitation