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Roll No: ...........................

Total No. of Questions :[ 09]


B.Tech CSE C3/C4 (Sem. - 3 )
DIGITAL CIRCUITS & LOGIC DESIGN (BTCS-303)
rd

Time: 03 Hours
Instruction to Candidates:
1) Section - A is Compulsory.
2) Attempt any four questions from Section - B.
3) Attempt any two questions from Section - C.
Maximum Marks: 60
Section -A
Q1.)

State De-Morgans Theorem.

Perform subtraction of the following.


(110001)2 - (101111)2

ii.) (10101010)2 - (11111)2

Differentiate Combinational and sequential circuits.

Write down the difference between Analog & Digital Signals.

How many OR gates are required for Y= AB+DE+F. Identify with the Logic circuit.

Prove that (A+B) (B+A) = A+B.

Define Encoder.

Convert the following numbers.


(FFFF) 16 to (?)8

Find out 1s and 2s complement of the following numbers.

ii.) (1111.111)2 to (?)10

11001100

ii.) 00111100

Convert the following numbers.

(145.55) 10 to (?)2

ii.) (735)10 to (?)8


Section-B

Q2.) Prove the following by using Boolean algebra.

=0
(A+B) (A+

)C+

(B+

)+

B + ABC = C (A+B) +

)
Q3.) Write short note on a) Excess-3 code b) 9s and 10s Complement with example.
Q4.) Obtain min & max term
Y (A.B.C) = m (0,2,4,6,8,9,12)

Y (A,B,C) = M (0,2,4,6)

(B+

Q5.) Explain how NAND gate acts as a Universal Gate.


Q6) Describe full subtractor with k- map and logic circuit implementation.
Section-C
Q7.) Design octal to binary encoder with functional block diagram.
Q8.) What are half adder & Full adder? Discuss in detail. Also design 4 bit parallel adder.
Q9.) Reduce the following equations using k-map.
F(A,B,C,D) = m ( 0, 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15)

+A

+ ABC

C.

Section A

A1)
a.

De-Morgan's theorem states that (i) Compliment of sum of two or more variables is equal to the product of compliment of
variables.
(ii) Compliment of product of two or more variables is equal to the sum of compliment of
variables.

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b.
(i) (110001)2 - (101111)2
110001
- 101111
--------------------------

000010

ii.) (10101010)2 - (11111)2

10101010
- 00011111

---------------0 10001011

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c.

S.No.

Combinational Circuit

Sequential Circuit

1.

It contains no memory
elements

It contains memory
elements

2.

The present value of its


outputs are determined
solely by the present
values of its inputs

The present value of its


outputs are determined
by the present value of
its inputs and its past
state

3.

Its behavior is described


by the set of output
functions

Its behavior is described


by the set of nextstate(memory) functions
and the set of output
functions

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d.

Analog
Signal

Digital

Analog signal is a

Digital signals are discrete

continuous signal which

time signals generated by

represents physical

digital modulation.

measurements.
Waves
Representation

Example

Denoted by sine waves

Denoted by square waves

Uses continuous range of

Uses discrete or

values to represent

discontinuous values to

information

represent information

Human voice in air, analog

Computers, CDs, DVDs,

electronic devices.

and other digital electronic


devices.

Technology

Analog technology records

Samples analog waveforms

waveforms as they are.

into a limited set of


numbers and records
them.

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e.
Hence, Only 1 OR Gate will be used.

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f.

(A+B) (B+A) = A+B


L.H.S.
(A+B) (B+A)
A.B + A.A + B.B + B.A
A.B. + A + B + A.B
A ( B+1) + B ( 1 + A )
A.1+B.1
A+B
L.H.S = R.H.S
Hence Proved.

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g.
Encoder is a combinational circuit used to convert binary information from 2n inputs to n
outputs. It is a device used to change data into specific code. It is used for purpose like
standardization , security, speed or saving space by shrinking size.
Eg : Priority encoder, decimal to BCD encoder etc.

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h.

i) (FFFF) 16 to (?)8
(FFFF)16 to Binary --> 1111 1111 1111 1111
Now, making pair in 3 bits ..
001 111 111 111 111 111
Therefore, (FFFF) 16 to ( 1 7 7 7 7 7 )8

ii.) (1111.111)2 to (?)10


Redix = 2 , therefore, multiplying left side with 20 , 21 and so on... and right side with 2-1 , 2-2
and so on.
1x8 + 1x4 + 1x2 + 1x1 . 1x0.5 + 1x0.25 + 1x0.125
15.875
(1111.111)2 to (15.875)10

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i)

i) (145.55) 10 to (?)2
Dividing the number by Redix ( ie : 2)
2

145

72

36

18

.55 x 2 = 1.1
.10 x 2 = 0.2
.20 x 2 = 0.4

1
0
0

(145.55) 10 to (10010001.100)2

ii.) (735)10 to (?)8


Dividing the number by Redix ( ie : 8)

735

91

11

(735)10 to (1337)8

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Section B

A2)

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A3)
i) Excess-3 code is an example of unweighted code. Excess-3 equivalent of a
decimal number is obtained by adding 3 and then converting it to a binary
format. For instance to find excess-3 representation of decimal number 4,
first 3 is added to 4 to get 7 and then binary equivalent of 7 i.e. 0111 forms
the excess-3 equivalent.
Excess-3 code is also known as self complimenting code or reflective code,
as 1s compliment of any number (0-9) is available within these 10 numbers.
For example 1s complement of 9 (1100) is 0011.

ii)
The nines' complement of a decimal digit is the number that must be added
to it to produce 9; the complement of 3 is 6, the complement of 7 is 2, and

so on, see table. To form the nines' complement of a larger number, each
digit is replaced by its nines' complement.

10's complement, it is relatively easy to find out the 10's complement after
finding out the 9,s complement of that number. We have to add 1 with the
9,s complement of any number to obtain the desired 10's complement of
that number. Or if we want to find out the 10's complement directly, we can
do it by following the following formula, (10n - number), where n = number
of digits in the number. An example is given below to illustrate the concept of
obtaining 10s complement.

Let us take a decimal number 456, 9's complement of this number will be

10's complement of this no will be


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A4)

Truth Table

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A5)
NAND and NOR Gates are called Universal Gates because all the other gates can be
created by using these gates

1) NAND gate to NOT Gate conversion

Here the same input is applied to the both inputs of a NAND Gate
According to NAND Gate If A and B are two inputs than output equation will be
(A.B)
For this case :
= (X.X)
= X
2. NAND Gate to AND Gate Convertion

For this case x and y are the two inputs to a NAND gate and the output of the First
NAND gate goes again to an another NAND gates inputs.
=>
=>
=>
=>

s1 = (X.Y)
s2 = (s1.s1) = s1
s2 = ((X.Y))
X.Y

3. NAND Gate to OR Gate Conversion

According to diagram
s1 = (X.X) = X
s2 = (Y.Y) = Y
s3= (s1.s2) = (X.Y)
=> (X) + (Y)
=> X+Y
4. NAND Gate to NOR Gate Convertion

According to diagram
s1 = (X.X) = X
s2 = (Y.Y) = Y
s3= (s1.s2) = (X.Y)
=> (X) + (Y)
=> X+Y
s4 = (s3.s3) = s3
=> (X + Y)
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A6) Full Subtractor :


X
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

Y
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0

BIN
Diff(D)
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
Truth Table For Full Subtractor

Borrow(B)
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
1

From above table we can draw the Kmap as shown below for "difference" and
"borrow".

The boolean expression for difference and borrow can be written as


D = X'Y'Bin + X'YBin' + XY'Bin' + XYBin
= (X'Y' + XY)Bin + (X'Y + XY')Bin'
= (X
=X

Y)'Bin + (X
Y

Y)Bin'

Bin

Bout = X'.Y + X'.Bin + Y.Bin

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Section C

A7)
Octal To Binary Encoder

An encoder has 2n or fewer input lines, only one of which is in the 1 state
at a particular time and an n-bit code is generated on n output lines

depending upon which of the input is excited. In other words,


an encoder is a circuit in which output lines generate the binary code
corresponding to the input value.

An octal to binary encoder has 2 = 8 input lines D to D and 3 output lines


3

Y to Y . Below is the truth table for an octal to binary encoder.


0

From the truth table, the outputs can be expressed by following Boolean
Function.
Y =D +D +D +D

Y =D +D +D +D

Y =D +D +D +D

Note: Above boolean functions are formed by ORing all the input lines for
which output is 1. For instance Y is 1 for D , D , D , D input lines.
0

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A8)

i) Half Adder is a combinational circuit that performs addition of two


bits. It has two inputs and two outputs. The two I/Ps are the two 1-bit

numbers A and B designated as augend and addend bits. The two O/Ps
are the sum S of A and B and the carry bit, denoted by C.
Truth Table of a half adder can be derived by performing binary addition
of augend and addend bits as follows:

From the truth table, Boolean Expression can be derived as:


S = AB + AB = A B
C = AB

A Half Adder circuit can be implemented using AND & OR logic gates or by
using XOR & AND logic gates. Both these implementations are shown
below:

Since NAND is considered as Universal Logic Gate which means that all
other logic gates can be derived from it, below is the implementation of
a Half Adder circuit using NAND logic gate:

ii) Full Adder is a combinational circuit that performs addition of three

bits. It consists of three inputs and two ouputs. Two of the inputs denoted
by A and B are augend and addend bits that are to be added, & third input
denoted by C represents the carry bit from the previous lower significant
i

position. The two O/Ps are the sum S of A and B and the carry bit,
denoted by C .
o

Truth Table of a full adder can be derived as follows:


C

From the truth table, Boolean Expression can be derived as:


S=CAB
i

C = AB + (A B) C
o

A full adder circuit can be realized using half adder circuits as shown
below:

Using OR, XOR and AND logic gates, a full adder circuit can be
implemented as below:

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A9)

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