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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)

Volume 6, Issue 7, Jul 2015, pp. 29-39, Article ID: IJMET_06_07_005


Available online at
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ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
IAEME Publication
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EFFECT OF USING BLENDS OF SOAPNUT


BIO-DIESEL WITH PETRO-DIESEL AS
ENGINE FUELS ON PERFORMANCE
PARAMETERS OF A SINGLE CYLINDER
FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE
Kamal Kant Vashistha
M. Tech. Scholar, Mechanical Engineering,
LNCT, Indore, M. P., India,
Jitendra Jayant
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering,
LNCT, Indore, M. P., India,
Dr. A. C. Tiwari
H. O .D. Mechanical Engineering, UIT (RGPV),
Bhopal, M. P., India,
ABSTRACT
As a developing country, India is in need of potential bio-diesels that are
derived from non-edible vegetable oils to minimise the dependency on petrodiesel, thus reducing the foreign expenditure on crude oil import, as well as to
meet the environmental concerns. For the reason, in the present work,
feasibility of soapnut (Sapindus Mukorossi) bio-diesel as a potential alternate
fuel for diesel engine, as well as engine performance parameters of a single
cylinder four stroke diesel engine using petro-diesel and lean soapnut biodiesel blends with petro-diesel as engine fuels, were experimentally
investigated.
The experimental investigation showed soapnut bio-diesel to be a potential
alternate fuel for diesel engine. Moreover, lean soapnut bio-diesel blends
exhibited satisfactory engine performance over the entire load range with
performance of 10% blend of soapnut bio-diesel with petro-diesel i.e. B10
being marginally better than the petro-diesel as well as other blends.
Key words: Alternate Fuels, Bio-diesel, Soapnut Bio-diesel and Engine
Performance Parameters.
Cite this Article: Vashistha, K. K., Jayant, J. and Dr. Tiwari, A. C. Effect of
using Blends of Soapnut Bio-Diesel with Petro-Diesel as Engine Fuels on
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Kamal Kant Vashistha, Jitendra Jayant, Dr. A. C. Tiwari

Performance Parameters of a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine.


International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 6(7), 2015,
pp. 29-39.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JTypeIJMET&VType=6&IType=7
_____________________________________________________________________

1. INTRODUCTION
Energy, which is the basis for the existence of the Universe and the human beings,
is described as the capacity to do work. From revolution and rotation of electrons in
an atom to revolution and rotation of planets in the solar system, from blinking of an
eye to climbing mountains, from exploding of a fire cracker to exploding of a nuclear
bomb etc.; every activity requires energy. Hence, energy is known as Strategic
Commodity. In short whatever was, is or will be, is due to the manifestation of
energy in one form or the other.
As energy is the basis of all the existences and activities, and the per-capita energy
consumption (PEC) of a nation is an index of the standard of living, of the people of
that nation. The sustainable development and socio-economic progress of a nation is
thus dependent on the effective and efficient utilisation of energy and its resources [1
3]. Of all the available energy resources, fossil fuels (crude oil (Petroleum) and
natural gas) constitute 45% share i.e. second to none, in Indias energy consumption.
It is also projected that, even if hydropower potential is exploited to the fullest, even if
there is a 40 times increase in the contribution of renewable sources and a 20 times
increase in the contribution of nuclear power capacity, by the year 203132, fossil
fuels will continue to occupy a significant share in the energy consumption of India.
Moreover, among the fossil fuels consumption, crude oil constitute 87.5% share,
whereas, natural gas constitute only 12.5%. Thus, crude oil plays a pivotal role in
Indias energy scenario [4].
Crude oil or petroleum is refined to obtain many products e.g. petrol, diesel
(Petro-diesel), LPG, kerosene, lubricants, fuel oils etc., which are used to meet our
energy needs, as well as to carry out certain other operations. Of all the petroleum
products, petro-diesel accounts for the highest consumption, with its share increasing
from 32.85% in 200506 to 38.83% in 201314, with CAGR of 6.08%. Hence,
substituting alternate fuels for petro-diesel can greatly curtail our foreign expenditure
on crude oil import, decrease dependency on fast depleting crude oil reserves and also
meet the environmental concerns associated with crude oil [5].
Bio-diesel, which is most commonly referred to a vegetable oil or animal fat
(preferably vegetable oil) based diesel engine fuel consisting of long chain alkyl
(Methyl, Ethyl or Propyl) esters, which is typically produced by chemically reacting
lipids (e.g. vegetable oil, animal fat) with an alcohol [6, 7], is the most promising
alternate fuel for petro-diesel. Bio-diesel has many advantages over conventional
petro-diesel viz [813].
1. Bio-diesel is made from renewable resources and has lower toxicity.
2. Bio-diesel feed stocks are readily and easily available.
3. Bio-diesel is biologically degradable and thus reduces the danger of soil
contamination.
4. Bio-diesel refineries are comparatively simpler and more environmental friendly.

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Effect of using Blends of Soapnut Bio-Diesel with Petro-Diesel as Engine Fuels on


Performance Parameters of a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine
5. Bio-diesel performs just as well as petro-diesel and can be blended up to 40% with
petro-diesel without engine modification.
6. Bio-diesel causes less environmental pollution and toxic hazards.
7. Bio-diesel has a higher cetane number and lubricity rating.
8. Bio-diesel is relatively less inflammable, easy to handle and store.
9. Bio-diesel improves the volumetric efficiency of an engine due to higher oxygen
content.
10. Bio-diesel prolongs the life of an engine because of its superior lubricating properties.

Traditionally, both edible and non-edible vegetable oils have been used for biodiesel production. However, due to Food vs Fuel concern and also for the Indias
National Policy on Bio-fuels 2009, non-edible vegetable oils have become the catch
of the day [14].
Among non-edible vegetable oils, soapnut (Sapindus Mukorossi) oil is a
potential feedstock for bio-diesel production, as well as a recent introduction in the
field of bio-diesel research. Soapnut, which is basically the fruit of soapnut tree (a
small deciduous tree having an average height of 25 m), is found at an altitude
ranging from 200 m1500 m, in tropical and sub-tropical climatic regions of the
world including Asia, America and Europe. Moreover, soapnut is the most important
tree of the tropical and sub-tropical climatic regions of Asia, and belongs to the family
Sapindaceae. In India, soapnut is most commonly found in Indo-Gangetic Plains,
Shivalik and Sub-Himalayan tracts, North-East, Western and Eastern Ghats, and the
plains of South-India [15, 16].
Although a new substitute to petro-diesel, a lot of researchers have contributed to
the investigation of soapnuts oil and bio-diesel [1731]. Their investigation has
found soapnut oil to be a potential feedstock for bio-diesel production, as well as
soapnut bio-diesel to be a potential alternate fuel for diesel engine. Moreover, the
feasible range of blending for soapnut oil and soapnut bio-diesel with petro-diesel was
found to be 0% (SNO 0) to 20% (SNO 20) and 0% (B0) to 40% (B40) respectively.
However, the efficient range for soapnut bio-diesel blend was found to be B5 to B20.
Whereas, Soapnut bio-diesel was preferred over soapnut oil as alternate fuel for diesel
engine, for apparent reasons.
Thus, much work has been done on soapnut bio-diesel, however, much needs to
be done. So, a research work was undertaken with the following objectives:
1. To verify the feasibility of soapnut bio-diesel as a potential alternate fuel for diesel
engine.
2. to experimentally investigate and compare the performance of a single cylinder four
stroke diesel engine using petro-diesel and lean bio-diesel blends of soapnut biodiesel with petro-diesel (B5, B10, B15 and B20) as engine fuels.

2. MATERIALS AND METHODS


A single cylinder four stroke compression ignition engine, installed at Thermal
Engineering Lab of UIT, RGPV, Bhopal (MP) as shown in Plate 2.1, was employed
for evaluating engine performance parameters. The technical description of the test
engine is as shown in Table 2.1.

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Plate 2.1 Experimental Setup


Table 2.1 Technical Specifications of the Test Engine
Parameter

Description

Engine

Diesel Engine

Make

Kirloskar Oil Engine, Pune

Model

SV1

Type

Vertical, Totally Enclosed, Four Stroke


Cycle, Water Cooled, Compression Ignition

No. of Cylinders

One

Bore (D)

87.5 mm

Stroke (L)

110 mm

Cubic Capacity

662 cc

Compression Ratio (rc)

16.5:1

RPM

1800

Rated Output

8 HP

For the purpose of test, petro-diesel and soapnut fruits were purchased from local
market of Bhopal. Soapnut fruits were first washed and dried, thereafter were crushed
to obtain seeds from them. The seeds were further crushed to obtain kernels. Soapnut
kernels were then cold pressed to obtain soapnut oil, thereafter transesterification
process was employed to obtain bio-diesel from soapnut oil.

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Effect of using Blends of Soapnut Bio-Diesel with Petro-Diesel as Engine Fuels on


Performance Parameters of a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine

Transesterification was carried out using excess methanol (CH3OH) at a


temperature of 6065 C for one and a half hour, with potassium hydroxide (KOH)
being the catalyst. Precautions were taken to keep the temperature between 6065 C
to avoid possible methanol evaporation. Finally, the fuel properties of soapnut biodiesel were evaluated using ASTM and EN Standards as shown in Table 3.1.

2.1. Test Procedure:


1. The ontest engine was started without any load (however, engine friction was always
present).
3. Before starting the test, the engine was kept running for 20 minutes to get stabilised,
and there after stabilisation period of 15 minutes was allowed for subsequent tests.
4. At first the tests were conducted using petro-diesel as fuel by varying the load.
5. The selected load on the engine was applied and the engine was kept running under
the desired load condition for 10 minutes. Thereafter, readings were observed and
recorded.
6. The same procedure was repeated for testing the prepared soapnut bio-diesel blends.
7. After completion of the tests on one of the blends, the remaining fuel from the fuel
tank was drained off fully to avoid any mixing of the prepared blends. Then the next
prepared blend was filled into the fuel tank and the engine was run for 15 minutes
duration for its stabilisation and combustion of remaining fuel in the pipeline, as well
as in the injection systems.
8. The experiments were conducted for each blend and three repetitions were made on
each setting of load.
9. Finally, results of engine performance and heat losses with soapnut bio-diesel blends
were compared with that of petro-diesel.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


3.1. Soapnut Bio-diesel
The fuel properties of soapnut bio-diesel obtained through transesterification and used
for experimental investigation, were evaluated using ASTM D6751 and EN 14214
standards. The properties thus evaluated are tabulated in Table 3.1

3.2. Engine Performance Parameters


Experimental data were collected at different loads through repeated experimental
observations, by using the aforementioned diesel engine and fuels. The data thus
collected were analysed and represented in graphs as shown below.
The values of fuel properties were found to be satisfactory and within range/limit
as per ASTM and EN standards, except for a slightly higher CFPP of 5.5 C.
Howsoever, showing soapnut bio-diesel to be a potential alternate fuel for diesel
engine.
At no load condition, the values of various engine performance parameters were
within reasonable limit for petro-diesel and bio-diesel blends with petro-diesel. As
load increased, the behaviour of petro-diesel and bio-diesel blends with petro-diesel
became more and more evident.

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Table 3.1 Fuel Properties of Soapnut Bio-diesel
Serial No.

Property

Test Method

Soapnut Biodiesel

Range/Limit

Cloud Point (C)

ASTM 2500

-1

-12 to -3

Pour Point (C)

ASTM 97

-4

-16 to -15

CFPP (C)

ASTM D6371

5.5

5 max.

Flash Point (C)

ASTM D93

165

130 min.

Kinematic Viscosity at
40 C (mm2/s)

ASTM D445

4.630

1.96.0

Cetane Number

ASTM D613

56

47 min.

Density at 15 C (kg/L)

ASTM D1298

0.874

0.80088

Acid Number
(mgKOH/g)

ASTM D664

0.140

0.5 max.

Carbon Residue
(%m/m)

ASTM D4530

0.012

0.050 max.

10

Iodine Number (gl2/100


g)

EN 14111

82

120

11

Calorific Value (MJ)

ASTM D4868

40.020

12

Sulphur Content
(mg/kg)

ASTM D874

102

150 max.

13

Sulphated Ash Content


(%m/m)

ASTM D874

0.001

0.002 max.

14

Water Content (mg/kg)

ASTM D1160

86

500 max.

15

Water and Sediment


Content (%v/v)

ASTM D2709

0.03

0.05 max.

16

Free Glycerol (%m/m)

ASTM D6584

0.01

0.02 max.

17

Total Glycerol (%m/m)

ASTM D6548

0.18

0.24 max.

18

Phosphorus Content
(%m/m)

ASTM D4951

0.0008

0.001 max.

19

Oxidation Stability at
110 C (h)

EN 14112

4.7

3 min.

20

Lubricity (WSD/mm)

ASTM D6079

0.181

0.520 max.

21

Workmanship (visual)

ASTM D4176

Clear and Free

Clear and Free

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Effect of using Blends of Soapnut Bio-Diesel


Bio
with Petro-Diesel
Diesel as Engine Fuels on
Performance Parameters of a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine

S P E E D V S LO AD

Speed (RPM)

B0

B5

B10

B15

B20

780
770
760
750
740
730
720
710
700
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

90

100

Load (%)
Figure 1 Speed vs. Load for Petro-diesel and the Blends

BRAKE P O W E R V S LO AD
Brake Power (w)

B0

B5

B10

B15

B20

1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Load (%)
Figure 2 Break Power vs. Load for Petro-diesel
Petro diesel and the Blends

BS FC V S LO AD

BSFC (kg/kwh)

B0

B5

B10

B15

B20

0.6
0.55
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
50

60

70

80

90

100

Load (%)
Figure 3 BSFC vs. Load for Petro-diesel and the Blends

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Kamal Kant Vashistha, Jitendra Jayant, Dr. A. C. Tiwari

V O LUME TRI C E FFI CI E NCY V S LO AD

Volumetric Efficiency (%)

B0

B5

B10

B15

B20

96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Load (%)
Figure 4 Volumetric Efficiency vs. Load for Petro-diesel
Petro diesel and the Blends

In Figure 1, Speed is plotted against the Load for petro-diesel


petro diesel and blends of biobio
diesel with petro-diesel.
diesel. In the beginning, speed is nearly same
same for petro-diesel
petro
and all
the blends, except for B20, which has the lowest value. Afterwards, speed decreases
for petro-diesel
diesel and the blends, as the load increases. During the load interval
50%62.5%, petro-diesel
diesel and the blends exhibit sharp reduction in speed, except for
B10. This is for the reason that after medium load, fuel consumption increases
considerably to account for increasing energy demand, but this increase is gradual in
the beginning. So, petro-diesel
diesel and the blends dont have sufficient amount
amount of fuel to
compensate for the load increment, however, calorific value and oxygen content of
B10 are just ideal to ensure proper and efficient combustion for releasing optimum
heat energy, and so speed reduction of B10 is gradual as compared to petro-diesel
petro
and
other blends. Moreover, for the load interval 62.5%93.75%,
62.5% 93.75%, at any given load, B10
has the highest value and B20 the lowest value for speed. The low performance of
B20 is for the reason that though B20 has high oxygen content, its calorific value
val is
low due to high percentage of bio-diesel,
bio diesel, and so even with proper and efficient
combustion, amount of heat energy released is low as compared to petro-diesel
petro
and
other blends.
In Figure 2,, Brake Power is plotted against the Load for petro-diesel
petro diesel and blends of
bio-diesel with petro-diesel.
diesel. Brake Power increases smoothly for petro-diesel
petro
and the
blends, as load increases. Over the entire load range, brake power at any given load is
slightly higher for petro-diesel
diesel as compared to the blends, with the only
onl exception for
62.5%93.75%
93.75% load range, where B10 finds the top notch. This is for the reason that
though for the load interval 62.5%93.75%,
62.5% 93.75%, amount of fuel consumption is more or
less same for both petro-diesel
diesel and B10, however, better combustion of B10 due to
high oxygen content results in better heat energy release.
In Figure 3,, BSFC is plotted against the Load for petro-diesel
petro diesel and blends of biobio
diesel with petro-diesel.
diesel. In the beginning, BSFC is lowest for petro-diesel,
petro diesel, while for
the blends is slightly higher. At 75% load, BSFC of B20 is 12.2% more than that of
petro-diesel,
diesel, as for higher fuel consumption of B20 associated with normal BP, due to
low calorific value of B20. At the final point of the load range as compared to the
initial point, the BSFC iss slightly higher for petro-diesel
petro diesel and the blends, except for
B10 (0.2% less than petro-diesel),
petro diesel), as for normal fuel consumption of B10 associated

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Effect of using Blends of Soapnut Bio-Diesel with Petro-Diesel as Engine Fuels on


Performance Parameters of a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine

with higher brake power due to proper and efficient combustion of B10. Moreover,
during the entire load range, BSFC only varies slightly and also has low value for
petro-diesel and the blends.
In Figure 4, Volumetric Efficiency is plotted against the Load for petro-diesel and
blends of bio-diesel with petro-diesel. In the beginning, volumetric efficiency is
almost same for petro-diesel and the blends. Afterwards, volumetric efficiency
increases for petro-diesel and the blends, as the load increases, due to increasing fuel
consumption with load. At 93.75% load, volumetric efficiency of B20 is 1.6% higher
than that of petro-diesel. And, over the entire load range, volumetric efficiency at any
given load, for high percentage bio-diesel blend is higher than that of low percentage
bio-diesel blend, with that of petro-diesel being the lowest. This is for the reason that
oxygen content of the blends increases with increasing bio-diesel percentage.
In short, performance of petro-diesel and bio-diesel blends were satisfactory and
within reasonable limits, except for the startling performance of B20 at 75% of load.
However, overall performance of B10 was marginally better than the rest.

4. CONCLUSIONS
The present work was undertaken to experimentally investigate, the feasibility of
soapnut bio-diesel as a potential alternate fuel for diesel engine, as well as the engine
performance of a single cylinder, four stroke water cooled diesel engine using petrodiesel and lean soapnut bio-diesel blends with petro-diesel as engine fuels. The
investigation was performed for medium to high load range of 50%93.75%. The
load range of 50%93.75% was chosen as its the major operational load range of an
engine.

4.2 The Experimental Investigation Enabled in Drawing the Following


Conclusions:
1. Soapnut bio-diesel was found to be a potential alternate fuel for diesel engine.
2. Petro-diesel and all the blends exhibited satisfactory engine performance over the
entire load range. For the medium load range of 50%62.5%, B10 showed better
performance than the rest for speed and BSFC. However, petro-diesel performed
better for BP.

For the high load range of 62.5%93.75%, B10 performed better than the rest for
speed, BSFC and BP as well, with 0.2% less BSFC and 0.2% more BP than petrodiesel at 93.75% load. However, B20 performed better for volumetric efficiency over
the entire load range. In short, overall performance of B10 was marginally better than
the rest.

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Performance Parameters of a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine
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