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Pythagoras (Mathematician)

By

Chatkamon Chaiman

Section 1 ID: A14120152

Room 1-314

Major Airline Business

To

Aj Yves

The pre-Socratic Greek philosopher Pythagoras must have been one of the

world's greatest persons, but he wrote nothing, and it is hard to say how

much of the doctrine( , ) we know as Pythagorean(

Pythagoras () ) is due to the founder of the society and

how much is later development. It is also hard to say how much of what

we are told about the life of Pythagoras (

) is trustworthy( ); for a mass of legend( ) gathered around

of science, and sometimes as a preacher() of mystic doctrines, and

we might be tempted( ) to regard one or other of those

either of the traditional views. The union of mathematical genius and

mysticism( ) is common enough. Originally from Samos,

Pythagoras founded at Kroton (in southern Italy) a society which was at

once a religious community and a scientific school. Such a body was

bound to excite jealousy and mistrust, and we hear of many struggles(

). Pythagoras himself had to flee from Kroton to Metapontion, where he

died.

It is stated that he was a disciple( ) of Anaximander, his

astronomy( ) was the natural development of Anaximander's.

also bears witness to its descent( ) from that of Miletos. The

problem which gave rise to the theorem of the square on the

hypotenuse( )

Pythagorean proposition (Euclid, I. 47). If we were right in assuming

that Thales worked with the old 3:4:5 triangle( ), the connection

is obvious.

The over-riding dictum(,) of Pythagoras's school was All is

number or God is number, and the Pythagoreans effectively practised a

kind of numerology or

number-worship, and

considered each

number to have its own

character and

meaning. For example,

the number one was

the generator of all

numbers; two

represented opinion;

three, harmony; four,

justice(,

); five,

marriage; six, creation;

seven, the seven

planets or wandering

stars; etc. Odd

numbers were thought

of as female and even

numbers as male.

composed of the sum of one, two, three and four. It is a great tribute to

the Pythagoreans' intellectual( ) achievements that they

deduced the special place of the number 10 from an abstract

mathematical argument rather than from something as mundane as

counting the fingers on two hands.

However, Pythagoras and his school - as well as a handful of other

mathematicians of ancient Greece - was largely responsible for

introducing a more rigorous() mathematics than what had gone

before, building from first principles using axioms and logic. Before

Pythagoras, for example, geometry had been merely() a

collection of rules derived by empirical(,

)

mathematics could be constructed, where geometric()

elements corresponded() with numbers, and where

integers() and their ratios were all that was necessary to

establish an entire system of logic and truth.

Theorem (or the Pythagorean Theorem): that, for any right-angled

triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse(

the sum of the square of the other two sides (or legs). Written as an

equation: a2 + b2 = c2. What Pythagoras and his followers did not realize is

that this also works for any shape: thus, the area of a pentagon(

5

) on the hypotenuse is

equal to the sum of the

pentagons on the other two

sides, as it does for a semi-circle

or any other regular (or even

irregular( shape.

The simplest and most commonly

quoted example of a Pythagorean

triangle is one with sides of 3, 4

and 5 units (32 + 42 = 52, as can

be seen by drawing a grid of unit

squares on each side as in the

diagram at right), but there are a

potentially( ) infinite (

Pythagorean triples, starting with (5, 12 13), (6, 8, 10), (7, 24, 25), (8,

15, 17), (9, 40, 41), etc. It should be noted, however that (6, 8, 10) is not

what is known as a primitive() Pythagorean triple(

), because it is just a multiple of (3, 4, 5).

be the most ancient and widespread(,) mathematical

development after basic arithmetic() and geometry, and it was

touched on in some of the most ancient mathematical texts

fromBabylon and Egypt, dating from over a thousand years earlier. One of

the simplest proofs comes from ancientChina, and probably dates from

well before Pythagoras' birth. It was Pythagoras, though, who gave the

theorem() its definitive form, although it is not clear

whether Pythagoras himself definitively proved it or merely described it.

Either way, it has become one of the best-known of all mathematical

theorems, and as many as 400 different proofs now exist, some

geometrical, some algebraic(), some involving advanced

differential equations](,), etc.

Pythagoras' Theorem

Over 2000 years ago there was an amazing discovery

about triangles:

When a triangle has a right angle (90) ...

... and squares are made on each of the three sides, ...

... then the biggest square has the exact same

area as the other two squares put together!

one short equation:

a2 + b2 = c2

Note:

Definition

The longest side of the triangle is called the

"hypotenuse", so the formal definition is:

In a right angled triangle:

the square of the hypotenuse is equal to

the sum of the squares of the other two sides.

Sure ... ?

Let's see if it really works using an example.

Example: A "3,4,5" triangle has a right angle in it.

same:

32 + 4 2 = 5 2

Calculating this becomes:

9 + 16 = 25

It works ... like Magic!

If we know the lengths of two sides of a right angled triangle,

we can find the length of the third side. (But remember it only

works on right angled triangles!)

How Do I Use it?

Write it down as an equation:

a2 + b2 = c2

Now you can use algebra to find any missing value, as in the

following examples:

Example: Solve this triangle.

a2 + b 2 = c2

52 + 122 = c2

25 + 144 = c2

169 = c2

c2 = 169

c = 169

c = 13

Pythagoras is also credited with the discovery() that

the intervals between harmonious musical notes always have

whole number ratios. For instance(), playing half a length of

a guitar string gives the same note as the open string, but an

octave( ) higher; a third of a

length gives a different but harmonious() note; etc.

Non-whole number ratios, on the other hand, tend to give

dissonant() sounds. In this way, Pythagoras

create the common intervals(,) which have

become the primary building blocks of musical harmony: the

octave (1:1), the perfect fifth (3:2), the perfect fourth (4:3) and

the major third (5:4). The oldest way of tuning the 12-note

chromatic() scale is known as Pythagorean

tuning, and it is based on a stack of perfect fifths, each tuned in

the ratio 3:2.

The mystical Pythagoras was so excited by this discovery that

he became convinced that the whole universe was based on

numbers, and that the planets and stars moved according to

mathematical equations, which corresponded to musical notes,

and thus produced a kind of symphony, the Musical

Universalis or Music of the Spheres

Reference

https://www.mathsisfun.com/pythagoras.html

http://www.storyofmathematics.com/greek_pythagoras.

html

http://www.iep.utm.edu/pythagor/

http://www.mathopenref.com/pythagoras.html

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