You are on page 1of 21

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

REFERENCES INTERNET (Anonymous , 15 th April 2015)

(Anonymous , 15 th April 2015) http://blogs.maryville.edu/aas/uses/ (Anonymous , 15 th April 2015)

(Mary Millikan , Sch. of Engineering & Science, FOHES & ISI , Victoria University ,Australia)

(Julia O'Hallorans and Marco A. Inzunza , 15 th April 2015) NEW MEXICO STATES UNIVERSITY

tm

BOOK

David Harvey – 1956 , Modern Analytical Chemistry, First Edition McGRAW-HILL INTERNATIONAL EDITION AAS,page 412

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

JOURNAL

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY JOURNAL

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

INTRODUCTION

AAS

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.

In analytical chemistry the technique is used for determining the concentration of a particular element (the analyte) in a sample to be analyzed. AAS can be used to determine over 70 different elements in solution or directly in solid samples used in pharmacology, biophysics and toxicology research.

Atomic absorption spectroscopy was first used as an analytical technique, and the underlying principles were established in the second half of the 19th century by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, both professors at the University of Heidelberg, Germany.

The modern form of AAS was largely developed during the 1950s by a team of Australian chemists. They were led by Sir Alan Walsh at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Division of Chemical Physics, in Melbourne, Australia.

Figure 1

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY INTRODUCTION AAS Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical

Atomic absorption spectrometry has many uses in different areas of chemistry such as:

Clinical analysis: Analyzing metals in biological fluids and tissues such as whole blood, plasma, urine, saliva, brain tissue, liver, muscle tissue, semen

Pharmaceuticals: In some pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, minute quantities of a catalyst that remain in the final drug product

Water analysis: Analyzing water for its metal content.

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

BACKGROUND

The relatively small number of atomic absorption lines (compared to atomic emission lines) and their narrow width (a few pm) make spectral overlap rare; there are only very few examples known that an absorption line from one element will overlap with another. Molecular absorption, in contrast, is much broader, so that it is more probable that some molecular absorption band will overlap with an atomic line. This kind of absorption might be caused by un-dissociated molecules of concomitant elements of the sample or by flame gases. We have to differentiate between the spectra of di-atomic molecules, which display a pronounced fine structure, and those of larger (usually tri-atomic) molecules that don’t read such fine structure. Another source of background absorption, particularly in ET AAS, is scattering of the primary radiation of particles that are generated in the atomization stage, when the matrix could not be removed sufficiently in the paralysis stage.

All these phenomena, molecular absorption and radiation scattering, can result in artificially high absorption and an improperly high (erroneous) calculation of the concentration or volume of the analyte in the sample. In that respect are various techniques available to compensate for background absorption, and they are significantly different for LS AAS and HR-CS AAS.

Background correction techniques in LS AAS

In LS AAS background absorption can only be corrected using instrumental techniques, and all of them are founded on two sequential measurements, firstly, total absorption (atomic plus background), secondly, background absorption only, and the remainder of the two measurements gives the net atomic absorption. Because of this, and because of the use of additional devices in the spectrometer, the signal-to-interference ratio of background-corrected signals are always significantly inferior compared to uncorrected signals. It should likewise be pointed out that in LS AAS there is no path to correct for (the uncommon case of) a direct overlap of two atomic lines. In effect there are three techniques used for background correction in LS AAS:

Deuterium background correction

This is the oldest and still most commonly applied technique, particularly for flame AAS. In this instance, a separate source (a deuterium lamp) with broad emission is used to measure the background absorption over the full width of the exit slit of the spectrometer. The use of a separate lamp makes this technique the least accurate one, as it cannot correct for any structured background. It also cannot be used at wavelengths above about 320 NM, as the emission volume of the deuterium lamp becomes very light. The use of deuterium HCL is preferable compared to an arc lamp due to the better fit of the image of the former lamp with that of the analyte HCL.

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

Smith-Hieftje background correction

This technique is established on the line-broadening and self-reversal of discharge lines from HCL when high flow is used. Total absorption is measured with normal lamp current, i.e., with a narrow emission line, and background absorption after application of a high-current pulse with the profile of the self-reversed line, which has less emission at the original wavelength, but strong emission on both sides of the analytical line. The advantage of this technique is that only one radiation source is used; among the disadvantages are that the high-current pulses reduce lamp lifetime, and that the technique can only be used for relatively volatile elements, as only those exhibits sufficient self-reversal to avoid dramatic loss of sensitivity. Another trouble is that the backdrop is not valued at the same wavelength as total absorption, making the technique unsuitable for correcting structured background.

Zeeman-effect background correction

An alternating magnetic field is utilized at the atomizer to break up the absorption line into three components, the π component, which stays at the same location as the original absorption line, and two σ components, which are moved to higher and lower wavelengths, respectively. Total absorption is measured without magnetic field and background absorption with the magnetic field on. The π component has to be taken away in this case, examples using a polarizer, and the σ components do not overlap with the emission profile of the lamp, so that only the background absorption is measured. The advantages of this technique are

  • 1. That full and background absorption is measured with the same emission profile of the same lamp, so that any kind of background, including background with fine structure can be corrected accurately, unless the molecule responsible for the desktop is likewise regarded by the magnetic domain

  • 2. Using a chopper as a Polariser reduces the signal to noise ratio. While the disadvantages are the increased complexity of the spectrometer and power supply needed for extending the powerful magnet needed to break up the absorption line.

Background correction techniques in HR-CS AAS

In HR-CS AAS background correction is carried out mathematically in the software using information from detector pixels that are not used for measuring atomic absorption; hence, in contrast to LS AAS, no additional components are required for background correction.

Background correction using correction pixels

It has already been mentioned that in HR-CS AAS lamp flicker noise is eliminated using correction pixels. In fact, any increase or decrease in radiation intensity that is observed to the same extent at all pixels chosen for correction is eliminated by the correction algorithm. This obviously also includes a reduction of the measured intensity due to radiation scattering or

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

molecular absorption, which is corrected in the same way. As a measurement of total and background absorption, and rectification of the latter, is strictly simultaneous (in contrast to LS AAS), yet the quick changes of background absorption, as they may be observed in ET AAS, do not have any trouble. In summation, as the same algorithm is utilized for background correction and elimination of lamp noise, the background corrected signals show a much better signal-to- noise ratio compared to the uncorrected signals, which is also in contrast to LS AAS.

Background correction using a least-squares algorithm

The above technique can obviously not correct for a background with fine structure, as in this case the absorbance will be different at each of the correction pixels. In this case HR-CS AAS is offering the possibility to measure correction spectra of the atoms that are responsible for the background and store them in the computer. These spectra are then multiplied by a factor to match the intensity of the sample spectrum and subtracted pixel by pixel and spectrum by spectrum from the sample spectrum using a least-squares algorithm. This might sound complex, but foremost of all the number of di-atomic molecules that can subsist at the temperatures of the atomizers used in AAS is relatively low, and second, the rectification is performed by the computer within a few minutes. The same algorithm can actually also be used to correct for direct line overlap of two atomic absorption lines, making HR-CS AAS the only AAS technique that can correct for this kind of spectral interference.

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

PRINCIPLES

The atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is an analytical method based on the absorption of UV or visible light by gaseous atoms. The sample becomes atomized by injecting a solution into a flame or by heating a dried sample in an energized graphite tube. As source of light, a hollow-cathode lamp is used to determine the contained element. These element's atoms in the flame absorb precisely the wavelength sent by the source of light. The absorption is proportional to the concentration.

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a very common technique for detecting metals and metalloids in solid and aqueous samples. It is very reliable and simple to use. The technique is based on the fact that ground state metals absorb light at specific wavelenths. Metal ions in a solution are converted to atomic state by means of a flame. Light of the appropriate wavelength is supplied and the amount of light absorbed can be measured against a standard curve. The technique of (AAS) requires a liquid sample to be aspirated, aerosolized, and mixed with combustible gases, such as acetylene and air or acetylene and nitrous oxide. The mixture is ignited in a flame whose temperature ranges from 2100 to 2800 oC. During combustion, atoms of the element of interest in the sample are reduced to free, unexcited ground state atoms, which absorb light at characteristic wavelengths. The characteristic wavelengths are element specific and accurate to 0.01-0.1nm. To provide element specific wavelengths, a light beam from a lamp whose cathode is made of the element being determined is passed through the flame. A device such as a photonmultiplier can detect the amount of reduction of the light intensity due to absorption by the analyte, and this can be directly related to the amount of the element in the sample.

The atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is an analytical method based on the absorption of UV or visible light by gaseous atoms. The sample becomes atomized by injecting a solution into a flame or by heating a dried sample in an energized graphite tube. As source of light, a hollow-cathode lamp is used to determine the contained element. These element's atoms in the flame absorb precisely the wavelength sent by the source of light. The absorption is proportional to the concentration.

Figure 2

Light absorption process of atoms

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

The technique makes use of absorption spectrometry to assess the concentration of an analyte in a sample. It requires standards with known analyte content to establish the relation between the measured absorbance and the analyte concentration and relies therefore on the Beer’s Lambert Law.

In short, the electrons of the atoms in the atomizer can be promoted to higher orbitals (excited state) for a short period of time (nanoseconds) by absorbing a defined quantity of energy (radiation of a given wavelength). This amount of energy, i.e., wavelength, is specific to a particular electron transition in a particular element. In general, each wavelength corresponds to only one element, and the width of an absorption line is only of the order of a few picometers (pm), which gives the technique its elemental selectivity. The radiaton flux without a sample and with a sample in the atomizer is measured using a detector, and the ratio between the two values (the absorbance) is converted to analyte concentration or mass using the Beer-Lambert Law.

The selection of the monochromator is vital to obtain a linear calibration curve (Beers' Law), the bandwidth of the absorbing species must be broader than that of the light source; which is difficult to achieve with ordinary monochromators. The monochromator is a very important part of an AAS because it is used to separate the thousands of lines generated by all of the elements in a sample. Without a good monochromator, detection limits are severely compromised. A monochromator is used to select the specific wavelength of light that is absorbed by the sample and to exclude other wavelengths. The selection of the specific wavelength of light allows for the determination of the specific element of interest when it is in the presence of other elements. The light selected by the monochromator is directed onto a detector, typically a photomultiplier tube, whose function is to convert the light signal into an electrical signal proportional to the light intensity. The challenge of requiring the bandwidth of the absorbing species to be broader than that of the light source is solved with radiation sources with very narrow lines.

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

BASIC INSTRUMENTATION

INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS
INSTRUMENT COMPONENTS
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 1
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 1

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 2

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

Hollow Cathode Lamp

Figure 3

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY Hollow Cathode Lamp Figure 3 In AA instrument the

In AA instrument the light source is named Hollow cathode lamp.The light from hollow cathode lamp is important eventhough no monochromator.This is because when the metal or sample to be tested analyse supplied energy within it will elevate to the excited states. Upon returning to the ground state, exactly the same wavelengths that are useful in the analysis are emitted, since it is the analyzed metal with exactly the same energy levels that undergoes excitation. The hollow cathode lamp therefore must contain the element being determined. A typical atomic absorption laboratory has a number of different lamps in stock which can be interchanged in the instrument, depending on what metal is being determined. Some lamps are "multielement," which means that several different specified kinds of atoms are present in the lamp and are excited when the lamp is on. The light emitted by such a lamp consists of the line spectra of all the kinds of atoms present. No interference will usually occur as long as the sufficiently intense line for a given metal can be found which can be cleanly separated from all other lines with the monochromator.

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

Figure 4

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY Figure 4 A – Lamp Compartment B – Light

A – Lamp Compartment

B – Light Source (Hollow Cathode Lamp)

C – Alignment Knobs

The light source generates resonance lines that can be absorbed by atoms of the element of unknown concentration. The ideal activity that a light source should produce is a steady, low noise signal with very little interference and a long operating life. The common light sources used in atomic absorption spectrophotometry are the hollow cathode lamps (HCL) and the electrodeless discharge lamps (EDL). The Perkin-Elmer model 460 uses hallow cathode lamps. The HCL consists basically of three parts: a sealed glass tube filled with argon or neon, a cathode built from the element of interest, and an anode. The gas ions are accelerated ahead the cathode by a high voltage, hitting and displacing atoms of the element that are then excited by collisions with gas ions. As atoms suffer excitation they radiate light of the proper wavelength for absorption by atoms of the same element in the flame. The HCL can be of two types depending on the material used to build the cathode: single or multi elements. HCL are commonly use as the light source for most elements, however with volatile elements short lamp life and low light intensity may be a problem.

Flames

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY Figure 5 All flames require both a fuel and

Figure 5

All flames require both a fuel and an oxidant in order to exist. Bunsen burners and Meker burners utilize natural gas for the fuel and air for the oxidant. The temperature of such a flame is 1800 K maximum. In order to atomize and excite most metal ions and achieve significant sensitivity for quantitative analysis, however, a hotter flame is desirable. Most AA and FP flames today are air-acetylene flames-acetylene the fuel; air the oxidant. A maximum temperature of 2300 K is achieved in such a flame. Ideally, pure oxygen with acetylene would produce the highest temperature (3100 K), but such a flame suffers from the disadvantage of a high burning velocity, which decreases the completeness of the atomization and therefore lowers the sensitivity. Nitrous oxide (N20) used as the oxidant, however, produces a higher flame temperature (2900 K) while burning at a low rate. Thus, N2O-acetylene flames are fairly popular. The choice is made based on which flame temperature/burning velocity combination works best with a given element. Since all elements have been studied extensively, the recommendations for any given element are available from literature sources or reference books (see pages 451-453) or in applications literature from instrument manufacturers. Air-acetylene flames are the most commonly used.

Flame Atomizer System

(Method to break the chemical bonds to produce ground states atoms)

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

Parts in Flame system is Burner and Nebulizer

Burner

Where combustion occur

Atomic vapor of the element to be analyzed is produced

Type of Burner

Fuel Mix in Flame syste Oxida T otal consumption burner
Fuel
Mix in
Flame
syste
Oxida
T otal
consumption
burner
Premix burner
Premix burner
Figure 7 Most instruments are equipped to accept a variety of fuels and oxidants. As the
Figure 7
Most instruments are equipped to accept a
variety of fuels and oxidants. As the gas
combinations are varied (see previous
The premix burner does away with this
difficulty and is the burner typically used in
the burner head to one suitable for the
AA. The sample is nebulized and mixed
particular combination chosen. A faster
with the fuel and oxidant prior to
introduction into the flame, with the use of
a series of baffles. Figure 13 is a diagram of
(explosion!) inside the head of a premix
Figure 6
Sampl
this design. Here also the sample is drawn
nt
m
burner.
e
The cross-sectional from the sample view container of a total via the vacuum
consumption created burner by (nebulizer). the rushing fuel The and fuel, oxidant
The fuel (usually acetylene) and
oxidant and (aspiration). sample all meet A drain at the line base is required of the in this
oxidant (usually air) are forced,
oxidant gases and fitted with a pneumatic
design in order to remove sample solution
flame.
under pressure, into the flame,
nebulizer. The selection of the flame is
droplets that do not make it all the way to
whereas the sample is drawn into the
This type of burner head is used in flame
important for complete atomization and to
the flame. See the section entitled
flame by aspiration. The rush of the
photometry and is not useful for atomic
"Important Experimental Considerations"
fuel and oxidant through the burner
absorption. The reason for this is that the
is too low, atomization will be incomplete
for a discussion of a potential safety hazard
head creates a vacuum in the
Nebulizer : Phenumatic or ultrasonic
resulting flame is turbulent and non-
since the flame cannot supply sufficient
associated with this.
sample line and draws the sample
convert
homogenous-a property that negates its
energy to dissociate the compounds in the
from the sample container into the
usefulness in AA, since the flame must be
Sample Solution to Fine
sample. On the other hand, if the flame
flame with a "nebulizing" or mixing
homogeneous, for the same reason that
mist/aerosol.Using the same principle as
temperature is too high, the atoms formed
effect

paint spray and scent

different sample cuvettes in molecular

discussion), it is usually necessary to change

burning mixture would require a burner head

with a smaller slot so as to discourage burning

Today, most of the burners used are those of

long-slot designed burning premixed fuel and

avoid ionization. When the flame temperature

may be ionized reducing the number of atoms

spectrophotometry must be closely matched.

present.

suck up liquid samples at

One would not want the absorption properties

controlled rate.

to change from one moment to the next

because of the lack of homogeneity in the

create a fine aerosol spray for

flame.

introduction into flame.

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

Monochromator

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY Monochromator Figure 8 The monochromator is included as an

Figure 8

The monochromator is included as an important device of the optical system of an atomic

absorption spectrophotometer. The function of this device in atomic absorption is to separate the

spectral line of interest from others spectral lines with different wavelengths emitted by the

hollow-cathode lamp. The desired spectral line is chosen with the preferred wavelength and

bandwidth by an appropriate monochromator’s setting named grating. A grating is a reflective

surface, scored either mechanically or holographically with parallel grooves that can be designed

for different wavelength regions. Generally, most of the instruments are equipped with two

gratings with the goal to cover a wavelength range from 189 to 851 nm which is used in atomic

absorption.

Photomultiplier Detector

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY Figure 9 The monochromator receives light from the hollow-cathode

Figure 9

The monochromator receives light from the hollow-cathode lamp through the flame

together with the light emitted from the flame. The signal arising at the detector from the flame

emission will be rejected and only that from the hollow-cathode lamp will be accepted. The

detector used almost universally is a photomiltiplier tube whose current output corresponds to

the intensity of the light falling on its photocathode. This feeds the amplifier and output device,

which displays the measured signals.

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

Readout Components

As with molecular spectrophotometry, the readout of the absorbance and transmittance data can

consist of either a meter, a recorder or digital readout. The meter can be calibrated in either %

transmittance (or % absorption 100 %T) or absorbance, or possibly both. If %T or % absorption

are displayed, these of course must first be converted to absorbance (-log T) before plotting.If a

recorder is used, it is not the atomic spectrum that is recorded but rather the wavelength is fixed,

and the absorbance (or %T or % absorption) is recorded vs. time as the various solutions are

aspirateD. The advantage of such a readout would be to make it easier to obtain a good average

value for each solution when electrical (background) "noise" is a problem, as indicated by

serious fluctuations in the readings. This problem is very common in AA, especially when the

sample concentration is low and the sensitivity is set at a high level.

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY Readout Components As with molecular spectrophotometry, the readout of

Figure 10

Strip chart recording of the absorption values of a series of standard solution as measured by an

AA instrument.

aids in the nullification of any problems associated with such matrices, such as high viscosity or

the highly efficient burning of organic compounds. If the method of standard additions is not

used, the importance of matching the sample to the standards in terms of organic solvents is

paramount

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

APPLICATIONS

Some of the metal analyses on fruit products are, in fact, related to metal analyses in fruit

juices and purees that are often related to authenticity and country or region of origin. This is to

detect adulteration with an inferior juice since metal analyses are indicative of the soil type and

hence the location. Other studies are related to contaminants such as tin from canned fruit and

juices.

METAL ANALYSES IN FRUIT JUICES AND PUREES

Selenium levels in wild fruit juice from the mountainous area in north China, Lantingguo, was

reported by (Yongming et al. 1996) using a graphite furnace AAS. Electrothermal AAS using a

Perkin-Elmer 5000 AAS linked to a Model HGA 500 graphite furnace with a selenium HCL was

the instrument set up employed for this work. This analysis was complicated by the fact that

there were other interfering ions present in the juice, hence matrix modifiers were necessary. It

was found that the modifier consisting of 10 μg of platinum and 200 μg of nickel gave the most

satisfactory results. As already mentioned the metal content in the juice are related to the

different fruit growing regions. Other metals found in these locations that interferes with the Se

analyses include: potassium greater that 1000 mg/L followed by calcium, magnesium,

manganese, iron, phosphorous and zinc in lower amounts 100 – 1000 mg/l. There were also trace

amounts of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silicon, strontium and selenium. The average values

found for eight determinations of three juices from fruit grown in different locations in the above

region were: 0.20, 0.23 and 0.10 mg/L selenium. Tin is not a desirable metal but a contaminant

and was analysed in a number of juices, purees and fruit by the Comite Europeen de

Normalisation (Foodstuffs). Determination of trace elements. Determination of tin by flame and

graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS and GFAAS) after pressure digestion

2009 in a collaborative study. Some of the products analysed included: carrot puree, tomato

puree, pineapple, mixed fruits, powdered peach and tomato. Samples were prepared by pressure-

assisted digestion then analysed by flame AAS or graphite furnace AAS. Data obtained for the

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

products analysed were in the range of 43 – 260 mg/kg for AAS and or 2.5 – 269 mg/kg for

graphite furnace AAS.

BENEFICIAL METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN SOME FRUITS

Slurried fruit samples were tested by (Cabrera, Lorenzo, and Lopez 1995) for the levels of

cadmium, copper, iron, lead and selenium by Electrothermal AAS. Only results for copper, iron

and selenium will be mentioned, as these are the nutritional metals as distinct from the others

that are contaminants. In addition, to the sample preparation of slurries, the samples were also

mineralized in a microwave acid-digested bomb and the data compared for accuracy and

precision. A total of 40 samples comprising 8 types of fruit that are regularly consumed were

tested. These samples were: banana; custard apple; kiwifruit; mango, medlar, papaya; pineapple

and strawberries. For these fruit samples the mean range of the metals copper, iron and selenium

were 2.00 – 5.50 μg/g; 0.050 - .0.396 μg/g and 0.010 – 0.020 μg/g, respectively. Chromium and

manganese were analysed in fruit by AAS, after wet digestion but found that these two metals

were relatively low in fruit when compared to other foods.

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

APPLICATION OF ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY IN FOOD INDUSTRY

Members :

NUR ALIMAH BT MOHD AZELI

55104314177

AMILA HUSNA BT AHMAD FAUZI

55104314235

MAS LISA BT JAMALI

55104314230

NUR AZIEMAH BT MODH AULAN

55104314243

MUHAMMAD SAIFUL AMBIA BIN MOHD NASIR

5510414274

LECTURER : MISS NORHAYATI BINTI MOHD IDRUS

GROUP : G4 –L02

APPLICATION OF AAS INSTRUMENT IN FOOD INDUSTRY

CONTENT

  • (A) INTRODUCTION TO THE ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENT

    • - state the background of the instrument

    • - principle of the instrument

  • (B) BASIC INSTRUMENTATION

    • - schematic diagram

    • - function of the components

  • (C) APPLICATION

    • - describe the application of the

    (D) JOURNALS

    • (E) REFERENCES