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Training Report on Industrial Automation

Introduction to Institution
Advance Technology, Chandigarh
Advance Technology, Chandigarh is an ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company deals in the field of
Hardware Development, Embedded Products Development, Security & Surveillance and
Engineers Training Programs. Advance Technology is the mission, which is working for the
promotion of latest technologies in India & Abroad. To achieve our goal, we have made
coloration with a number of institutions and firms. Advance Technology deals in three different
domains, first is development, second is industrial automation and third is education. Advance
Technology an Embedded Design House. Advance Technology offer various Technical
Education solutions, Products & Development tools to Engineering colleges, Universities,
research organizations. We also offer the business of providing Technical education solutions &
development tools to the educational & industrial customers. Advance Technology has
developed a number for private as well government organizations.

Geeta Institute of Management and Technology, Kurukshetra

Geeta Institute of Management and Technology (A Unit of Geeta Education Trust) offers
M.Tech, B.Tech, MBA & MCA programs for which the institute has created excellent
infrastructure in terms of physical, Human and Information resources. The institute has also tie
up with leading corporate house for training, development and placement of students. Its vision
is to become a top institution in engineering and management with departments as centres of
excellence, imparting high quality education and providing ambience for growth of
professionals as excellent human beings as well. GIMT has an Open door policy to ensure
transparency in administration and also encourages faculty in their research projects and
organizes orientation programmes for them from time to time. The institute has Scholarship
schemes for meritorious students and has implemented Fee - concession for economically
weaker students. Our Motto is "Blend Knowledge with Technology & Technology with

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Introduction of Automation
Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment
such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching in
telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with
minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated. The
biggest benefit of automation is that it saves labour; however, it is also used to save energy and
materials and to improve quality, accuracy and precision. The term automation, inspired by the
earlier word automatic (coming from automaton), was not widely used before 1947, when
General Motors established the automation department. It was during this time that industry
was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s.Automation has
been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical,
electronic and computers, usually in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern
factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques

2.1 Industrial Automation

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Fig.2.1 Automation used in industry
Industrial automation is the use of control systems, such as computers or robots, and
information technologies for handling different processes and machineries in an industry to
replace a human being. It is the second step beyond mechanization in the scope of

2.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Industrial Automation

Lower operating cost: Industrial automation eliminates healthcare costs and paid leave and
holidays associated with a human operator. Further, industrial automation does not require
other employee benefits such as bonuses, pension coverage etc. Above all, although it is
associated with a high initial cost it saves the monthly wages of the workers which leads to
substantial cost savings for the company. The maintenance cost associated with machinery used
for industrial automation is less because it does not often fail. If it fails, only computer and
maintenance engineers are required to repair it.

High productivity
Although many companies hire hundreds of production workers for a up to three shifts to
run the plant for the maximum number of hours, the plant still needs to be closed for
maintenance and holidays. Industrial automation fulfils the aim of the company by
allowing the company to run a manufacturing plant for 24 hours in a day 7 days in a week
and 365 days a year. This leads to a significant improvement in the productivity of the

High Quality
Automation alleviates the error associated with a human being. Further, unlike human
beings, robots do not involve any fatigue, which results in products with uniform quality
manufactured at different times.

High flexibility
Adding a new task in the assembly line requires training with a human operator, however,
robots can be programmed to do any task. This makes the manufacturing process more

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High Information Accuracy

Adding automated data collection, can allow you to collect key production information,
improve data accuracy, and reduce your data collection costs. This provides you with the
facts to make the right decisions when it comes to reducing waste and improving your

High safety
Industrial automation can make the production line safe for the employees by deploying
robots to handle hazardous conditions.

Disadvantages of Industrial Automation

High Initial cost

The initial investment associated with the making the switch from a human production line
to an automatic production line is very high. Also, substantial costs are involved in training
employees to handle this new sophisticated equipment.

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Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
3.1 Need of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
Before PLCs came into existence; sequencing, safety interlock logic for manufacturing,
and other controls were accomplished using physical relays, timers, and dedicated closed-loop
controllers. A relay is a simple device that uses a magnetic field to control a switch .When a
voltage is applied to the input coil; the resulting current creates a magnetic field to control a
switch. When a voltage is applied to the input coil, the resulting current creates a magnetic
field. The magnetic field pulls a metal switch (or reed) towards it and the contacts touch,
closing the switch. The contact that closes when the coil is energized is called Normally
Open(NO).The Normally closed (NC) close when the input coil is not energized and open
when the input coil is energized. But the control industries were looking forward to eliminate
the high costs associated with inflexible, relay controlled systems. The specifications required a
solid-state system with computer flexibility which must be able to
(1) Survive in an industrial environment,
(2) Be easily programmed and maintained by plant engineers and technicians, and
(3) Be reusable.
Such a control system would reduce machine downtime and provide expandability for the
Some of the initial specifications included the following: The new control system had to be price competitive with the use of relay systems.
The system had to be capable of sustaining an industrial environment.
The input and output interfaces had to be easily replaceable.

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The controller had to be designed in modular form, so that subassemblies could be
removed easily for replacement or repair.
The control system needed the capability to pass data collection to a central system.
The system had to be reusable.
The method used to program the controller had to be simple, so that it could be easily
understood by plant personnel.
The first programmable controllers:By 1969 the first programmable controller was developed. These early controllers met the
original specifications and opened the door to the development of a new control technology.
The first PLCs offered relay functionality and replaced the original hardwired relay logic ,
which used electrically operated devices to mechanically switch electrical circuits. They met
the requirements of modularity, expandability, programmability, and ease of use in an industrial
environment. These controllers were easily installed, used less space, and were reusable. The
controller programming, although a little tedious, had a recognizable plant standard: the ladder
diagram format. By 1971 PLC had spread to other automation industries such as food and
beverage, metals and manufacturing, pulp and paper.

3.2 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) has become increasingly popular as control tools
for industrial applications. Because of their power, flexibility, and ease of use they have wide
acceptance by design engineers, operators and maintenance personnel.

3.3 Historical Notes on PLC

The first PLC was built by hand at Bedford Associates. It has a special configuration of a
computer for specific application. The PLC language was developed when it was available for
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commercial use. In 1969, General Motors (a large auto manufacturer) purchased the first PLC.
The features of the original PLC are still found today on most PLC units. In 1969, a capacity
of 256 words memory was more than adequate but later PLC was expanded to 1000 words
machine. It had a non-interrupt structure and a l6-bit word length, and was a dedicated
machine. Its input and output channels were directly accessible by user software. Seeking a
language that would be compatible with industry, the developer decided to use ladder listing, a
language started in Germany and known throughout the world by people of all language.
Another hurdle the original PLC designers faced involved the type of memory. Vendors were
attempting to sell high speed, highly susceptible memory planes, but the application called for
slow memories with big cores, as they had to be immune to electrical interference. Core
memory initially solved the problem. The early machines with 1000 words had a relatively low
speed, and it could not do arithmetic -only relay logic. The most difficult part of the design
involved the logic solver. When the program first started, the logic solver and the PLC
consisted of a computer and memory, input-output devices. But, the computer~ had difficulty
in executing ladder logic quickly. Another early challenge was the Input-Output (I/O) modules,
which had to be reliable and directly connected to the program. Much effort was expended in
designing the I/O structure, including its VO cards and input sensors and output triads for
driving 110V devices. The objective was to have the user perceive the PLC as a device just as
reliable as relays but substantially easier to program and start-up.

3.4 Introduction to PLC

Most manufacturing processes require a sequence of operation in order to produce a
product. The sequence control can be done either manually or with some type of controller.
Until 1960s, the processes operations was usually performed using a bank of relays uniquely
wired to perform the particular task. Thus, the use of relay logic is known very well in most
industries. The relay logic is difficult to troubleshoot and modify. This forced to develop more
reliable and standardized system. The availability of the semiconductors and the problems
faced by process control engineers, resulted in the development of the electronic programmable
logic controller (PLC). The PLC was developed to use ladder diagram of relay logic which was
well known in the industries. This reduced the technician's program development time with
minimum training. For example, unlike numerical control (NC) and computer numerical
control (CNC) units which are used to control position, the PLC is used for sequence control.
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3.5 Definition of PLC

In 1978, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) released a Standard
for programmable logic controllers after four years of work by a Committee made up of
representatives from programmable logic controller manufacturers. NEMA standard ICS3
-1978, part ICS3-304, defined a programmable logic controller as "A digitally operating
electronic apparatus which was a programmable memory for the internal storage of instructions
for implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic
to control, through digital or analog I/O modules, various types of machines or processes. A
digital computer which is used to perform the functions of a programmable logic controller is
considered to be within this scope. Excluded are drum and similar mechanical type sequencing
controllers. Based on NEMA definition, there are probably more than 50 control products,
manufactured in the world that could be called a programmable logic controller

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Fig.3.5 Internal Diagram of PLC

3.6 PLC Architecture

The architecture of PLC is similar to general purpose microcomputer. However PLC
has other advantages:
(1) They are rugged solid-state equipment that can endure the industrial environment;
(2) they have no moving parts, which eliminates maintenance problem and
(3) In an era of intense pressure on profit margins, they are cost-effective. Moreover,
PLC technology does not require production management and maintenance personnel
to learn a computer language.

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The PLC has two main sections: a central processing unit (CPU) and an I/O interface
section (Fig. 1.l). The CPU is further divided into three components: the processor, memory

Central Processing Unit

system, and system power. The basic element of a programmable controller is shown in the
Fig. 4.5.

I/O Modules

I/O Modules

I/O Modules

I/O Modules

I/O Modules
System Power Supply


Fig 3.6: Main Parts of Programmable Logic Controller

The processor modules are being developed using latest microprocessors / micro
controllers. The processor module contains the microprocessor / microcontroller, its supporting
circuitry and its memory system. Some processor modules are having a dedicated math
processor module to perform the complicated mathematical function. It is intended to increase
processor speed of the PLC.

3.6.1 The CPU

The processor module scans the I/O channels and updates the corresponding memory
location at fixed intervals. The main function of the processor is to analyze the data coming
from shop floor through input modules, make decisions based on the user's defined control
program, and return signals back through output modules to the shop floor devices.
Processors of most of the PLCs available today are capable of performing the following
wide verities of task:

Relay logic

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ASCII interface


Proportional integral derivative (Pill) loops


Shift register


Data high way communications






Computer interface


Matrix manipulation


Binary coded decimal (BCD)


Binary conversion


Analog data manipulation


Variety of other peripherals like printers, display unit

3.6.2 Memory System

The memory system in the processor module has two parts
(1) System memory and
(2) Application memory.
The collection of control program, which controls the activities of PLC on execution of
the user's control program, driver for communication with peripherals devices and other
activities, are stored in the system memory area. Normally it is stored in read-only memory
devices. A scratch pad memory area is included in the system memory area for temporary
storage of data for interim calculation of control. The application memory is divided into data
table area and user program area. The I/O status data, variables or preset values, flag values and
other data are stored in data table area. The data table is the one where data is monitored,
manipulated and changed for control purpose. The user program area is the one where the
programmed instructions, entered by the user, are stored as an application control program.

3.6.3 System Power Supply

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The system power supply provides the voltages needed to run the processor modules,
memory system, I/O circuits etc. The battery power is also provided to retain the content of
memory in the processor modules in case of power failure.

3.6.4 I/O Interfaces

The I/O interfaces are of modular type. They can be plugged in and out of the system.
The field signals are connected to PLC through I/O modules. The main purpose of the I/O
modules is to condition the various field signals. The Input modules convert the field signal to
digital signal acceptable to the PLC's processors. The output modules convert the processors'
signal (digital signal) to capable of driving various output devices.
I/O modules are housed in the same racks or panels that house the other components of
the PLC system. If there is no room for additional I/O modules in the main frame master rack,
the additional I/O modules can be housed in local I/O rack which can be placed-up several
thousand feet from main rack. The remote I/O rack may also be used to communicate I/O
information and to diagnose status of remote field devices. Every I/O module in a PLC system
has its own address and these addresses are used to access to the I/O devices through user's
program. A data communications network may be connected to the PLC processor module to
allow communications to other control systems or computer networks.

3.6.5 Programming Devices

The programming devices are used for programming the application software, editing
and troubleshooting the software. The on-line /off-line programming is also possible with PLC.
PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer and then
downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC. The program is stored
in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Often, a
single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays.

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Fig 3.6.5: Basic elements of programmable logic controller

3.7 PLC Operating Cycle

3.7.1 Input Scan
Each cycle begins with an input status scan. The specific memory locations are reserved
for input channels called input status table / input process image. Scanning of inputs is carried
out as a single step, uninterrupted by other operation, to provide a clear snap shot of the state of
the process at a given instant.

3.7.2 Program Execution

Next, the user program is executed using available feedback status and input signals
and the results are stored in a reserved portion of the memory location meant for output status
table or output program image.

3.7.3 Output Scan

In course of output scan the output values are sort to output field devices. Depending on
the PLC design, this process of updating the output devices may be done at the end of program
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execution or updated immediately upon execution of its corresponding logic statement in the
user program. Normally output status table / output process image is updated upon execution of
user program. On each scanning the stored output values are sort to field output devices.

3.7.4 Memory Word -Zero

In most of PLCs a period of housekeeping or overhead operations is performed called
memory word-zero time. These overhead functions include diagnostic checks on the PLC as
well as service of peripheral devices such as loader / terminals and communications interfaces.
As soon as these tasks are completed, the entire cycle begins again with another input status
scan. The time it takes to implement a scan cycle is called scan time. The scan time is
composed of the program scan time, which is the time required for execution of control
program, and the I/O update time or time required to read inputs and update outputs. The
program scan time generally depends on the amount of memory taken by the control program
and the type of instructions used in the program. The time to make a single scan can typically
vary from 16ms to 200ms.

3.8 PLC Software

3.8.1 Software Used

3.8.2 Program Structure

A programmable controller's program comprises the system program (or operating
system) and the application program the system program comprises all statements and
declarations for internal functions (such as data backup in the event of a power failure). The
system program is an integral part of the programmable controller, and the user cannot modify
it in any way. The application program (also called user program) comprises all userprogrammed statements and declarations for the processing of signals used to control a process.
The application program is subdivided into sections. Sectioning is arbitrary, and is the user's

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3.8.3 Program Organization

In order to scan the application program cyclically, the system program invokes cyclic
program block. The organization of a program determines which user-written blocks are to be
processed, and in what order. This is done by calling the required blocks conditionally or
unconditionally in the cyclic program blocks. It is recommended that the order in which the
blocks are called in the cyclic program blocks represent the process-related or function-related
subdivision of the plant or process.

3.9 PLC Programming

Early PLCs, up to the mid-1980s, were programmed using proprietary programming
panels or special-purpose programming terminals, which often had dedicated function keys
representing the various logical elements of PLC programs. Programs were stored on cassette
tape cartridges. Facilities for printing and documentation were very minimal due to lack of
memory capacity. More recently, PLC programs are typically written in a special application on
a personal Computer then downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the
PLC. The very oldest PLCs used non-volatile magnetic core memory but now the program is
stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory.
Early PLCs were designed to be used by electricians who would learn PLC programming on
the job. These PLCs were programmed in "ladder logic", which strongly resembles a schematic
Diagram of relay logic, Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways, from ladder
logic to more traditional programming languages such as BASIC and C. Another method is
State Logic, a Very High Level Programming Language designed to program PLCs based on
State Transition Diagrams. The PLC is primarily used to control machinery. A program is
written for the PLC which turns on and off outputs based on input conditions and the internal
program. In this aspect, a PLC is similar to a computer.

3.9.1 Ladder logic

Ladder logic is a method of drawing electrical logic schematics. It is now a graphical
language very popular for programming Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). It was
originally invented to describe logic made from relays. The name is based on the observation
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that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical "rails" and a series of
horizontal "rungs" between them. A program in ladder logic, also called a ladder diagram, is
similar to a schematic for a set of relay circuits. An argument that aided the initial adoption of
ladder logic was that a wide variety of engineers and technicians would be able to understand
and use it without much additional training, because of the resemblance to familiar hardware
systems. (This argument has become less relevant given that most ladder logic programmers
have a software background in more conventional programming languages, and in practice
implementations of ladder logic have characteristics such as sequential execution and
support for control flow features that make the analogy to hardware somewhat imprecise.)
Ladder logic is widely used to program PLCs, where sequential control of a process or
manufacturing operation is required. Ladder logic is useful for simple but critical control
systems, or for reworking old hardwired relay circuits. As programmable logic controllers
became more sophisticated it has also been used in very complex automation systems. Ladder
logic can be thought of as a rule-based language, rather than a procedural language. A "rung" in
the ladder represents a rule. When implemented with relays and other electromechanical
devices, the various rules "execute" simultaneously and immediately. When implemented in a
programmable logic controller, the rules are typically executed sequentially by software, in a
loop. By executing the loop fast enough, typically many times per second, the effect of
simultaneous and immediate execution is obtained. In this way it is similar to other rule- based
languages, like spreadsheets or SQL. However, proper use of programmable controllers
requires understanding the limitations of the execution order of rungs.

( ) A regular coil, energized whenever its rung is closed.

(\) A "not" coil, energized whenever its rung is open.
[ ] A regular contact, closed whenever its corresponding coil or an input which

controls it is energized.
[\] A "not" contact, closed whenever its corresponding coil or an input which
controls it is not energized

The "coil" (output of a rung) may represent a physical output which operates some device
connected to the programmable controller, or may represent an internal storage bit for use
elsewhere in the program.

3.10 Industrial applications

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There are numbers of industrial applications of plc some of these are:

Continuous Bottle-filling system

Batch mixing system

Speed control of dc motor

3-stage air conditioning system

Control of planar machine

Automatic frequency control of Induction heating

Air Flow Sensor

Position Sensor

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4.1 Meaning of SCADA
SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. As the name indicates, it is
not a full control system, but rather focuses on the supervisory level. As such, it is a purely
software package that is positioned on top of hardware to which it is interfaced, in general via
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), or other commercial hardware modules. SCADA
systems are used not only in industrial processes: e.g. steel making, power generation
(conventional and nuclear) and distribution, chemistry, but also in some experimental facilities
such as nuclear fusion. The sizes of such plants are range from a few 1000 to several 10
thousands input/output (I/O) channels. However, SCADA systems evolve rapidly and are now
penetrating the market of plants with a number of I/O channels of several 100 K: we know of
two cases of near to 1 M I/O channels currently under development.
SCADA systems used to run on DOS, VMS and UNIX; in recent years all SCADA
vendors have moved to NT and some also to Linux.

Fig 4.1.: Scada system

4.1.1 Architecture
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This section describes the common features of the SCADA products that have been
evaluated at CERN in view of their possible application to the control systems of the LHC
detectors [1], [2].

Fig.4.1.1: Architecture of SCADA

4.1.2 Hardware Architecture

One distinguishes two basic layers in a SCADA system: the "client layer" which caters for
the man machine interaction and the "data server layer" which handles most of the process data
control activities. The data servers communicate with devices in the field through process
controllers. Process controllers, e.g. PLCs, are connected to the data servers either directly or
via networks or field buses that are proprietary (e.g. Siemens H1), or non-proprietary (e.g.
Profibus). Data servers are connected to each other and to client stations via an Ethernet LAN.
The data servers and client stations are NT platforms but for many products the client stations
may also be W95 machines.
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4.2 Communications:

4.2.1 Internal Communication

Server-client and server-server communication is in general on a publish-subscribe and
event- driven basis and uses a TCP/IP protocol, i.e., a client application subscribes to a
parameter which is owned by a particular server application and only changes to that parameter
are then communicated to the client application.

4.2.2 Access to Devices

The data servers poll the controllers at a user defined polling rate. The polling rate may be
different for different parameters. The controllers pass the requested parameters to the data
servers. Time stamping of the process parameters is typically performed in the controllers and
this time-stamp is taken over by the data server. If the controller and communication protocol
used support unsolicited data transfer then the products will support this too. The products
provide communication drivers for most of the common PLCs and widely used field-buses,
e.g., Modbus. Of the three field buses that are recommended at CERN, both Profibus and
World flip are supported but CAN bus often not [3]. Some of the drivers are based on third
party products (e.g., Applica cards) and therefore have additional cost associated with them.
VME on the other hand is generally not supported. A single data server can support multiple
communications protocols: it can generally support as many such protocols as it has slots for
interface cards. The effort required to develop new drivers is typically in the range of 2-6 weeks
depending on the complexity and similarity with existing drivers, and a driver development
toolkit is provided for this. As PLCs became more advanced, methods were developed to
change the sequence of ladder execution, and subroutines were implemented. This simplified
programming and could also be used to save scan time for high-speed processes; parts of the
program used, for example, only for setting up the machine could be segregated from those
parts required to operate at higher speed.
4.2.3 Interfacing

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The provision of OPC client functionality for SCADA to access devices in an open and
standard manner is developing. There still seems to be a lack of devices/controllers, which
provide OPC server software, but this improves rapidly as most of the producers of controllers
are actively involved in the development of this standard. OPC has been evaluated by the
CERN-IT-CO group.
The products also provide
An Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) interface to the data in the archive/logs, but not to
the configuration database,
An ASCII import/export facility for configuration data,
A library of APIs supporting C, C++, and Visual Basic (VB) to access data in the RTDB, logs
and archive. The API often does not provide access to the product's internal features such as
alarm handling, reporting, trending, etc.
The PC products provide support for the Microsoft standards such as Dynamic Data Exchange
(DDE) which allows e.g. to visualize data dynamically in an EXCEL spreadsheet, Dynamic
Link Library (DLL) and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).The configuration data are
stored in a database that is logically centralized but physically distributed and that is generally
of a proprietary format. For performance reasons, the RTDB resides in the memory of the
servers and is also of proprietary format. The archive and logging format is usually also
proprietary for performance reasons, but some products do support logging to a Relational Data
Base Management System (RDBMS) at a slower rate either directly or via an ODBC interface.

4.2.4 Scalability
Scalability is understood as the possibility to extend the SCADA based control system by
adding more process variables, more specialized servers (e.g. for alarm handling) or more
clients. The products achieve scalability by having multiple data servers connected to multiple
controllers. Each data server has its own configuration database and RTDB and is responsible
for the handling of a sub-set of the process variables (acquisition, alarm handling, archiving).

4.2.5 Redundancy

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The products often have built in software redundancy at a server level, which is normally
transparent to the user. Many of the products also provide more complete redundancy solutions
if required.

4.3 Functionality:

4.3.1 Access Control

Users are allocated to groups, which have defined read/write access privileges to the
process parameters in the system and often also to specific product functionality.

4.3.2 Human Machine interface (HMI)

The products support multiple screens, which can contain combinations of synoptic
diagrams and text. They also support the concept of a "generic" graphical object with links to
process variables. These objects can be "dragged and dropped" from a library and included into
a synoptic diagram. Most of the SCADA products that were evaluated decompose the process
in "atomic" parameters (e.g. a power supply current, its maximum value, its on/off status, etc.)
to which a Tag-name is associated. The Tag-names used to link graphical objects to devices can
be edited as required. The products include a library of standard graphical symbols, many of
which would however not be applicable to the type of applications encountered in the
experimental physics community. Standard windows editing facilities are provided: zooming,
re-sizing, scrolling... On-line configuration and customization of the MMI is possible for users
with the appropriate privileges. Links can be created between display pages to navigate from
one view to another.

4.3.3 Trending
The products all provide trending facilities and one can summarize the common
capabilities as follows:
The parameters to be trended in a specific chart can be predefined or defined on-line a chart
may contain more than 8 trended parameters or pens and an unlimited number of charts can be
displayed (restricted only by the readability) real-time and historical trending are possible,
although generally not in the same chart.
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4.4 Alarm Handling

Alarm handling is based on limit and status checking and performed in the data servers.
More complicated expressions (using arithmetic or logical expressions) can be developed by
creating derived parameters on which status or limit checking is then performed. The alarms are
logically handled centrally, i.e., the information only exists in one place and all users see the
same status (e.g., the acknowledgement), and multiple alarm priority levels (in general many
more than 3 such levels) are supported. It is generally possible to group alarms and to handle
these as an entity (typically filtering on group or acknowledgement of all alarms in a group).
Furthermore, it is possible to suppress alarms either individually or as a complete group. The
filtering of alarms seen on the alarm page or when viewing the alarm log is also possible at
least on priority, time and group. However, relationships between alarms cannot generally be
defined in a straightforward manner. E-mails can be generated or predefined actions
automatically executed in response to alarm conditions.

4.5 Logging/Archiving
The terms logging and archiving are often used to describe the same facility. However,
logging can be thought of as medium-term storage of data on disk, whereas archiving is longterm storage of data either on disk or on another permanent storage medium. Logging is
typically performed on a cyclic basis, i.e., once a certain file size, time period or number of
points is reached the data is overwritten. Logging of data can be performed at a set frequency,
or only initiated if the value changes or when a specific predefined event occurs. Logged data
can be transferred to an archive once the log is full. The logged data is time-stamped and can be
filtered when viewed by a user. The logging of user actions is in general performed together
with either a user ID or station ID. There is often also a VCR facility to play back archived

4.6 Report Generation

One can produce reports using SQL type queries to the archive, RTDB or logs. Although
it is sometimes possible to embed EXCEL charts in the report, a "cut and paste" capability is in

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general not provided. Facilities exist to be able to automatically generate, print and archive

4.7 Automation
The majority of the products allow actions to be automatically triggered by events. A
scripting language provided by the SCADA products allows these actions to be defined. In
general, one can load a particular display, send an Email, run a user defined application or
script and write to the RTDB. The concept of recipes is supported, whereby a particular system
configuration can be saved to a file and then re-loaded at a later date.

4.8 Application & Development in SCADA

4.8.1 Configuration
The development of the applications is typically done in two stages. First the process
parameters and associated information (e.g. relating to alarm conditions) are defined through
some sort of parameter definition template and then the graphics, including trending and alarm
displays are developed, and linked where appropriate to the process parameters. The products
also provide an ASCII Export/Import facility for the configuration data (parameter definitions),
which enables large numbers of parameters to be configured in a more efficient manner using
an external editor such as Excel and then importing the data into the configuration database.
However, many of the PC tools now have a Windows Explorer type development studio. The
developer then works with a number of folders, which each contains a different aspect of the
configuration, including the graphics.
The facilities provided by the products for configuring very large numbers of parameters are
not very strong. However, this has not really been an issue so far for most of the products todate, as large applications are typically about 50K I/O points and database population from
within an ASCII editor such as Excel is still a workable option. On-line modifications to the
configuration database and the graphics are generally possible with the appropriate level of

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4.8.2 Development Tools
The following development tools are provided as standard:
A graphics editor, with standard drawing facilities including freehand, lines, squares
circles, etc. It is possible to import pictures in many formats as well as using predefined
symbols including e.g. trending charts, etc. A library of generic symbols is provided that can be
linked dynamically to variables and animated as they change. It is also possible to create links
between views so as to ease navigation at run-time. A data base configuration tool (usually
through parameter templates). It is in general possible to export data in ASCII files so as to be
edited through an ASCII editor or Excel. A scripting language An Application Program
Interface (API) supporting C, C++, VB

4.8.3 Evolution
SCADA vendors release one major version and one to two additional minor versions once
per year. These products evolve thus very rapidly so as to take advantage of new market
opportunities, to meet new requirements of their customers and to take advantage of new
technologies. As was already mentioned, most of the SCADA products that were evaluated
decompose the process in "atomic" parameters to which a Tag-name is associated. This is
impractical in the case of very large processes when very large sets of Tags need to be
configured. As the industrial applications are increasing in size, new SCADA versions are now
being designed to handle devices and even entire systems as full entities (classes) that
encapsulate all their specific attributes and functionality. In addition, they will also support
multi-team development. As far as new technologies are concerned, the SCADA products are
now adopting:
Web technology, ActiveX, Java, etc. OPC as a means for communicating internally between
the client and server modules. It should thus be possible to connect OPC compliant third party
modules to that SCADA product.


Power Supply

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Drives are employed for systems that require motion control e.g. transportation system,
fans, robots, pumps, machine tools, etc. Prime movers are required in drive systems to provide
the movement or motion and energy that is used to provide the motion can come from various
sources: diesel engines, petrol engines, hydraulic motors, electric motors etc. Drives that use
electric motors as the prime movers are known as electrical drives
There are several advantages of electrical drives:
a. Flexible control characteristic This is particularly true when power electronic


converters are employed where the dynamic and steady state characteristics of the motor can be
controlled by controlling the applied voltage or current.
b. Available in wide range of speed, torque and power
c. High efficiency, lower noise, low maintenance requirements and cleaner operation
d. Electric energy is easy to be transported.

Fig.5.1: Electrical Drives

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A typical conventional electric drive system for variable speed applications employing multimachine system. The system is obviously bulky, expensive, inflexible and requires regular
maintenance. In the past, induction and synchronous machines were used for constant speed
applications this was mainly because of the unavailability of variable frequency supply. With
the advancement of power electronics, microprocessors and digital electronics, typical electric
drive systems nowadays are becoming more compact, efficient, cheaper and versatile this is
shown in Figure 2. The voltage and current applied to the motor can be changed at will by
employing power electronic converters. AC motor is no longer limited to application where
only AC source is available, however, it can also be used when the power source available is
DC or vice versa

Fig.5.1.1: Electric drive system employing power electronic converters

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5.2 Components of Electrical Drives

The main components of a modern electrical drive are the motors, power processor, control
unit and electrical source. These are briefly discussed below.
5.2.1 Motors
Motors obtain power from electrical sources. They convert energy from electrical to
mechanical - therefore can be regarded as energy converters. In braking mode, the flow of
power is reversed. Depending upon the type of power converters used, it is also possible for the
power to be fed back to the sources rather than dissipated as heat. There are several types of
motors used in electric drives choice of type used depends on applications, cost,
environmental factors and also the type of sources available. Broadly, they can be classified as
either DC or AC motors: DC motors (wound or permanent magnet) AC motors:
Induction motors squirrel cage, wound rotor
Synchronous motors wound field, permanent magnet
Brushless DC motor require power electronic converters
Stepper motors require power electronic converters
Synchronous reluctance motors or switched reluctance motor require power electronic
5.2.2 Power processor or power modulator
Since the electrical sources are normally uncontrollable, it is therefore necessary to be
able to control the flow of power to the motor this is achieved using power processor or
power modulator. With controllable sources, the motor can be reversed, brake or can be
operated with variable speed. Conventional methods used, for example, variable impedance or
relays, to shape the voltage or current that is supplied to the motor these methods however are
inflexible and inefficient. Modern electric drives normally used power electronic converters to
shape the desired voltage or current supplied to the motor. In other words, the characteristic of
the motors can be changed at will. Power electronic converters have several advantages over
classical methods of power conversion, such as :
More efficient since ideally no losses occur in power electronic converters
Flexible voltage and current can be shaped by simply controlling switching functions of the
power converter
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Compact smaller,
Compact and higher ratings solidstate power electronic devices are continuously being
developed the prices are getting cheaper.
Converters are used to convert and possibly regulate (i.e. using closed-loop control) the
available sources to suit the load i.e. motors. These converters are efficient because the
switches operate in either cut-off or saturation modes
Several conversions are possible:

AC to DC

DC to AC

DC to DC

AC to AC

5.2.3 Control Unit

The complexity of the control unit depends on the desired drive performance and the type
of motors used. A controller can be as simple as few op-amps and/or a few digital ICs, or it can
be as complex as the combinations of several ASICs and digital signal processors (DSPs). The
types of the main controllers can be: analog - which is noisy, inflexible. However analog
circuit ideally has infinite bandwidth. digital immune to noise, configurable. The bandwidth
is obviously smaller than the analog controllers depends on sampling frequency
DSP/microprocessor flexible, lower bandwidth compared to above. DSPs perform faster
operation than microprocessors (multiplication in single cycle). With DSP/microp., complex
estimations and observers can be easily implemented.
5.2.4 Source
Electrical sources or power supplies provide the energy to the electrical motors. For high
efficiency operation, the power obtained from the electrical sources need to be regulated using
power electronic converters Power sources can be of AC or DC in nature and normally are
uncontrollable, i.e. their magnitudes or frequencies are fixed or depend on the sources of
energy such as solar or wind. AC source can be either three-phase or single-phase; 3-phase
sources are normally for high power applications
There can be several factors that affect the selection of different configuration of electrical
drive system such as:
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a) Torque and speed profile - determine the ratings of converters and the quadrant of
operation required.
b) Capital and running cost Drive systems will vary in terms of start-up cost and running
cost, e.g. maintenance.
c) Space and weight restrictions
d) Environment and location

5.3 Comparison between DC and AC drives

5.3.1 Motors
DC require maintenance, heavy, expensive, speed limited by mechanical construction
AC less maintenance, light, cheaper, robust, high speed (esp. squirrelcage type)
5.3.2 Control unit:
DC drives: Simple control decoupling torque and flux by mechanical commutator the
controller can be implemented using simple analog circuit even for high performance torque
control cheaper.
AC drives, the types of controllers to be used depend on the required drive performance
obviously, cost increases with performance. Scalar control drives technique does not require
fast processor/DSP whereas in FOC or DTC drives, DSPs or fast processors are normally
5.3.3 Performance:
In DC motors, flux and torque components are always perpendicular to one another thanks
to the mechanical commutator and brushes. The torque is controlled via the armature current
while maintaining the field component constant. Fast torque and decouple control between flux
and torque components can be achieved easily.
In AC machines, in particular the induction machines, magnetic coupling between phases
and between stator and rotor windings makes the modeling and torque control difficult and
complex. Control of the steady state operating conditions is accomplished by controlling the
magnitude and the frequency of the applied voltage; which is known as the scalar control
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technique. This is satisfactory in some applications. The transient states or the dynamics of the
machine can only be controlled by applying the vector control technique whereby the
decoupling between the torque and flux components is achieved through frame transformations.
Implementation of this control technique is complex thus requires fast processors such as
Digital Signal Processors (DSPs).

5.4 Overview of AC and DC drives

The advancement in electric drive system is very much related to the development in the
power semiconductor devices technology. The introduction of the Silicon-Controlled Rectifier
(SCR) in 1957 has initiated the application of solid state devices in power converters. The
development of the electrical drives systems can be divided into three stages. Before power
semiconductor devices were introduced: AC drives were used for fixed speed operation.
Generating an AC voltage with variable frequency was only possible by using rotary
converters, which are bulky and inflexible. Although it is possible to use variable voltage with
fixed frequency sources to control the speed of AC motors, the efficiency of the drive system
will be very poor especially at low speeds. On the other hand, variable DC supply can be
produced using multi-machine configuration and hence could be used to control the armature
voltage of the DC motors. Consequently, DC drives are widely used for variable speed
operation, whereas AC machines were used mainly for fixed speed applications.
After power semiconductor devices were introduced in 1950s although self turnoff devices
(Bipolar Junction Transistor BJT) were available in the 1950s their voltage ratings were too
low which make them inappropriate to be used in power circuit. Silicon-Controlled Rectifier
(SCR) was introduced in 1957. The higher ratings of SCR compared to the solid state transistor
at that time, has made it possible for it to be used in static frequency converters or inverters.
Speed control with AC motor can be performed because variable frequency AC supply can be
generated using inverters. However, since the switching frequency of an SCR was low which
require commutation circuit in order to turn off; square wave inverters were mainly used in AC
drive system. In early 1960s, the improvement in the fabrication of BJT along with the
introduction of pulse width modulation (PWM) control technique has significantly contributed
to the improvement in the AC motor drives. Transient torque control to some extent was nearly
achieved to the expense of a very complex algorithm with numerous approximations. The true
high performance torque control similar to DC drives was still not achievable due to the
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complex magnetic coupling between phases in the stator and rotor of the AC machines.
Nevertheless, DC drives were gradually being replaced with AC drives in medium performance
variable speed applications. Applications requiring precise and fast torque control were still
dominated by DC drives.

After semiconductor devices were introduced in 1980s In 1972,

Prof. Blashke published his approach of AC motor control, to what is now known as Field
Oriented Control (FOC) or vector control. FOC control basically transformed the control of AC
motors to the one similar to DC motor control. In other words, the high performance torque
control can be achieved using AC motors. This is possible through complex frame
transformations and algorithm. However not until in the early 80s, where faster
microprocessors were available, the algorithm used for FOC was not practically realizable. In
1980s, increasing number of applications utilizing FOC control could be found in industries.
Applications which were previously possible only with DC drives were gradually being
replaced with FOC of AC drives. It was predicted that the AC drives will eventually replace the
DC drives in the near future.

5.5 Connection of Electric Drives

5.5.1 There are 3 mode of connection.
1. Keypad mode

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Fig. 5.5.1: Keypad of Electrical Drive

2. 2-wire mode

Fig.5.5.2: 2-wire connection

3. 3-wire mode

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Fig.5.5.3: 3-wire connection

5.6 Programming Parameter

5.6.1 Input Parameter
Parameter Code



Motor NP voltage


Motor NP frequency


Motor O.L. current


Minimum Frequency


Maximum frequency


Start source


Stop Mode


Speed reference


Acceleration time


Deceleration time

5.6.2 Display parameter




Output frequency


Command frequency


O/P current

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O/P voltage


DC bus voltage


Drive status


Fault display


Fault display


Fault display


RPM display

Projects Done
6.1 Automatic lift control
In this I design a model of lift control in which I shows how a lift works. In this model we
use PLC, relays, dc gear motor, sensors & switches. All plays very important role. We upload
a program in PLC which is formed in ladder logic.

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Fig. 6.1 program for automatic lift control

Switches are used to calling or going the lift upward or downward and sensors are used to
sense the present position of lift.Dc gear motor used to rotate the pully in which lift is fixed.

6.2 Automatic bottle filing plant

In this project we design a program for a bottle filing plant. In which we used a conyer
belt, motor, valve, sensors & internal timer of PLC. Sensors used as switch which sense
the position of bottle it used where bottle have to be stopped. Timer is used to count the
time for which valve is open to fill the bottle.

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Fig. 6.2 Automatic bottle filing plant

6.3 Blinking of 2 lamps

In this we design a program for blinking of 2 lamp simultaneously. We blink a both lamp
simultaneously with a 5seconds time delay. First lamp 1 is glow for a first 5seconds and lamp 2
is off then in another 5seconds lamp 1 off and lamp 2 is glow.

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Fig. 6.3 blinking of 2 lamps

6.4 Paint mixing plant

In paint mixing plant we mix the two different paints for making one by combining both
paint. After combining both a new color of paint is formed. For mixing of paints we use a tank
which is filled by two different colors of paints which is filling by two valves. And sensors are

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used to measure the paint level in the tank. After filling the tank mixing motor is ON for
10seconds and then valve 3 is open for taking off the paint from the tank.

Fig. 6.4 Paint mixing plant

Automation plays an increasingly important role in the global economy and In daily
experience. Engineers strive to combine automated devices with mathematical and
organizational tools to create complex systems for a rapidly expanding range of applications
and human activities. Automation provides 100% accuracy all time. So the failures and
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mismatch in production completely eliminates. It makes the systems efficiency higher than
manual as well as It controls wastages.. So the overall savings increases. It provides safety to
human being. By that industry can achieves the safety majors and ISO and OHSAS reputation.
It makes the operation faster than manual which causes higher production and proper utilization
of utilities. It increases the production by which the cost of each product decreases and industry
profit increases. It provides smooth control on system response. It provides repeatability, so that
the same kinds of products are easier to manufacture at different stages without wasting time. It
provides quality control, so that the products become reliable which improves industrial
reputation in market. It provides integration with business systems. It can reduce labor costs, so
the final profit increases. Industrial automation is very compulsory need of industries in todays
scenario to meet market competition

[1] A.Daneels, W.Salter, "Technology Survey Summary of Study Report", IT-CO/98-08- 09,
CERN, Geneva 26th Aug 1998.

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[2] A.Daneels, W.Salter, "Selection and Evaluation of Commercial SCADA Systems for the
Controls of the CERN LHC Experiments", Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference
on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, Trieste, 1999, p.353.
[3] G.Baribaud et al., "Recommendations for the Use of Fieldbuses at CERN in the LHC Era",
Proceedings of the 1997 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental
Physics Control Systems, Beijing, 1997, p.285.
[4] D. Kandray, Programmable Automation Technologies , Industrial Press, 2010.
[5] W. Bolton, Programmable Logic Controllers, Fifth Edition, Newnes, 2009.

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