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Associate Professor

Umm Al-Qura University

Facculty of Engineering & Islamic Architecture

Department of Electrical Engineering

Chapter 1

Induction Motor

A.C. Motors

Classification of A.C. Motors

Different ac. motors may, however, be classified and divided into various groups

from the following different points of view :

1. AS REGARDS THEIR PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

(A) Synchronous motors

(i) plain

(ii) super

(B) Asynchronous motors:

(a) Induction motors : (i) Squirrel cage { single and double}

(ii) Slip-ring (external resistance)

(b) Commutator motors:

(i) Series { single phase and universal}

(ii) Compensated { conductively and inductively}

(iii) shunt { simple and compensated}

(iv) repulsion { straight and compensated}

(v) repulsion-start induction

(vi) repulsion induction

(i) single phase

(ii) three phase

(i) constant speed.

(ii) variable speed.

(iii) (iii) adjustable speed

(i) open

(ii) enclosed

(iii) semi-enclosed

(iv) ventilated

(v) pipe-ventilated

(vi) riverted frame eye etc.

INDUCTION MOTOR

General Principle

As a general rule, conversion of electrical power into mechanical power takes

place in the rotating part of an electric motor.

In d.c. motors, the electric power is conducted directly to the armature (i.e.

rotating part) through brushes and commutator. Hence, in this sense, a d.c.

motor can be called a conduction motor.

However, in a.c. motors, the rotor does not receive electric power by conduction

but by induction in exactly the same way as the secondary of a 2-winding

transformer receives its power from the primary. That is why such motors are

known as induction motors. In fact, an induction motor can be treated as a

rotating transformer i.e. one in which primary winding is stationary but the

secondary is free to rotate.

Advantages:

1. It has very simple and extremely rugged, almost unbreakable construction

(especially squirrel cage type).

3. It has sufficiently high efficiency. In normal running condition, no brushes are

needed, hence frictional losses are reduced. It has a reasonably good power

factor.

4. It requires minimum of maintenance.

5. It starts up from rest and needs no extra starting motor and has not to be

synchronized. Its starting arrangement is simple especially for squirrel-cage

type motor.

Disadvantages:

1.

2. Just like a dc shunt motor, its speed decreases with increase in load.

3. Its starting torque is somewhat inferior to that of a dc shunt motor.

Construction

An induction motor consists essentially of two main parts :

(a) a stator

The stator carries a 3-phase winding and is

fed from a 3-phase supply. It is wound for

a definite number of poles, the exact

number of poles being determined by the

requirements of speed.

Greater the number of poles, lesser the

speed and vice versa.

When supplied with 3-phase currents,

produce a magnetic flux, which is of

constant magnitude but which revolves (or

rotates) at synchronous speed.

Synchronous speed

Ns = 120 f/P

This revolving magnetic flux induces an emf in the rotor by mutual induction.

number of stator slots/pole/phase.

(b) a rotor.

(i)

Squirrel-cage rotor:

Motors employing this type of rotor are known as squirrel-cage induction

motors.

(ii) Phase-wound or wound rotor:

Motors employing this type of rotor are variously known as phase-wound

motors or wound motors or as slip-ring motors.

Squirrel-cage Rotor

The rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with parallel slots for carrying

the rotor conductors which, it should be noted clearly, are not wires but consist of

heavy bars of copper, aluminum or alloys. One bar is placed in each slot, rather the

bars are inserted from the end when semi-closed slots are used.

The rotor bars are brazed or electrically welded or bolted to two heavy and stout

short-circuiting end-rings, thus giving us, what is so picturesquely called, a

squirrel-case construction.

It should be noted that the rotor bars are permanently short-circuited on

themselves, hence it is not possible to add any external resistance in series with the

rotor circuit for starting purposes.

(i) it helps to make the motor run quietly by reducing the magnetic hum and

(ii) it helps in reducing the locking tendency of the rotor i.e. the tendency of the

rotor teeth to remain under the stator teeth due to direct magnetic attraction

between the two.

(i) increase in the effective ratio of transformation between stator and rotor.

(ii) increased rotor resistance due to increased length of rotor bars.

(iii) Increased impedance of the machine at a given slip.

(iv) increased slip for a given torque.

)Rotor bars (slightly skewed

End ring

Phase-wound Rotor

The rotor is provided with 3-phase, double-layer, distributed winding consisting of

coils as used in alternators. The rotor is wound for as many poles as the number of

stator poles and is always wound 3-phase even when the stator is wound twophase.

The other three winding terminals are brought out and connected to three insulated

slip-rings mounted on the shaft with brushes resting on them.

These three brushes are further externally connected to a 3-phase star-connected

rheostat. This makes possible the introduction of additional resistance in the rotor

circuit during the starting period for increasing the starting torque of the motor. for

changing its speed-torque/current characteristics.

When running under normal conditions, the slip-rings are automatically shortcircuited by means of a metal collar, which is pushed along the shaft and

connects all the rings together. Next, the brushes are automatically lifted from the

slip-rings to reduce the frictional losses and the wear and tear.

Hence, it is seen that under normal running conditions, the wound rotor is shortcircuited on itself just like the squirrel-case rotor.

brushes and short-circuiting devices

2. Stator and Rotor Core. Built from high-quality low-loss silicon steel

laminations and flash-enamelled-on both sides.

3. Stator and Rotor Windings. Have moisture proof tropical insulation

embodying mica and high quality varnishes. Are carefully spaced for most

effective air circulation and are rigidly braced to withstand centrifugal forces

and any short-circuit stresses.

4. Air-gap. The stator rabbets and bore are machined carefully to ensure

uniformity of air-gap.

5. Shafts and Bearings. Ball and roller bearings are used to suit heavy duty,

trouble-free running and for enhanced service life.

6. Fans. Light aluminum fans are used for adequate circulation of cooling air and

are securely keyed onto the rotor shaft.

7. Slip-rings and Slip-ring Enclosures. Slip-rings are made of high quality

phosphor-bronze and are of moulded construction.

squirrel-cage rotor.

(c) bearing shields

(d) fan

(e) ventilation grill a (f) terminal box.

slip-ring motor

(c) bearing shields

(d) fan

(e) ventilation grill

(f) terminal box

(g) slip-rings

(h) brushes and brush holders.

It will now be shown that when threephase windings displaced in space by

120, are fed by three-phase currents,

displaced in time by 120, they produce

a resultant magnetic flux, which rotates

in space as if actual magnetic poles were

being rotated mechanically.

The flux (assumed sinusoidal) due to

three-phase windings.

A+

C-

B-

B+

C+

A-

vector sum of the individual fluxes, 1, 2 and 3 due

to three phases. We will consider values of r at four

instants 1/6th time-period apart corresponding to points

marked 0, 1, 2 and 3

(i) When = 0 i. e. corresponding to point 0:

1. The resultant flux is of constant value =m i.e. 1.5 times the maximum

value of the flux due to any phase.

2. The resultant flux rotates around the stator at synchronous speed given by :

Ns = 120 f/P.

Mathematical Proof

Taking the direction of flux due to phase 1 as reference direction, we have

The resultant flux is of constant magnitude and does not change with time t.

The Development of Induced Torque in an Induction Motor

(a) The rotating stator field s induces a voltage in the rotor bars;

(b) The rotor voltage produces a rotor current flow which lags behind the voltage

because of the inductance of the rotor;

(c) The rotor current produces a rotor magnetic field R lagging 90 behind itself.

and R interacts with res to produce a counterclockwise torque in the

machine.

This results in a current flow out of the upper bars and into the lower bars.

However, since the rotor assembly is inductive, the peak rotor current lags behind

the peak rotor voltage. The rotor current flow produces a rotor magnetic fieldR.

Finally, since the induced torque in the machine is given by:

counterclockwise, the rotor accelerates in that direction.

Note that in normal operation both the rotor and stator magnetic fields BR and

Bs rotate together at synchronous speed nsync while the rotor itself tuns at a slower

speed.

A three-phase set of voltages has been applied to the stator, and a three-phase set of

stator currents is flowing. These currents produce a magnetic field Bs, which is

rotating in a counterclockwise direction. The speed of the magnetic field's rotation

is given by

This rotating magnetic field Bs passes over the rotor bars and induces a voltage in

them. The voltage induced in a given rotor bar is given by the equation;

B = magnetic flux density vector

I = length of conductor in the magnetic field

It is the relative motion of the rotor compared to the stat or magnetic field that

produces induced voltage in a rotor bar. The velocity of the upper rotor bars

relative to the magnetic field is to the right, so the induced voltage in the upper

bars is out of the page, while the induced voltage in the lower bars is into the page.

The voltage induced in a rotor bar of an induction motor depends on the speed of

the rotor relative to the magnetic fields. Since the behavior of an induction motor

depends on the rotor's voltage and current, it is often more logical to talk about this

relative speed. Two terms are commonly used to de fine the relative motion of the

rotor and the magnetic fields.

One is slip speed, defined as the difference between synchronous speed and rotor

speed:

The other term used to describe the relative motion is slip, which is the relative

speed expressed on a per-unit or a percentage basis. That is, slip is defined as:

at synchronous speed, s = 0,

If the rotor is stationary, s = 1.

All normal motor speeds fall somewhere between those two limits.

An induction motor works by inducing voltages and currents in the rotor of

the machine, and for that reason it has sometimes been called a rotating

transformer. But unlike a transformer, the secondary frequency is not necessarily

the same as the primary frequency.

At nm = 0 r/min, the rotor frequency fr = fe, and the slip s = 1.

At nm = nsync the rotor frequency fr = 0 Hz, and the slip s = 0.

For any speed in between, the rotor frequency is directly proportional to the

difference between the speed of the magnetic field nsync and the speed of the rotor

nm. Since the slip of the rotor is defined as

Several alternative forms of this expression exist that are sometimes useful.

and

and

The transformer model or an induction motor. with rotor and stator connected by

an ideal transformer of turns ratio aeff

The stator resistance will be called R1. and the stator leakage reactance will be

called X1.

Also, like any transformer with an iron core,

the flux in the machine is related to the

integral of the applied voltage E1. The curve

of magneto motive force versus flux

(magnetization curve) for this machine is

compared to a similar curve for a power

transformer in Figure.

This is because there must be an air gap in an induction motor, which greatly

increases the reluctance of the flux path and therefore reduces the coupling

between primary and secondary windings. The higher reluctance caused by the air

gap means that a higher magnetizing current is required to obtain a given flux

level.

Therefore, the magnetizing reactance XM in the equivalent circuit will have a

much smaller value (or the susceptance BM will have a much larger value) than

it would in an ordinary transformer.

transformer with an effective turns ratio aeff . The effective turns ratio aeff is fairly

easy to determine for a wound-rotor motor- it is basically the ratio of the conductors

per phase on the stator to the conductors per phase on the rotor, modified by any

pitch and distribution factor differences.

An induction motor equivalent circuit differs from a transformer equivalent

circuit primarily in the effects of varying rotor frequency on the rotor voltage ER

and the rotor impedances RR and jXR

The Rotor Circuit Model

The magnitude of the induced rotor voltage at

locked-rotor conditions is called ER0, The

magnitude of the induced voltage at any s lip will

be given by the equation:

and the frequency of the induced voltage at any slip will be given by the equation

This voltage is induced in a rotor containing both resistance and reactance. The

rotor resistance RR is a constant (except for the skin effect), independent of slip,

while the rotor reactance is affected in a more complicated way by slip.

rotor reactance.

To produce the final per-phase equivalent circuit for an induction motor, it is

necessary to refer the rotor part of the model over to the stator side.

where

R2/s

And

and

The rotor resistance RR and the locked-rotor rotor reactance XR0 are very difficult

or impossible to determine directly on cage rotors, and the effective turns ratio aeff

is also difficult to obtain for cage rotors.

POWER AND TORQUE IN INDUCTION MOTORS:

Losses and the Power-Flow Diagram:

The stator copper losses in the three phases are given by:

And

The actual resistive losses in the rotor circuit are given by the equation:

given by:

The rotor copper losses are equal to the air-gap power times the slip::

Note that if the rotor is not turning, the slip S = 1 and the air-gap power is

entirely consumed in the rotor. This is logical, since if the rotor is not turning, the

output power Pout (= "Tload m,) must be zero. Since Pconv= PAG - PRCL,

There another relationship between the air-gap power and the power converted

from electrical to mechanical form:

Finally, if the friction and windage losses and the stray losses are known, the output

power can be found as:

The relationship between air gap power , rotor copper losses and

the conventional power are given by:

The induced torque rind in a machine was defined as the torque generated by

the internal electric-to-mechanical power conversion. This torque differs from

the torque actually available at the terminals of the motor by an amount equal

to the friction and windage torques in the machine.

The induced torque (developed torque )is given by the equation:

Induction Motor 's Equivalent Circuit

Part of the power coming across the air gap in an induction motor is consumed in

the rotor copper losses, and part of it is converted to mechanical power to drive the

motor's shaft. It is possible to separate the two uses of the air-gap power and to

indicate them separately on the motor equivalent circuit.

The difference between them is Pconv which must therefore be the power consumed

in a resistor of value:

Per-phase equivalent circuit with the rotor copper losses and the power converted to

mechanical form separated into distinct elements is shown in Figure.

The per-phase equivalent circuit with rotor losses and Pconv separated.

phase of the motor can be seen to be

Thevenin's theorem states that any linear circuit that can be separated by two

terminals from the rest of the system can be replaced by a single voltage source in

series with an equivalent impedance.

Find VTH

R1, the magnitude of the Thevenin voltage is

approximately

Find RTH

Because XM X1 and (XM + X1)R1 the TIlevenin resistance and reactance are

approximately given by

And

ranges (braking region and generator region).

1. The induced torque of the motor is. zero at synchronous speed.

2. The torque- speed curve is nearly linear between no load and full load. In this

range, the rotor resistance is much larger than the rotor reactance, so the

rotor current , the rotor magnetic field, and the induced torque increase linearly

with increasing slip.

3. There is a maximum possible torque that cannot be exceeded. this torque, called

the pullout torque or breakdown torque, is 2 to 3 times the rated full load

torque of the motor.

4. The starting torque on the motor is slightly larger than its full -load torque,

so this motor will start carrying any load that it can supply at full power.

5. Notice that the torque on the motor for a given slip varies as the square of

the applied voltage.

6. If the rotor of the induction motor is driven faster than synchronous speed,

then the direction of the induced torque in the machine reverses and the

machine becomes a generator, converting mechanical power to electric

power.

fields, the induced torque in the machine will stop the machine very

rapidly and will try to rotate it in the other direction. Since reversing the

direction of magnetic field rotation is simply a matter of switching any two

stator phases, this fact can be used as a way to very rapidly stop an induction

motor. The act of switching two phases in order to stop the motor very rapidly

is called plugging.

Notice that the peak power supplied by the induction motor occurs at a different

speed than the maximum torque; and, of course, no power is converted to

mechanical form when the rotor is at zero speed.

Since the air-gap power is equal to the power consumed in the resistor R2 /s, the

maximum induced torque will occur when the power consumed by that resistor is

maximum.

The maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power transfer to the

load resistor R2/s will occur when the magnitude of that impedance is equal to

the magnitude of the source impedance. The equivalent source impedance in the

circuit is

Notice that the referred rotor resistance R2 appears only in the numerator, so

the slip of the rotor at maximum torque is directly proportional to the rotor

resistance.

The resulting equation for the maximum or pullout torque is

This torque is proportional to the square of the supply voltage and is also

inversely related to the size of the stator impedances and the rotor reactance.

Note that slip at which the maximum torque occurs is directly proportional to

rotor resistance, but the value of the maximum torque is independent of the

value of rotor resistance

following Figure. Recall that it is possible to insert resistance into the rotor circuit

of a wound rotor because the rotor circuit is brought out to the stator through slip

rings. Notice on the figure that as the rotor resistance is increased, the pullout

speed of the motor decreases, but the maximum torque remains constant.

a) Torque is related to the square of the applied voltage

b) Torque is also inversely proportional to the machine impedances

d) Torque is also independent to rotor resistance as shown in the

maximum torque equation.

By adding more resistance to the machine impedances, we can

vary:

a) Starting torque

b) Max pull out speed

motors to start very heavy loads.

speeds (high slip) with low-resistance effects at high speed (low slip).

Leakage reactance X2 represents the referred form of the rotors

leakage reactance (reactance due to the rotors flux lines that do not

couple with the stator windings)

If the bars of a cage rotor are placed near the surface of the rotor,

they will have only a small leakage flux and the reactance X2 will

be small in the equivalent circuit.

On the other hand, if the rotor bars are placed deeper into the

rotor surface, there will be more leakage and the rotor reactance

X2 will be larger.

Laminations from typical cage induction motor rotors. showing the cross

section of the rotor bars:

(a) NEMA design class Alarge bars near the

surface;

(b) NEMA design class Blarge, deep rotor bars;

rotor

design;

(d) NEMA design class Dsmall bars near the

surface.

How can a variable rotor resistance be produced to combine the high starting

torque and low starting current of Class D, with the low normal operating slip and

high efficiency of class A?

Use deep rotor bars (Class B) or double-cage rotors (Class C).

(a) For a current flowing in the top of the bar. the flux is tightly linked to the stator.

and leakage inductance is small;

(b) for a current flowing in the bottom of the bar. the flux is loosely linked to the

stator. and leakage inductance is large;

(c) resulting equivalent circuit of the rotor bar as a function of depth in the rotor.

Rotor bars are quite large and are placed near the surface of the rotor.

Low resistance (due to its large cross section) and a low leakage reactance X2

(due to the bars location near the stator).

Because of the low resistance, the pullout torque will be quite near synchronous

speed.

Motor will be quite efficient, since little air gap power is lost in the rotor

resistance.

However, since R2 is small, starting torque will be small, and starting

current will be high.

This design is the standard motor design.

Typical applications driving fans, pumps, and other machine tools.

NEMA Class B

At the upper part of a deep rotor bar, the current flowing is tightly coupled to

the stator, and hence the leakage inductance is small in this region.

Deeper in the bar, the leakage inductance is higher.

At low slips, the rotors frequency is very small, and the reactances of all the

parallel paths are small compared to their resistances. The impedances of all

parts of the bar are approx equal, so current flows through all the parts of the bar

equally. The resulting large cross sectional area makes the rotor resistance

quite small, resulting in good efficiency at low slips.

At high slips (starting conditions), the reactances are large compared to the

resistances in the rotor bars, so all the current is forced to flow in the lowreactance part of the bar near the stator. Since the effective cross section is lower,

the rotor resistance is higher. Thus, the starting torque is relatively higher and

the starting current is relatively lower than in a class A design

Applications similar to class A, and this type B have largely replaced type A.

NEMA Class C

It consists of a large, low resistance set of bars buried deeply in the rotor

and a small, high-resistance set of bars set at the rotor surface. It is similar to

the deep-bar rotor, except that the difference between low-slip and high-slip

operation is even more exaggerated.

At starting conditions, only the small bars are effective, and the rotor

resistance is high. Hence, high starting torque. However,

At normal operating speeds, both bars are effective, and the resistance is

almost as low as in a deep-bar rotor.

Used in high starting torque loads such as loaded pumps, compressors, and

conveyors.

NEMA class D

Rotor with small bars placed near the surface of the rotor (higher-resistance

material)

High resistance (due to its small cross section) and a low leakage reactance X2

(due to the bars location near the stator)

Like a wound-rotor induction motor with extra resistance inserted into the

rotor.

Because of the large resistance, the pullout torque occurs at high slip, and

starting torque will be quite high, and low starting current.

Typical applications extremely high-inertia type loads.

In addition to these four design classes, NEMA used to recognize design

classes E and F, which were called soft-start induction motors .

These designs were distinguished by having very low starting currents and

were used for low-starting-torque loads in situations where starting currents

were a problem. These designs are now obsolete.

Rotor cross section. showing the construction of the former design class F

induction motor. Since the rotor bars are deeply buried. they have a very high

leakage reactance. The high leakage reactance reduces the starting torque and

current of this motor. so it is called a soft-start design.

For wound-rotor induction motors, starting can be achieved at relatively low

currents by inserting extra resistance in the rotor circuit during starting. This extra

resistance not only increases the starting torque but also reduces the starting

current.

For cage induction motors, To estimate the rotor current at starting conditions, all

cage motors now have a starting code letter (not to be confused with their design

class letter) on their nameplates. The code letter sets limits on the amount of

current the motor can draw at starting conditions.

These limits are expressed in terms of the starting apparent power of the

motor as a function of its horsepower rating. The following table containing

the starting kilo-volt-amperes per horsepower for each code letter.

To determine the starting current for an induction motor, read the rated voltage,

horsepower, and code letter from its nameplate. Then the starting apparent

power for the motor will be:

Table of NEMA code letters. indicating the starting kilovolt amperes per

horsepower of rating for a motor. Each code letter extends up to, but does not

include, the lower bound of the next higher class.

(Reproduced by permission from Motors and Generators. NEMA Publication MG-I. copyright 1987

by NEMA.)

Example What is the starting current of a 15-hp, 208-V, code-Ietter-F, threephase induction motor?

Therefore, the maximum starting kilo-volt-amperes of this motor is

The starting current is thus

it is seen that to start an induction motor, there is a need for high starting current.

For a wound rotor type induction motor, this problem may be solved by

incorporating resistor banks at the rotor terminal during starting (to reduce

current flow) and as the rotor picks up speed, the resistor banks are taken out.

For a squirrel cage rotor, reducing starting current may be achieved by varying the

starting voltage across the stator terminal. Reducing the starting terminal voltage

will also reduce the rated starting power hence reducing starting current.

One way to achieve this is by using a step down transformer during the

starting sequence and stepping up the transformer ratio as the machine spins

faster (refer figure below).

Starting sequence:

(a) Close I and 3

(b) Open I and 3

(c) Close 2

An autotransformer starter

for an induction motor.

proportion to the decrease in terminal voltage, the starting torque decreases as

the square of the applied voltage. Therefore, only a certain amount of current

reduction can be done if the motor is to start with a shaft load attached.

Operation:

When the start button is pressed, the relay or contactor coil M is energized,

causing the normally open contacts M1, M2 and M3 to shut.

Then, power is applied to the induction motor, and the motor starts.

Contact M4 also shuts which shorts out the starting switch, allowing the

operator to release it without removing power from the M relay.

When the stop button is pressed, the M relay is reenergized, and the M

contacts open, stopping the motor.

A magnetic motor starter of this sort has several built in protective features:

a)

contacts (OL)

c) Undervoltage protection reenergizing of the M relays.

Operation:

Similar to the previous one, except that there are additional components present

to control removal of the starting resistor. Relays 1TD, 2TD and 3TD are called

time-delay relays.

When the start button is pushed, the M relay energizes and power is applied to

the motor.

Since the 1TD, 2TD and 3TD contacts are all open, the full starting resistor are

in series with the motor, reducing the starting current.

When M contacts close, the 1TD relay is energized. There is a finite delay

before the 1TD contacts close. During that time, the motor speeds up, and the

starting current drops.

After that, 1TD close, cutting out part of the starting resistance and

simultaneously energizing 2TD relay and finally 3TD contacts close, and the

entire starting resistor is out of the circuit.

Until the advent of modern solid-state drives, induction motors in general were

not good machines for applications requiring considerable speed control. The

normal operating range of a typical induction motor (design classes A, B, and C) is

confined to less than 5 percent slip, and the speed variation over that range is

more or less directly proportional to the load on the shaft of the motor.

Since PRCL = sPAG , if slip is made higher, rotor copper losses will be high as well.

There are basically 2 general methods to control induction motors speed:

a) Varying stator and rotor magnetic field speed

b) Varying slip s

Varying the magnetic field speed may be achieved by varying the electrical

frequency or by changing the number of poles.

terminal voltage.

There are 2 approaches possible:

a) Method of Consequent Poles (Old Method)

b) Multiple Stator Windings Method

It relies on the fact that the number of poles in the stator windings of an

induction motor can easily be changed by a factor of 2: 1 with only simple

changes in coil connections.

General Idea:

Consider one phase winding in a stator. By changing the

current flow in one portion of the stator windings as such that

it is similar to the current flow in the opposite portion of the

stator will automatically generate an extra pair of poles.

(a) In the two-pole configuration.

one coil is a north pole and the

other one is a south pole.

(b) When the connection on one of

the two coils is reversed. they

are both north poles. and the

magnetic flux returns to the

stator at points halfway between

the two coils. The south poles

are called consequent poles.

and the winding is now a four

pole winding.

the resulting torque-speed characteristics:

(a) Constant-torque connection- the torque capabilities of the motor remain

approximately constant in both high-speed and low-speed connections.

(b) Constant horse power connection--the power capabilities of the motor

remain approximately constant in both high-speed and low-speed connections.

(c) Fan torque connection---the torque capabilities of the motor change with

speed in the same manner as fan-type loads.

changes), doubled or halfed, hence would vary its operating speed.

In terms of torque, the maximum torque magnitude would generally

be maintained.

Disadvantage:

This method will enable speed changes in terms of 2:1 ratio steps,

hence to obtained variations in speed, multiple stator windings has

to be applied. Multiple stator windings have extra sets of

windings that may be switched in or out to obtain the required

number of poles.

Unfortunately this would an expensive alternative.

Changing the electrical frequency will change the synchronous speed of the

machine.

Changing the electrical frequency would also require an adjustment to the terminal

voltage in order to maintain the same amount of flux level in the machine core. If

not the machine will experience:

a) Core saturation (non linearity effects)

b) Excessive magnetization current.

Varying frequency with or without adjustment to the terminal voltage may

give 2 different effects:

a) Vary frequency, stator voltage adjusted generally vary speed and maintain

operating torque.

b) Vary Frequency, stator voltage maintained able to achieve higher speeds but

a reduction of torque as speed is increased.

(a) The family of torque-speed characteristic curves for speeds below base

speed. assuming that the line voltage is derated linearly with frequency.

(b) The family of torque-speed characteristic curves for speeds above base

speed. assuming that the line voltage is held constant.

the motor operation; hence it may be combined to give both effects.

With the arrival of solid-state devices/power electronics, line

frequency change is easy to achieved and it is more versatile to a

variety of machines and application.

The torque developed by an induction motor is proportional to the

square of the applied voltage.

Varying the terminal voltage

will vary the operating speed

but with also a variation of

operating torque. In terms of

the range of speed variations,

it is not significant hence this

method is only suitable for

small motors only.

of the torque- speed curve by inserting extra resistances into the

rotor circuit of the machine.

Such a method of speed

control is normally used

only for short periods

because of this efficiency

problem.

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