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# Dr Gamal Sowilam

Associate Professor
Umm Al-Qura University
Facculty of Engineering & Islamic Architecture
Department of Electrical Engineering

Chapter 1
Induction Motor

A.C. Motors
Classification of A.C. Motors
Different ac. motors may, however, be classified and divided into various groups
from the following different points of view :
1. AS REGARDS THEIR PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:
(A) Synchronous motors
(i) plain
(ii) super
(B) Asynchronous motors:
(a) Induction motors : (i) Squirrel cage { single and double}
(ii) Slip-ring (external resistance)
(b) Commutator motors:
(i) Series { single phase and universal}
(ii) Compensated { conductively and inductively}
(iii) shunt { simple and compensated}
(iv) repulsion { straight and compensated}
(v) repulsion-start induction
(vi) repulsion induction

(i) single phase
(ii) three phase

## 3. AS REGARDS THEIR SPEED

(i) constant speed.
(ii) variable speed.

## 4. AS REGARDS THEIR STRUCTURAL FEATURES

(i) open
(ii) enclosed
(iii) semi-enclosed
(iv) ventilated
(v) pipe-ventilated
(vi) riverted frame eye etc.

INDUCTION MOTOR
General Principle
As a general rule, conversion of electrical power into mechanical power takes
place in the rotating part of an electric motor.
In d.c. motors, the electric power is conducted directly to the armature (i.e.
rotating part) through brushes and commutator. Hence, in this sense, a d.c.
motor can be called a conduction motor.
However, in a.c. motors, the rotor does not receive electric power by conduction
but by induction in exactly the same way as the secondary of a 2-winding
transformer receives its power from the primary. That is why such motors are
known as induction motors. In fact, an induction motor can be treated as a
rotating transformer i.e. one in which primary winding is stationary but the
secondary is free to rotate.

1. It has very simple and extremely rugged, almost unbreakable construction
(especially squirrel cage type).

## 2. Its cost is low and it is very reliable.

3. It has sufficiently high efficiency. In normal running condition, no brushes are
needed, hence frictional losses are reduced. It has a reasonably good power
factor.
4. It requires minimum of maintenance.
5. It starts up from rest and needs no extra starting motor and has not to be
synchronized. Its starting arrangement is simple especially for squirrel-cage
type motor.

1.

## Its speed cannot be varied without sacrificing some of its efficiency.

2. Just like a dc shunt motor, its speed decreases with increase in load.
3. Its starting torque is somewhat inferior to that of a dc shunt motor.

Construction
An induction motor consists essentially of two main parts :

(a) a stator
The stator carries a 3-phase winding and is
fed from a 3-phase supply. It is wound for
a definite number of poles, the exact
number of poles being determined by the
requirements of speed.
Greater the number of poles, lesser the
speed and vice versa.
When supplied with 3-phase currents,
produce a magnetic flux, which is of
constant magnitude but which revolves (or
rotates) at synchronous speed.
Synchronous speed

Ns = 120 f/P

This revolving magnetic flux induces an emf in the rotor by mutual induction.

## The number of poles P, produced in the rotating field is P = 2n where n is the

number of stator slots/pole/phase.

(b) a rotor.
(i)

Squirrel-cage rotor:
Motors employing this type of rotor are known as squirrel-cage induction
motors.
(ii) Phase-wound or wound rotor:
Motors employing this type of rotor are variously known as phase-wound
motors or wound motors or as slip-ring motors.

## Squirrel-cage rotor with copper bars and alloy brazed end-rings

Squirrel-cage Rotor
The rotor consists of a cylindrical laminated core with parallel slots for carrying
the rotor conductors which, it should be noted clearly, are not wires but consist of
heavy bars of copper, aluminum or alloys. One bar is placed in each slot, rather the
bars are inserted from the end when semi-closed slots are used.
The rotor bars are brazed or electrically welded or bolted to two heavy and stout
short-circuiting end-rings, thus giving us, what is so picturesquely called, a
squirrel-case construction.
It should be noted that the rotor bars are permanently short-circuited on
themselves, hence it is not possible to add any external resistance in series with the
rotor circuit for starting purposes.

## This is useful in two ways :

(i) it helps to make the motor run quietly by reducing the magnetic hum and
(ii) it helps in reducing the locking tendency of the rotor i.e. the tendency of the
rotor teeth to remain under the stator teeth due to direct magnetic attraction
between the two.

## Other results of skew which may or may not be desirable are:

(i) increase in the effective ratio of transformation between stator and rotor.
(ii) increased rotor resistance due to increased length of rotor bars.
(iii) Increased impedance of the machine at a given slip.
(iv) increased slip for a given torque.

)Rotor bars (slightly skewed

End ring

Phase-wound Rotor
The rotor is provided with 3-phase, double-layer, distributed winding consisting of
coils as used in alternators. The rotor is wound for as many poles as the number of
stator poles and is always wound 3-phase even when the stator is wound twophase.
The other three winding terminals are brought out and connected to three insulated
slip-rings mounted on the shaft with brushes resting on them.
These three brushes are further externally connected to a 3-phase star-connected
rheostat. This makes possible the introduction of additional resistance in the rotor
circuit during the starting period for increasing the starting torque of the motor. for
changing its speed-torque/current characteristics.

When running under normal conditions, the slip-rings are automatically shortcircuited by means of a metal collar, which is pushed along the shaft and
connects all the rings together. Next, the brushes are automatically lifted from the
slip-rings to reduce the frictional losses and the wear and tear.
Hence, it is seen that under normal running conditions, the wound rotor is shortcircuited on itself just like the squirrel-case rotor.

## Slip-ring motor with slip-rings

brushes and short-circuiting devices

## 1. Frame. Made of close-grained alloy cast iron.

2. Stator and Rotor Core. Built from high-quality low-loss silicon steel
laminations and flash-enamelled-on both sides.
3. Stator and Rotor Windings. Have moisture proof tropical insulation
embodying mica and high quality varnishes. Are carefully spaced for most
effective air circulation and are rigidly braced to withstand centrifugal forces
and any short-circuit stresses.
4. Air-gap. The stator rabbets and bore are machined carefully to ensure
uniformity of air-gap.
5. Shafts and Bearings. Ball and roller bearings are used to suit heavy duty,
trouble-free running and for enhanced service life.
6. Fans. Light aluminum fans are used for adequate circulation of cooling air and
are securely keyed onto the rotor shaft.
7. Slip-rings and Slip-ring Enclosures. Slip-rings are made of high quality
phosphor-bronze and are of moulded construction.

squirrel-cage rotor.

## (a) represents stator (b) rotor

(c) bearing shields
(d) fan
(e) ventilation grill a (f) terminal box.

slip-ring motor

## (a) represents stator (b) stator

(c) bearing shields
(d) fan
(e) ventilation grill
(f) terminal box
(g) slip-rings
(h) brushes and brush holders.

## Production of Rotating Field

It will now be shown that when threephase windings displaced in space by
120, are fed by three-phase currents,
displaced in time by 120, they produce
a resultant magnetic flux, which rotates
in space as if actual magnetic poles were
being rotated mechanically.
The flux (assumed sinusoidal) due to
three-phase windings.

A+

C-

B-

B+

C+

A-

## The resultant flux r, at any instant, is given by the

vector sum of the individual fluxes, 1, 2 and 3 due
to three phases. We will consider values of r at four
instants 1/6th time-period apart corresponding to points
marked 0, 1, 2 and 3
(i) When = 0 i. e. corresponding to point 0:

## Hence, we conclude that:

1. The resultant flux is of constant value =m i.e. 1.5 times the maximum
value of the flux due to any phase.
2. The resultant flux rotates around the stator at synchronous speed given by :
Ns = 120 f/P.

Mathematical Proof
Taking the direction of flux due to phase 1 as reference direction, we have

## Expanding and adding the above equations, we get

The resultant flux is of constant magnitude and does not change with time t.

## BASIC INDUCTION MOTOR CONCEPTS

The Development of Induced Torque in an Induction Motor

(a) The rotating stator field s induces a voltage in the rotor bars;
(b) The rotor voltage produces a rotor current flow which lags behind the voltage
because of the inductance of the rotor;
(c) The rotor current produces a rotor magnetic field R lagging 90 behind itself.
and R interacts with res to produce a counterclockwise torque in the
machine.

This results in a current flow out of the upper bars and into the lower bars.
However, since the rotor assembly is inductive, the peak rotor current lags behind
the peak rotor voltage. The rotor current flow produces a rotor magnetic fieldR.
Finally, since the induced torque in the machine is given by:

## the resulting torque is counterclockwise. Since the rotor induced torque is

counterclockwise, the rotor accelerates in that direction.

Note that in normal operation both the rotor and stator magnetic fields BR and
Bs rotate together at synchronous speed nsync while the rotor itself tuns at a slower
speed.

A three-phase set of voltages has been applied to the stator, and a three-phase set of
stator currents is flowing. These currents produce a magnetic field Bs, which is
rotating in a counterclockwise direction. The speed of the magnetic field's rotation
is given by

This rotating magnetic field Bs passes over the rotor bars and induces a voltage in
them. The voltage induced in a given rotor bar is given by the equation;

## where v = velocity of the bar relative to the magnetic field

B = magnetic flux density vector
I = length of conductor in the magnetic field

It is the relative motion of the rotor compared to the stat or magnetic field that
produces induced voltage in a rotor bar. The velocity of the upper rotor bars
relative to the magnetic field is to the right, so the induced voltage in the upper
bars is out of the page, while the induced voltage in the lower bars is into the page.

## The Concept of Rotor Slip

The voltage induced in a rotor bar of an induction motor depends on the speed of
the rotor relative to the magnetic fields. Since the behavior of an induction motor
relative speed. Two terms are commonly used to de fine the relative motion of the
rotor and the magnetic fields.
One is slip speed, defined as the difference between synchronous speed and rotor
speed:

The other term used to describe the relative motion is slip, which is the relative
speed expressed on a per-unit or a percentage basis. That is, slip is defined as:

## Notice that if the rotor turns:

at synchronous speed, s = 0,
If the rotor is stationary, s = 1.
All normal motor speeds fall somewhere between those two limits.

## The Electrical Frequency on the Rotor:

An induction motor works by inducing voltages and currents in the rotor of
the machine, and for that reason it has sometimes been called a rotating
transformer. But unlike a transformer, the secondary frequency is not necessarily
the same as the primary frequency.
At nm = 0 r/min, the rotor frequency fr = fe, and the slip s = 1.
At nm = nsync the rotor frequency fr = 0 Hz, and the slip s = 0.
For any speed in between, the rotor frequency is directly proportional to the
difference between the speed of the magnetic field nsync and the speed of the rotor
nm. Since the slip of the rotor is defined as

Several alternative forms of this expression exist that are sometimes useful.
and

and

## THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF AN INDUCTION MOTOR:

The transformer model or an induction motor. with rotor and stator connected by
an ideal transformer of turns ratio aeff

The stator resistance will be called R1. and the stator leakage reactance will be
called X1.
Also, like any transformer with an iron core,
the flux in the machine is related to the
integral of the applied voltage E1. The curve
of magneto motive force versus flux
(magnetization curve) for this machine is
compared to a similar curve for a power
transformer in Figure.

This is because there must be an air gap in an induction motor, which greatly
increases the reluctance of the flux path and therefore reduces the coupling
between primary and secondary windings. The higher reluctance caused by the air
gap means that a higher magnetizing current is required to obtain a given flux
level.
Therefore, the magnetizing reactance XM in the equivalent circuit will have a
much smaller value (or the susceptance BM will have a much larger value) than
it would in an ordinary transformer.

## The primary internal stator voltage E1 is coupled to the secondary ER by an ideal

transformer with an effective turns ratio aeff . The effective turns ratio aeff is fairly
easy to determine for a wound-rotor motor- it is basically the ratio of the conductors
per phase on the stator to the conductors per phase on the rotor, modified by any
pitch and distribution factor differences.
An induction motor equivalent circuit differs from a transformer equivalent
circuit primarily in the effects of varying rotor frequency on the rotor voltage ER
and the rotor impedances RR and jXR
The Rotor Circuit Model
The magnitude of the induced rotor voltage at
locked-rotor conditions is called ER0, The
magnitude of the induced voltage at any s lip will
be given by the equation:

and the frequency of the induced voltage at any slip will be given by the equation

This voltage is induced in a rotor containing both resistance and reactance. The
rotor resistance RR is a constant (except for the skin effect), independent of slip,
while the rotor reactance is affected in a more complicated way by slip.

rotor reactance.

## The Final Equivalent Circuit:

To produce the final per-phase equivalent circuit for an induction motor, it is
necessary to refer the rotor part of the model over to the stator side.

where
R2/s

And

## The rotor impedance becomes:

and
The rotor resistance RR and the locked-rotor rotor reactance XR0 are very difficult
or impossible to determine directly on cage rotors, and the effective turns ratio aeff
is also difficult to obtain for cage rotors.
POWER AND TORQUE IN INDUCTION MOTORS:
Losses and the Power-Flow Diagram:

The stator copper losses in the three phases are given by:

## so the air-gap power can be found as:

And
The actual resistive losses in the rotor circuit are given by the equation:

## The power converted , which is sometimes called developed mechanical power, is

given by:

The rotor copper losses are equal to the air-gap power times the slip::

Note that if the rotor is not turning, the slip S = 1 and the air-gap power is
entirely consumed in the rotor. This is logical, since if the rotor is not turning, the
output power Pout (= "Tload m,) must be zero. Since Pconv= PAG - PRCL,
There another relationship between the air-gap power and the power converted
from electrical to mechanical form:

Finally, if the friction and windage losses and the stray losses are known, the output
power can be found as:

The relationship between air gap power , rotor copper losses and
the conventional power are given by:

The induced torque rind in a machine was defined as the torque generated by
the internal electric-to-mechanical power conversion. This torque differs from
the torque actually available at the terminals of the motor by an amount equal
to the friction and windage torques in the machine.
The induced torque (developed torque )is given by the equation:

## Separating the Rotor Copper Losses and the Power Converted in an

Induction Motor 's Equivalent Circuit
Part of the power coming across the air gap in an induction motor is consumed in
the rotor copper losses, and part of it is converted to mechanical power to drive the
motor's shaft. It is possible to separate the two uses of the air-gap power and to
indicate them separately on the motor equivalent circuit.

The difference between them is Pconv which must therefore be the power consumed
in a resistor of value:

Per-phase equivalent circuit with the rotor copper losses and the power converted to
mechanical form separated into distinct elements is shown in Figure.

The per-phase equivalent circuit with rotor losses and Pconv separated.

## the air-gap power supplied to one

phase of the motor can be seen to be

## Therefore, the total air-gap power is

Thevenin's theorem states that any linear circuit that can be separated by two
terminals from the rest of the system can be replaced by a single voltage source in
series with an equivalent impedance.

Find VTH

## Since the magnetization reactance XM X and XM

R1, the magnitude of the Thevenin voltage is
approximately

Find RTH

## This impedance reduces to

Because XM X1 and (XM + X1)R1 the TIlevenin resistance and reactance are
approximately given by

And

## Induction motor torque-speed characteristic curve. showing the extended operating

ranges (braking region and generator region).

## Comments on the Induction Motor Torque-Speed Curve

1. The induced torque of the motor is. zero at synchronous speed.

2. The torque- speed curve is nearly linear between no load and full load. In this
range, the rotor resistance is much larger than the rotor reactance, so the
rotor current , the rotor magnetic field, and the induced torque increase linearly
with increasing slip.
3. There is a maximum possible torque that cannot be exceeded. this torque, called
the pullout torque or breakdown torque, is 2 to 3 times the rated full load
torque of the motor.
4. The starting torque on the motor is slightly larger than its full -load torque,
so this motor will start carrying any load that it can supply at full power.

5. Notice that the torque on the motor for a given slip varies as the square of
the applied voltage.

6. If the rotor of the induction motor is driven faster than synchronous speed,
then the direction of the induced torque in the machine reverses and the
machine becomes a generator, converting mechanical power to electric
power.

## 7. If the motor is turning backward relative to the direction of the magnetic

fields, the induced torque in the machine will stop the machine very
rapidly and will try to rotate it in the other direction. Since reversing the
direction of magnetic field rotation is simply a matter of switching any two
stator phases, this fact can be used as a way to very rapidly stop an induction
motor. The act of switching two phases in order to stop the motor very rapidly
is called plugging.

Notice that the peak power supplied by the induction motor occurs at a different
speed than the maximum torque; and, of course, no power is converted to
mechanical form when the rotor is at zero speed.

## Maximum (pullout) Torque in an Induction Motor

Since the air-gap power is equal to the power consumed in the resistor R2 /s, the
maximum induced torque will occur when the power consumed by that resistor is
maximum.

The maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power transfer to the
load resistor R2/s will occur when the magnitude of that impedance is equal to
the magnitude of the source impedance. The equivalent source impedance in the
circuit is

## we see that the slip at pullout torque is given by:

Notice that the referred rotor resistance R2 appears only in the numerator, so
the slip of the rotor at maximum torque is directly proportional to the rotor
resistance.
The resulting equation for the maximum or pullout torque is

This torque is proportional to the square of the supply voltage and is also
inversely related to the size of the stator impedances and the rotor reactance.
Note that slip at which the maximum torque occurs is directly proportional to
rotor resistance, but the value of the maximum torque is independent of the
value of rotor resistance

## The torque-speed characteristic for a wound-rotor induction motor is shown in

following Figure. Recall that it is possible to insert resistance into the rotor circuit
of a wound rotor because the rotor circuit is brought out to the stator through slip
rings. Notice on the figure that as the rotor resistance is increased, the pullout
speed of the motor decreases, but the maximum torque remains constant.

## From here we can say:

a) Torque is related to the square of the applied voltage
b) Torque is also inversely proportional to the machine impedances

## c) Slip during maximum torque is dependent upon rotor resistance

d) Torque is also independent to rotor resistance as shown in the
maximum torque equation.
By adding more resistance to the machine impedances, we can
vary:
a) Starting torque
b) Max pull out speed

## It is possible to take advantage of this characteristic of wound-rotor induction

motors to start very heavy loads.

## A torque-speed characteristic curve combining high-resistance effects at low

speeds (high slip) with low-resistance effects at high speed (low slip).

## Control of Motor Characteristics by Cage Rotor Design

Leakage reactance X2 represents the referred form of the rotors
leakage reactance (reactance due to the rotors flux lines that do not
couple with the stator windings)
If the bars of a cage rotor are placed near the surface of the rotor,
they will have only a small leakage flux and the reactance X2 will
be small in the equivalent circuit.

On the other hand, if the rotor bars are placed deeper into the
rotor surface, there will be more leakage and the rotor reactance
X2 will be larger.

Laminations from typical cage induction motor rotors. showing the cross
section of the rotor bars:
(a) NEMA design class Alarge bars near the
surface;
(b) NEMA design class Blarge, deep rotor bars;

## (c) NEMA design class Cdouble-cage

rotor
design;
(d) NEMA design class Dsmall bars near the
surface.

## Deep-Bar and Double-Cage Rotor Designs

How can a variable rotor resistance be produced to combine the high starting
torque and low starting current of Class D, with the low normal operating slip and
high efficiency of class A?
Use deep rotor bars (Class B) or double-cage rotors (Class C).

(a) For a current flowing in the top of the bar. the flux is tightly linked to the stator.
and leakage inductance is small;
(b) for a current flowing in the bottom of the bar. the flux is loosely linked to the
stator. and leakage inductance is large;
(c) resulting equivalent circuit of the rotor bar as a function of depth in the rotor.

## NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) class A

Rotor bars are quite large and are placed near the surface of the rotor.
Low resistance (due to its large cross section) and a low leakage reactance X2
(due to the bars location near the stator).
Because of the low resistance, the pullout torque will be quite near synchronous
speed.

Motor will be quite efficient, since little air gap power is lost in the rotor
resistance.
However, since R2 is small, starting torque will be small, and starting
current will be high.
This design is the standard motor design.
Typical applications driving fans, pumps, and other machine tools.

NEMA Class B
At the upper part of a deep rotor bar, the current flowing is tightly coupled to
the stator, and hence the leakage inductance is small in this region.
Deeper in the bar, the leakage inductance is higher.
At low slips, the rotors frequency is very small, and the reactances of all the
parallel paths are small compared to their resistances. The impedances of all
parts of the bar are approx equal, so current flows through all the parts of the bar
equally. The resulting large cross sectional area makes the rotor resistance
quite small, resulting in good efficiency at low slips.
At high slips (starting conditions), the reactances are large compared to the
resistances in the rotor bars, so all the current is forced to flow in the lowreactance part of the bar near the stator. Since the effective cross section is lower,
the rotor resistance is higher. Thus, the starting torque is relatively higher and
the starting current is relatively lower than in a class A design
Applications similar to class A, and this type B have largely replaced type A.

NEMA Class C
It consists of a large, low resistance set of bars buried deeply in the rotor
and a small, high-resistance set of bars set at the rotor surface. It is similar to
the deep-bar rotor, except that the difference between low-slip and high-slip
operation is even more exaggerated.
At starting conditions, only the small bars are effective, and the rotor
resistance is high. Hence, high starting torque. However,
At normal operating speeds, both bars are effective, and the resistance is
almost as low as in a deep-bar rotor.
Used in high starting torque loads such as loaded pumps, compressors, and
conveyors.

NEMA class D
Rotor with small bars placed near the surface of the rotor (higher-resistance
material)
High resistance (due to its small cross section) and a low leakage reactance X2
(due to the bars location near the stator)
Like a wound-rotor induction motor with extra resistance inserted into the
rotor.
Because of the large resistance, the pullout torque occurs at high slip, and
starting torque will be quite high, and low starting current.
Typical applications extremely high-inertia type loads.
In addition to these four design classes, NEMA used to recognize design
classes E and F, which were called soft-start induction motors .
These designs were distinguished by having very low starting currents and
were used for low-starting-torque loads in situations where starting currents
were a problem. These designs are now obsolete.

Rotor cross section. showing the construction of the former design class F
induction motor. Since the rotor bars are deeply buried. they have a very high
leakage reactance. The high leakage reactance reduces the starting torque and
current of this motor. so it is called a soft-start design.

## STARTING INDUCTION MOTORS

For wound-rotor induction motors, starting can be achieved at relatively low
currents by inserting extra resistance in the rotor circuit during starting. This extra
resistance not only increases the starting torque but also reduces the starting
current.
For cage induction motors, To estimate the rotor current at starting conditions, all
cage motors now have a starting code letter (not to be confused with their design
class letter) on their nameplates. The code letter sets limits on the amount of
current the motor can draw at starting conditions.
These limits are expressed in terms of the starting apparent power of the
motor as a function of its horsepower rating. The following table containing
the starting kilo-volt-amperes per horsepower for each code letter.
To determine the starting current for an induction motor, read the rated voltage,
horsepower, and code letter from its nameplate. Then the starting apparent
power for the motor will be:

## Sstart = (rated horsepower)(code letter factor)

Table of NEMA code letters. indicating the starting kilovolt amperes per
horsepower of rating for a motor. Each code letter extends up to, but does not
include, the lower bound of the next higher class.
(Reproduced by permission from Motors and Generators. NEMA Publication MG-I. copyright 1987
by NEMA.)

## The starting current can be found from the equation

Example What is the starting current of a 15-hp, 208-V, code-Ietter-F, threephase induction motor?

## According to table, the maximum kilo-volt-amperes per horsepower is 5.6.

Therefore, the maximum starting kilo-volt-amperes of this motor is

## Sstart= (15 hp)(5.6) = 84 kVA

The starting current is thus

it is seen that to start an induction motor, there is a need for high starting current.
For a wound rotor type induction motor, this problem may be solved by
incorporating resistor banks at the rotor terminal during starting (to reduce
current flow) and as the rotor picks up speed, the resistor banks are taken out.

For a squirrel cage rotor, reducing starting current may be achieved by varying the
starting voltage across the stator terminal. Reducing the starting terminal voltage
will also reduce the rated starting power hence reducing starting current.

One way to achieve this is by using a step down transformer during the
starting sequence and stepping up the transformer ratio as the machine spins
faster (refer figure below).
Starting sequence:
(a) Close I and 3
(b) Open I and 3
(c) Close 2
An autotransformer starter
for an induction motor.

## It is important to realize that while the starting current is reduced in direct

proportion to the decrease in terminal voltage, the starting torque decreases as
the square of the applied voltage. Therefore, only a certain amount of current

## Induction Motor Starting Circuits

Operation:
When the start button is pressed, the relay or contactor coil M is energized,
causing the normally open contacts M1, M2 and M3 to shut.
Then, power is applied to the induction motor, and the motor starts.
Contact M4 also shuts which shorts out the starting switch, allowing the
operator to release it without removing power from the M relay.
When the stop button is pressed, the M relay is reenergized, and the M
contacts open, stopping the motor.

A magnetic motor starter of this sort has several built in protective features:
a)

## Short Circuit protection provided by the fuses

contacts (OL)
c) Undervoltage protection reenergizing of the M relays.

## A STEP RESISTIVE STARTER FOR AN INDUCTION MOTOR.

Operation:

Similar to the previous one, except that there are additional components present
to control removal of the starting resistor. Relays 1TD, 2TD and 3TD are called
time-delay relays.

When the start button is pushed, the M relay energizes and power is applied to
the motor.

Since the 1TD, 2TD and 3TD contacts are all open, the full starting resistor are
in series with the motor, reducing the starting current.

When M contacts close, the 1TD relay is energized. There is a finite delay
before the 1TD contacts close. During that time, the motor speeds up, and the
starting current drops.

After that, 1TD close, cutting out part of the starting resistance and
simultaneously energizing 2TD relay and finally 3TD contacts close, and the
entire starting resistor is out of the circuit.

## SPEED CONTROL OF INDUCTION MOTOR

Until the advent of modern solid-state drives, induction motors in general were
not good machines for applications requiring considerable speed control. The
normal operating range of a typical induction motor (design classes A, B, and C) is
confined to less than 5 percent slip, and the speed variation over that range is
more or less directly proportional to the load on the shaft of the motor.
Since PRCL = sPAG , if slip is made higher, rotor copper losses will be high as well.
There are basically 2 general methods to control induction motors speed:
a) Varying stator and rotor magnetic field speed
b) Varying slip s
Varying the magnetic field speed may be achieved by varying the electrical
frequency or by changing the number of poles.

## Varying slip may be achieved by varying rotor resistance or varying the

terminal voltage.

## 1. Induction Motor Speed Control by Pole Changing

There are 2 approaches possible:
a) Method of Consequent Poles (Old Method)
b) Multiple Stator Windings Method

## Method of Consequent Poles

It relies on the fact that the number of poles in the stator windings of an
induction motor can easily be changed by a factor of 2: 1 with only simple
changes in coil connections.

General Idea:
Consider one phase winding in a stator. By changing the
current flow in one portion of the stator windings as such that
it is similar to the current flow in the opposite portion of the
stator will automatically generate an extra pair of poles.

## A close-up view of one phase of a polechanging winding.

(a) In the two-pole configuration.
one coil is a north pole and the
other one is a south pole.
(b) When the connection on one of
the two coils is reversed. they
are both north poles. and the
magnetic flux returns to the
stator at points halfway between
the two coils. The south poles
are called consequent poles.
and the winding is now a four
pole winding.

## Possible connections of the stator coils in a pole-changing motor. together with

the resulting torque-speed characteristics:
(a) Constant-torque connection- the torque capabilities of the motor remain
approximately constant in both high-speed and low-speed connections.
(b) Constant horse power connection--the power capabilities of the motor
remain approximately constant in both high-speed and low-speed connections.
(c) Fan torque connection---the torque capabilities of the motor change with
speed in the same manner as fan-type loads.

## By applying this method, the number of poles may be maintained (no

changes), doubled or halfed, hence would vary its operating speed.
In terms of torque, the maximum torque magnitude would generally
be maintained.
This method will enable speed changes in terms of 2:1 ratio steps,
hence to obtained variations in speed, multiple stator windings has
to be applied. Multiple stator windings have extra sets of
windings that may be switched in or out to obtain the required
number of poles.
Unfortunately this would an expensive alternative.

## 2. Speed Control by Changing the Line Frequency

Changing the electrical frequency will change the synchronous speed of the
machine.
Changing the electrical frequency would also require an adjustment to the terminal
voltage in order to maintain the same amount of flux level in the machine core. If
not the machine will experience:
a) Core saturation (non linearity effects)
b) Excessive magnetization current.
Varying frequency with or without adjustment to the terminal voltage may
give 2 different effects:
a) Vary frequency, stator voltage adjusted generally vary speed and maintain
operating torque.
b) Vary Frequency, stator voltage maintained able to achieve higher speeds but
a reduction of torque as speed is increased.

## Variable-frequency speed control in an induction motor:

(a) The family of torque-speed characteristic curves for speeds below base
speed. assuming that the line voltage is derated linearly with frequency.
(b) The family of torque-speed characteristic curves for speeds above base
speed. assuming that the line voltage is held constant.

## There may also be instances where both characteristics are needed in

the motor operation; hence it may be combined to give both effects.
With the arrival of solid-state devices/power electronics, line
frequency change is easy to achieved and it is more versatile to a
variety of machines and application.

## 3. Speed Control by Changing the Line Voltage

The torque developed by an induction motor is proportional to the
square of the applied voltage.
Varying the terminal voltage
will vary the operating speed
but with also a variation of
operating torque. In terms of
the range of speed variations,
it is not significant hence this
method is only suitable for
small motors only.

## In wound-rotor induction motors, it is possible to change the shape

of the torque- speed curve by inserting extra resistances into the
rotor circuit of the machine.
Such a method of speed
control is normally used
only for short periods
because of this efficiency
problem.