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RISK MANAGEMENT FOR ISLAMIC FINANCIAL

INSTITUTIONS
TK 5413

SUBMITTED TO
PROFESSOR SAIFUL AZHAR ROSLY
PREPARED BY
AHMAD PAZIL MD ISA 1400109

SEMESTER SEPTEMBER 2015

TABLE OF CONTENT
CONTENT
1. Risk Management Framework of RHB Islamic Bank
2. Risk Appetite
3. Bank Financial Scorecard
4. Credit Risk
5. Allowances For Loan Impairment
6. Credit-Risk Sharing Between Bank And Depositors
7. Securities Bought/held for Trading in Islamic Bank
8. Derivative Financial Instruments
9. Risk-Sensitive Assets (RSA) and Risk-Sensitive Liabilities (RSL)
10. Risk Weight (RW) And Banks Regulatory Capital
11. Market Risk
12. Operational Risk
13. Possible Factors That Can Cause Bank To Fail

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1. RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK OF RHB ISLAMIC BANK


Risk Management

Risk is inherent in the Banks activities and is managed through a process of on-going
identification, measurement and monitoring, subject to limits and other controls. Besides
credit risk, the Bank is exposed to a range of other risk types such as market, liquidity,
operational, legal, shariah and strategic and cross-border, as well as other forms of risk
inherent to its strategy, product range and geographical coverage.
Effective risk management is fundamental to drive sustainable growth and shareholder
value, while sustaining competitive advantage, and is thus a central part of the proactive
risk management of the Bank.
The Group Risk Management Framework governs the management of risks in the RHB
Banking Group (the Group), as follows:
It provides a holistic overview of the risk and control environment of the Group, with
risk management aimed towards loss minimisation and protection against losses which
may occur through, principally, the failure of effective checks and controls in the
organisation.
It sets out the strategic progression of risk management towards becoming a value
creation enterprise. This is realised through building up capabilities and infrastructure in
risk management sophistication, and enhanced risk quantification to optimise risk
adjusted returns
The Risk Management Framework contains five fundamental principles that drive the
philosophy of risk management in the Group. They are:
Risk governance from the Boards of Directors of various operating entities within the
Group;
Clear understanding of risk management ownership;
Institutionalisation of a risk-focused organisation;
Alignment of risk management to business strategies; and
Optimisation of risk-adjusted returns.

Principle 1: Risk Governance from the Boards of Directors of various operating


entities in the Group
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The ultimate responsibility of the Boards of Directors in the Group is to ensure that an
effective risk management strategy is in place and uniformly understood across the
Group. The Group has a structured framework to support the Boards oversight
responsibilities.
Risk governance and organisation
The Board of Directors (Board) through the BRC/Islamic Risk Management Committee
(IRMC), GCRC and the Group Risk & Credit Management function establishes the risk
appetite and risk principles for the Group and its relevant entities. The BRC is the
principal Board Committee that provides oversight over risk management for the Group
to ensure that the Groups risk management process is in place and functional. The BRC
assists the Board to review the Groups overall risk management philosophy, risk
management framework, risk management policy and risk management models. An
IRMC has also been established to assist the Board of RHB Islamic Bank to focus on risk
issues relevant and unique to RHB Islamic Bank.
The responsibility for the supervision of the day-to-day management of enterprise risk
and capital matters is delegated to the GCRC comprising Senior Management of the
Group and which reports directly to the BRC and the Group Management Committee
(GMC). There are other committees set up to manage specific areas of risks in the Group.

Figure 1: An overview of this governance framework at Group level

Principle 2: Clear Understanding of Risk Management Ownership

Proactive risk ownership is important for effective management of risk. This promotes a
risk awareness culture throughout the Group. The strategic business units (SBUs) and
strategic functional units (SFUs) of the respective operating entities in the Group are
collectively responsible for identifying, managing and reporting risks. The business units
manage certain defined risks supported by the services provided by the functional units,
including the risk management function
Principle 3: Institutionalisation of a Risk-Focused Organisation
In addition to risk ownership, a risk-focused culture is promoted throughout the Group
through strengthening of the central risk coordination functions and continuous
reinforcement of a risk and control environment within the Group.
Central Risk Coordination Function
Group Risk & Credit Management function is independent of the business function to
ensure that the necessary balance in risk/return decisions is not compromised by shortterm pressures to generate revenues. The said function is headed by the Group Chief Risk
Officer.
The roles and responsibilities of the Group Chief Risk Officer include:
Facilitating the setting of the strategic direction and overall policy on management and
control of risk of the Group;
Ensuring industry best practices in risk management are adopted across the Group,
including the setting of risk management parameters and risk underwriting models;
Developing a pro-active, balanced and risk-attuned culture within the Group;
Advising Senior Management, the GCRC, BRC/IRMC and the Board on risk issues and
their possible impact on the Group in the achievement of its objectives and strategies; and
Administering the delegation of discretionary powers to Management personnel within
the Group.
Group Risk & Credit Management consists of Group Risk Management, Group Credit
Management and Group Risk Operations, provides independent oversight on business
activities and implements the Group Risk Management Framework in order to protect and
safeguard the Groups assets, and to prevent and mitigate financial and reputational losses
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to the Group. Key areas for which Group Risk Management is responsible include the
Groups risk policy and framework, day-to-day risk measurement and monitoring,
providing timely risk analysis to management, and ensuring compliance to regulatory risk
reporting requirements.
Group Credit Management oversees the Group-wide credit evaluation and assessment,
approval and credit monitoring functions by providing credit risk assessment assurance
on credit proposals, highlighting and monitoring business units in rehabilitating potential
problematic accounts, and improving credit process efficiency.
Group Risk Operations is responsible for strategizing and implementing a comprehensive
enterprise-wide risk governance framework, and managing the development of robust risk
management infrastructure and tools, aligned with the Groups strategy for growth and
keeping pace with the market requirements and competitive business environment. Group
Risk Operations drives the operationalisation of the Groups risk transformation
initiatives in establishing risk management as a valuable business partner.
Risk and Control Environment
The business and functional heads are accountable for risk management in their
businesses and functions, and for overseas operations where they have governance
responsibilities. The business and functional units have clear segregation of duties to
ensure that business processes are functioning effectively. There is accountability
delegated to the appropriate authority to enable them to execute their respective
authorities in meeting the business strategies without compromising the risk management
process.
The primary responsibility for managing risks, therefore, rests with the business managers
who are best equipped to ensure that risk management and control are continuously
focused on the way business is conducted. There is a continuous review of business
activities and processes to identify significant risk areas and implement control
procedures to operate within established corporate policies and limits.

Principle 4: Alignment of Risk Management to Business Strategies


The Group Risk Management Framework serves to align the Groups business strategy to
risk strategy, and vice-versa. This is articulated through the risk appetite setting and the
Groups annual business and financial budgetary plan, which is facilitated by the
integration of risk measures in capital management.
Risk appetite is set by the Board and reported through various metrics that enable the
Bank and the Group to manage capital constraints and shareholders expectations. The
risk appetite is a key component of the management of risks and describes the types and
level of risk that the Bank and the Group are prepared to accept in delivering its strategy.
Principle 5: Optimisation of Risk-Adjusted Returns
One of the objectives of capital management is to reflect a risk-adjusted return assumed
by the businesses throughout the Group. By linking risk to capital, the risk-adjusted return
measure contributes to the creation of shareholder value by facilitating the allocation of
capital to the businesses.
The medium to long-term strategy and principle of risk management of the Group is to
intensify the integration of capital management within the Group. The Group is
progressively implementing a risk-adjusted return based framework for allocation of
capital to business units and for performance measurement and management

THE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS


The risk management framework provides the support infrastructure for the bank to
monitor the risk management process on all positions it is taking. Risk management is not
restricted to specific levels, functions or departments within an Islamic banking set-up.
Rather it involves all banking activities whether it is at the front, middle or back office.
The oversight function of the board of directors puts risk management as top priority in
making sure that earnings and capital are protected against potential losses or risks arising
from systematic and unsystematic events.
The risk management process is the process of anticipating and analysing risks and
coming up with effective and efficient ways of managing as well as removing them.
There are four steps involved in this process
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1. Risk Identification
2. Risk Measurement
3. Risk Treatment/Mitigation
4. Risk Monitoring and Reporting

Risk Identification
At the point of loan, bay bithaman ajil (BBA) and any other financing origination, often
at the credit committee level. For example, in a BBA facility, the major risk is credit risk.
The same applies to other credit related products such as al-ijarah thumma al-bay
(AITAB) and tawarruq.
When the bank books an exposure based on musharakah, the major risk is business risk.
If the bank takes ownership of asset in a BBA transaction, the bank faces business risk
apart from the credit risk awaiting the deferred installment payments. Other exposures
such as istisna and salam carry both business and credit risk. Market risk prevails in all
exposures involving future obligations as cost of funds tend fluctuate over time All credit,
market and liquidity risk management policies and limits are tabled to the banks credit
committee, asset and liability committee and risk management committee before being
approved by the board. New products and variations of existing products are vetted
through the new product implementation process and signed-off by respective business s,
risk control s and support s before they are allowed to be introduced
Risk Measurement
When all the risks have been identified, they must be given some value which will be
used by the bank to estimate the potential loss of the exposure when customers default on
their obligations. This is done by measuring the identified risks using the appropriate
techniques and models. As an example, credit risks in loans and BBA is measured by
obtaining the expected loss (EL) and unexpected loss (UL) of the facility. Risk parameters
such as the probability of default (PD), exposure at given default (EAGD) and loss given
default (LGD) will have to be estimated to arrive at the respective values of EL and UL.
Market risk is measured using Earning-at-Risk (EaR), Capital-at-Risk (CaR) and Valueat-Risk (VaR).
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Risk Mitigation
Once the risks have been identified and measured, it is vital to mitigate the risk. Four
approaches may be possible such as:
1. Risk avoidance the bank will not give the loan or extend the financing at all.
2. Risk reduction in credit risk, this is done by securing more collateral from the
customer.
3. Risk transfer market risks can be mitigated by using financial derivatives. In Islam,
this is possible for hedging purposes once a position is taken by the bank, e.g., issuing
a trade finance facility in foreign currency.
4. Risk retention this involves accepting the loss or benefit of gain from a risk when it
occurs. More often than not, an Islamic bank faces market risks and is unable to find
the means to mitigate it. This is true for a fixed rate BBA financing as opposed to a
floating rate BBA financing.
Risk Monitoring and Reporting
The risk management committee provides regular risk reporting to the board and senior
management to communicate risk exposures and propose steps to mitigate risk exposures
such as financing exposures and movement of non-performing financing.

2. RISK APPETITE
RHB has financed 1.03% aggressively, 26.6% conservatively and 72.37 % moderately
RHB financed maximum amount within 20% to 100% credit risk level. So, we can say
RHB is moderate risk taker. And 26.6% of total investment is in 0% credit risk level. In
this level RHB invested in Government security, Bond etc. As we know, any bank needs
to keep at least 20% of total investment in 0% credit risk level, RHB has maintained more
than 20%.
Risk appetite of RHB on RWA<20%
RHB financed RM 9.988 billion at 0% credit risk level and RM 4.532 billion at 20%
credit risk level. This bank financed total more than 13 billion within RW 0% to 20%. If
we calculate capital adequacy ratio at RW 0% and RW 20% we can find out the total
regulated capital required by the RHB bank to support this financing amountTable 1: Capital Requirement @ RW 0%
Credit Risk
0%

Financing amount (Rm000) RWA (Rm000)


9,988,430
0

Regulated Capital
0

That means for above amount of financing RHB doesnt need to keep any reserve capital
because this amount of financing is fully secured. So if customers default than bank can
sell defaulters secured asset.
Table 2: Capital Requirement @ RW 20%
Credit Risk

Financing

Amount RWA

(Rm000)
20%
4,532,981
*CAR=Regulated Capital / RWA

(Rm000)
906,597

Regulated

Capital*@

8% (RM000)
72,528

That means RHB needs to keep only RM 72.528 million capital reserve to finance RM
4.53 billion at 20% risk weight.
Table 3: Total Capital Requirement @ RW 0% and 20%
Credit Risk

Financing Amount

RWA

Capital

0%
20%
Total

9,988,430
4,532,981
14,521,411

0
906,597
906,597

Requirement
0
72,528
72,528

From above calculation we can see than RHB needs only RM 72.528 million capital
requirements for financing RM 14.521 billion at 0% and 20% risk weighted.
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Risk appetite of RHB on RWA>100%


If risk weighted is more than 100% then it is considered as aggressive risk appetite. RHB
financed RM 9.426 billion at 100% credit risk level and financed RM 386 million at risk
weight is 150%. And this RM 386 million is highly risky financing among the total
financing of the RHB. Now we can calculate the capital requirement for this highly risky
financing.
Table 4: Capital Requirement @ RW 150% (RM000)
Credit Rate
150%

Financing Amount
386,177

RWA
579,265

Capital Requirement
46,341

RHB needs RM 46.341 million capital requirement to finance 386.177 million at RW


150%. It is high capital requirement against such small amount of financing. That means
the more risk in financing the more capital will be needed to back up.
RHBs risk appetite position
If we look at the data below we can see that RHB financed more between 20% - 100%
risk weight. So RHBs risk appetite position is medium. RHB financed aggressively only
1.03% out of total financing amount. On the other hand, RHB financed 26.60% of total
financing amount in 0% credit risk level. We can say RHB is 26.60% conservative.
Again, RHB financed 72.37% out of total financing amount within 20% to 100% credit
risk level.
Figure 2: Credit Risk Exposures (Before Credit Risk Mitigation) by Remaining
Maturity as at 31 December 2014

Based on the capital adequacy discloser above, RHB has taken mix risk appetite strategy.
From their portfolio of financing we can see that they have financed in different risk level
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such as conservative, moderate and Aggressive. If we consider financing between (20 %<
RWA<100%) as a moderate risk appetite than we can say RHB is in moderate risk taking
position.
Table 5: Comparison between the size of financing and capital requirement
(RM000)
Credit

Financing

Percentage of

RWA

Capital

Percentage of cap

Risk
0%
20%
35%
50%
75%
100%
150%
Total

amount
9,998,430
4,532,981
1,081,261
939,783
11,196,468
9,426,517
386,177
37,551,617

financing
26.60%
12.07%
2.88%
2.50%
29.82%
25.10%
1.03%
100%

906,597
378,441
469,891
8,397,351
9,426,517
579,265
20,158,062

Requirement*
0
72,528
30,275
37,591
671,788
754,121
46,341
1,612,645

requirement
4.50%
1.88%
2.33%
41.66%
46.76%
2.87%
100%

*CAR= Regulated capital / Risk weighted Asset. CAR= 8%

Percentage of Financing

1.03
26.6

conservative
medium
aggressive

72.37

3. BANK FINANCIAL SCORECARD


Table 6: Extract Income Statement and Financial Position of RHB

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31.12.2014
Net Income
Average Total Equity
Average Total Assets
Total Expenses
Total Revenue
Distribution
to

RM000

RM000

224,315
2,252,397
36,113,786
227,321
530,971
901,337

166,500
2,027,132
29,131,089
228,220
446,496
732,636

172,368

149,007

1,370,984
1,313,540
57,444
84,213

1,139,162
1,085,539
53,623
72,760

depositors
Non-Financing
Expenses
Financing Income
Depositor funds
Shareholder funds
Non-Financing Income

31.12.2013

Table 7: Bank Financial Scorecard


31.12.2014

31.12.2013

RM000

RM000

Return on Equity
Return on Assets
Equity Multiplier
Expense Ratio
Asset Utilization
Financing Expense
Non-Financing

9.96%
0.62%
6.24%
0.63%
0.62%
2.50%
0.48%

8.21%
0.57%
6.95%
0.78%
0.57%
2.51%
0.51%

Expense
Financing

3.80%

3.91%

0.23%
42.81%

0.25%
51.11%

Income

Ratio
Non-Financing Income
Expense to Income
Ratio

ROA Amount of profits generated by each ringgit of asset efficiently the banks asset is
used to generate profit
ROE efficiently managing banking assets. Profits are generated on their capital
investment. Bank able to generate 9.96 cents in profit for each ringgit of equity capital
4. CREDIT RISK
The Bank abides to the Board approved credit policy which supports the development of
a strong credit culture and with the objective of maintaining a well diversified portfolio
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that addresses credit risk, and mitigates concern for unexpected losses. International best
practices are incorporated into this policy.
Group Credit Committee (GCC) is responsible for ensuring adherence to the Board
approved credit risk appetite as well as the effectiveness of credit risk management. GCC
also approves and renews financing facilities and submits to the Board Credit Committee
(BCC) for affirmation or veto if the financing facilities exceed a pre-defined threshold.
The Bank also ensures that internal processes and credit underwriting standards are
adhered to before credit proposal are approved. All credit proposals are first evaluated by
the originating business units before evaluated prior to submission to the relevant
committees for approval. For financing applications submitted for joint approvals, there is
proper check and control as the joint approval is between business units and Group Credit
Management.
Internal credit rating models are an integral part of the Banks credit risk management,
decision- making process, and regulatory capital calculations. Clients accounts are
reviewed at regular intervals and weakening credit are transferred to Loan Recovery for
more effective management.
Counterparty, industry and product exposure limits/directions are set and risk reward
relationship are mapped with the aim of maintaining a diverse credit profile and track the
changing risk concentrations in response to market changes and external events.
The Bank has obtained BNMs approval to apply the Internal Ratings-Based (IRB)
approach for credit risk, whereby more advanced Basel II approaches and key program
components are implemented, which includes (i) enhancing the returns of the Bank using
established credit risk framework and methodologies, (ii) implementing and using
empirical credit scoring models for consumer financing and credit grading models for
business loans/financing, and (iii) designing and implementing modelling of expected and
unexpected losses.
Plans are underway to migrate other material portfolios to the IRB approach for credit
risk
Credit Risk Mitigation

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The Bank generally does not grant financing facilities solely on the basis of collateral
provided. All financing facilities are granted based on the credit standing of the customer,
source of repayment and financing servicing ability.
Collateral is taken whenever possible to mitigate the credit risk assumed, subject to the
Banks policies that govern the eligibility of collateral used for credit risk mitigation.
Reliance on collateral when taken is carefully assessed in the light of issues such as legal
certainty and enforceability, market valuation and counterparty risk of the guarantor.
Recognised collaterals where relevant, include both financial and physical assets.
Financial collaterals include cash deposits, shares and unit trusts, while physical collateral
includes land and buildings and vehicles. Apart from financial collateral and physical
collateral, the Bank has defined standards on the acceptance of guarantors as credit risk
mitigants.
Collateral is valued in accordance with the Banks policy on collateral valuation, which
prescribes the frequency of valuation for different collateral/securities types, based on
liquidity and volatility of the collateral value and the underlying product or risk exposure.
The value of collaterals/securities pledged is monitored periodically, analysed and
updated concurrently with the annual/periodic renewal of facilities, as well as updated
into the Banks collateral system.
The Bank also accepts non-tangible securities as support, such as guarantees from
individuals, corporates and institutions, bank guarantees, debenture and assignment of
contract proceeds, subject to internal guidelines on eligibility. Currently, the Bank does
not employ the use of derivative credit instruments and on-balance sheet netting to
mitigate its credit exposures. Where possible, the Bank enters into International Swaps
and Derivatives Association (ISDA) Master Agreement with its derivative and swap
counterparties as the master agreement provides the legal certainty that the credit
exposures between counterparties will be netted.
Equity securities or collaterals acquired arising from debt conversions are accounted for
as disposal of the financing and acquisition of equity securities or investment properties.
Any further impairment of the assets or business acquired is treated as impairment of the
relevant asset or business rather than as impairment of the original instrument.
The Bank has established mechanism to monitor credit and market concentration within
its credit mitigation
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Credit Concentration Risk


Credit concentration risk is defined as any single exposure or group of exposures with the
potential to produce losses large enough (relative to a banks capital, total assets, or
overall risk level) to threaten a banks health or ability to maintain its core operations.
The Bank manages the diversification of its portfolio to avoid undue credit concentration
risk. Credit concentration risk exists in financing to single customer groups, customers
engaged in similar activities, or diverse groups of customers that could be affected by
similar economic or other factors. To manage this concentration risk, exposure limits are
established for single financing groups and industry segments. Analysis of any single
large exposure and group of exposures is regularly conducted and the financing units
undertake regular account updates, monitoring and management of these exposures.
Industry and sector-specific analysis are also incorporated within the overall credit risk
management regiment. In this respect, the Bank seeks to continually update financing
guidelines based on periodic reviews and updates of industry and sector risk factors and
economic outlook. This facilitates better management of credit concentration risk.
Credit Monitoring and Annual Reviews
The Bank regularly monitors credit exposures, portfolio performance, and external trends
which may impact risk management outcomes. Internal risk management reports are
generated for Senior Management, GCRC, IRMC and Board, containing information on
key environmental, political and economic trends across portfolios and countries,
portfolio delinquency with major credit delinquency, and financing impairment
performance.
In addition to the on-going qualitative assessment by the account relationship managers,
reviews are conducted at least once a year with updated information on the customers
financial position, market position, industry and economic condition and account conduct.
Specific financing may be reviewed more frequently under appropriate circumstances.
Such circumstances may arise if, for instance, the Bank believes that heightened risk
exists in a particular industry, or the customer has defaulted on obligations to suppliers or
other financial institutions or is facing cash flow or other difficulties.
Within Group Credit Management, there is a mechanism in place for credit monitoring to
flag-out problematic financing (watch list accounts) for intensive monitoring under
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Enhanced Account Management (EAM). These are accounts which may be exhibiting
early distress patterns or in the early stages of delinquency but not yet in default. The
EAM guidelines have been further refined in 2014 to better identify, monitor and resolve
such account.
Group Internal Audit conducts independent post-approval reviews on a sampling basis to
ensure that the quality of credit appraisals and approval standards is in accordance with
the credit underwriting standards and financing policies established by the Banks
Management, and relevant laws and regulations.

5. ALLOWANCES FOR LOAN IMPAIRMENT AND OTHER CREDIT RISK


PROVISIONS
Allowances for loan impairment represent managements estimate of the losses incurred
in the loan portfolios as at the balance sheet date. Changes to the allowances for loan
impairment and changes to the provisions for undrawn contractually committed facilities
and guarantees provided are reported in the consolidated income statement as part of the
impairment charge. Provision is made for undrawn loan commitments and similar
facilities if it is probable that the facility will be drawn and result in recognition of an
asset at an amount less than the amount advanced.
Within the retail and small businesses portfolios, which comprise large numbers of small
homogeneous assets with similar risk characteristics where credit scoring techniques are
generally used, statistical techniques are used to calculate impairment allowances on a
portfolio basis, based on historical recovery rates and assumed emergence periods. These
statistical analyses use as primary inputs the extent to which accounts in the portfolio are
in arrears and historical information on the eventual losses encountered from such
delinquent portfolios. There are many such models in use, each tailored to a product, line
of business or customer category. Judgement and knowledge is needed in selecting the
statistical methods to use when the models are developed or revised. The impairment
allowance reflected in the financial statements for these portfolios is therefore considered
to be reasonable and supportable.
For larger accounts, impairment allowances are calculated on an individual basis and all
relevant considerations that have a bearing on the expected future cash flows are taken
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into account, for example, the business prospects for the customer, the realisable value of
collateral, the Groups position relative to other claimants, the reliability of customer
information and the likely cost and duration of the work-out process. The level of the
impairment allowance is the difference between the value of the discounted expected
future cash flows (discounted at the loans original effective interest rate), and its carrying
amount.

6. Credit-Risk Sharing Between Bank and Depositors


Figure 2: Income statement for the Financial Year 2014

In Islamic bank shareholders and depositors both share credit-risk. If we look at the
income statement of the RHB Islamic bank we can find the credit risk sharing element.
Allowance for impairment on financing and advances are taken from both shareholders
income as well as depositors income. This allowance is basically used as a safe guard
against credit risk. In the above income statement, income to the depositors is distributed
after keeping allowance and PER. That means depositors are also sharing risk which is
absent in conventional bank. Income derived from investment of depositors funds is RM
1.325 billion and income derived from the shareholders fund is only RM 0.129 billion.
Before distribution of these incomes to respective shareholders and depositors, RM 22
million is kept as impairment allowance. So, in Islamic bank like RHB, depositors and
shareholders are sharing in credit risk.

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Impact of credit risk sharing on shareholders and depositors


As we know credit risk arises from the any non-payment of financing amount. Means
customers fail to pay back the money to the bank. So bank needs to put provision. In case
of increase credit default in the year, the provision of impairment would also increase. If
provision increases than bank will have less income to distribute to the shareholders and
depositors. Islamic bank is based on profit sharing ratio (PSR) between depositors and
shareholders so any adverse changes in the credit activity will negatively effect to the
income of both shareholders and depositors. In very first step of distributable income
calculation, impairment allowance is deducted from the total income generated from the
investment of shareholders and depositors fund.
In case of decrease credit default in the year, the provision of impairment will also
decrease and the bank will have more income to distribute to the shareholders and
depositors. That means there is a great impact of allowance for impairment on the
calculation distributable income for both shareholders and depositors.
Now we can look at the return on Equity (ROE) and Return on deposit (ROD) of RHB
Islamic bank for financial year 2014,

ROE Calculation for the year 2014


Table 8: Equity of Shareholders
Shareholders Equity

2014

2013

RM000

RM000

Ordinary Share Capital

1,173,424

1,173,424

Reserve

1,078,973

853,708

Total Equity

2,252,397

2,027,132

We know that, ROE = Net Income / average total equity


= 224,315 / 2,252,397
= 9.96%
ROD (IA holders) calculation for the year 2014
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Table 9: Total deposits (Has been taken from NOTE-14, RHB FS- 2014)
Type of customers
General Investment Account
Special Investment Account
Total IA

2014

2013

RM000
307,153
14,774,409
15,081,562

RM000
896,771
12,733,775
13,630,546

We know that, ROD (IA holder) = Net income attributable to the IA holders / Total IA
holders
= 358,730/ 15,081,562
= 2.38%
From above calculation we see that ROE is 9.96% and ROD is 2.38%. That means
shareholders are getting 9.96 cent return for every RM 1 investment and depositors are
getting return 2.38 cent against every RM 1. ROE is 7.58% higher than the ROD. Means
shareholders are getting 7.58 cent more compare to depositors.

7.

SECURITIES BOUGHT/HELD FOR TRADING IN ISLAMIC BANK

Financial assets held-for-trading, financial investments held-to-maturity and financial


investments available-for-sale
The estimated fair value for financial assets held-for-trading, financial investments heldto-maturity and financial investments available for-sale is based on quoted and observable
market prices. Where there is no ready market in certain securities, fair values have been
assessed by reference to market indicate yield or net tangible asset backing of the
investee. Where discounted cash flow technique is used, the estimated future cash flows
are discounted using the prevailing market rates for similar instrument at the date of
statements of financial position

Financial Assets at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss


These include financial assets that the entity either holds for trading purposes or upon
initial recognition it designates as at fair value through profit or loss. A entity may use this
latter designation when doing so results in more relevant information by eliminating or
significantly reducing a measurement or recognition inconsistency (an accounting
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mismatch) or where a group of financial assets and/or financial liabilities is managed and
its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis, in accordance with a documented risk
management or investment strategy, and information about the assets and/or liabilities is
provided internally to the entity's key management personnel.
Financial assets that are held for trading are always classified as financial assets at fair
value through profit or loss. A financial asset is held for trading if the entity acquired it
for the purpose of selling it in the near future or is part of a portfolio of financial assets
subject to trading. Derivative assets are always treated as held for trading unless they are
effective hedging instruments.
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are re-measured to fair value at each
subsequent balance sheet date until the assets are de-recognised. The gains and losses
arising from changes in fair value are included in the income statement in the period in
which they occur. Gains and losses will include both realised gains and losses arising on
the disposal of these financial assets and unrealised gains and losses arising from changes
in the fair value of the assets still held.
Financial Liabilities
These include financial liabilities that the entity either holds for trading purposes or upon
initial recognition it designates as at fair value through profit or loss. The conditions to be
met in order to designate a financial liability at fair value through profit or loss are the
same as for financial assets. Derivative liabilities are always treated as held for trading
unless they are designated and effective hedging instruments.
An issued debt instrument that the entity intends to repurchase soon to make a gain from
short-term movements in interest rates is an example of a liability held for trading.

8. DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS


Derivative financial instruments are financial instruments whose values change in
response to changes in prices or rates (such as foreign exchange rates, profit rates and
security prices) of the underlying instruments. These instruments are used by the Bank for
21

economic hedges and also transacted in these instruments for proprietary trading
purposes. The default classification for derivative financial instruments is trading, unless
designated in a hedge relationship and are in compliance with the stringent requirements
of hedge accounting mentioned in the Banks accounting policies.
RHB's Derivatives & Structured Products (DSP) Department develops and offers
innovative financial products that incorporate derivatives and other advanced financial
engineering techniques. These products include Structured Warrants (SW), Exchangetraded funds (ETFs) and Structured Investments linked to equities, currencies,
commodities, etc.
RHB Investment Bank has been a leading issuer and market-maker of SW in Malaysia
since 2005. Our strong market coverage and research allows us to identify the right
market opportunities for the issuance and offering of SW. Our product specialists have
extensive expertise and market experience and we are also a participating dealer and
market-maker of several ETFs listed on Bursa Malaysia.
RHB also issues SW in Thailand through our subsidiary there. We commenced operations
in 2013 and have increasingly grown our business franchise there.
For the more sophisticated and high net-worth individuals, we offer innovative and
custom-designed products in the form of Structured Investments. These products allow
clients to customise and execute alternative investment strategies offering access to
different asset classes and markets, potential superior returns and interesting risk-return
profiles that are not possible with conventional equities, bonds or futures.
Counterparty Credit Risk on Derivative Financial Instruments
Counterparty Credit Risk on derivative financial instruments is the risk that the Banks
counterparty in a foreign exchange, profit rate, commodity, equity, options or credit
derivative contract defaults prior to the maturity date of the contract and that the Bank at
the relevant time has a claim on the counterparty. Derivative financial instruments are
primarily entered into for hedging purposes.
Any financial loss is calculated based on the cost to replace the defaulted derivative
financial instruments with another similar contract in the market. The cost of replacement
is equivalent to the difference between the original value of the derivatives at the time of
contract with the defaulted counterparty and the current fair value of a similar substitute
22

at current market prices. An economic loss would occur if the transactions or portfolio of
transactions with the counterparty has a positive economic value at the time of default.
All outstanding financial derivative positions are marked-to-market on a daily basis. The
Banks Treasury Operations Department monitors counterparties positions and promptly
escalates any shortfall in the threshold levels to the relevant parties for next course of
action

9. RISK-SENSITIVE ASSETS (RSA) AND RISK-SENSITIVE LIABILITIES


(RSL)
Table 10: Total deposits (Has been taken from NOTE-14, RHB FS- 2014)

Savings Deposit
Wadiah
Mudharabah
Demand Deposit
Wadiah
Mudharabah
Specific Investment Account
Wadiah Corporate Deposit
Mudharabah
General Investment Account
Mudharabah

31.12.2014
RM000

31.12.2013
RM000

1,054,313

779,844
156,497

2,813,680

2,090,485
537,782

11,573,684
51,577

12,722,742

307,153
15,800,407

896,771
17,184,121

Rate sensitive assets (VRA) = Musyarakah Financing


Rate sensitive liabilities (VSL) = Wadiah, Mudharabah Deposit
Income Gap
= Rate sensitive assets (VRA) Rate sensitive liabilities (VSL)
= RM 3,761,123 - RM 15,800,407
= - RM 12,039,284
If profit rate decreases by 1%, then net income will increase by (-RM12,039m x 0.01) =
RM120.39m
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If profit rate increases by 1%, then net income will fall by (-RM12,039m x 0.01) =
RM120.39m

10. RISK WEIGHT (RW) and BANKS REGULATORY CAPITAL


Table 11: Risk-Weighted Assets by Risk Types and Minimum Capital Requirement
RWA
2014
RM000
16,316,757
Standardised 20,158,062

Credit Risk
Under
Approach
Market risk-weighted assets
124,357
Operational
risk-weighted 918,886
assets

2013
RM000
13,511,201
14,818,230

Minimum Capital
Requirements
2014
2013
RM000
RM000
1,305,341
1,080,896
1,612,645
1,185,458

160,838
783,884

9,948
73,511

12,867
62,711

Total Financing = RM 37,551,617


RWA = RM 20,158, 062
Calculation for Capital Requirements for Credit Risk
RWA = Financing X RW
RW = RWA/Financing
= 20,158,062/37,551,617
= 0.54
Bank Regulatory Capital
CAR = K/RWA
K

= CAR X RWA
= 8% X 20,158,062
= RM 1,612,645,000

Calculation for Capital Requirements for Market Risk


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CAR = K/RWA
K

= CAR X RWA
= 8% X 124,357
= RM 9,949

Calculation for Capital Requirements for Operational Risk


CAR = K/RWA
K

= CAR X RWA
= 8% X 918,886
= RM 73,511

Credit risk-weighted assets


Market risk-weighted assets
Operational
risk-weighted

RWA

Bank Regulatory Capital

RM000
20,158,062
124,357
918,886

RM000
1,612,645
9,949
73,511

assets
*CAR= Regulated capital / Risk weighted Asset. CAR= 8%
From the calculation above, the capital requirements are the same as given from RHB
financial statement.

11. MARKET RISK


Market risk is the risk of loss arising from adverse movements in market indicators, such
as profit rates, credit spreads, equity prices, currency exchange rates and commodity
prices.
Market risk is segregated into trading market risk and non-trading market risk. Trading
market risk arises from changes in profit rates, foreign exchange rates, equity prices and
credit spreads on the value of assets held for trading, while non-trading market risk arises
from changes in profit rates, foreign exchange rates and equity prices, of which the main

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non-trading market risk is profit rate risk arising from re-pricing mismatches of its assets
and liabilities from its banking activities.
The Bank transacts in money market, foreign exchange markets and capital markets
which give rise to market risk exposures. Financial instruments transacted include debt
and other securities and certain financial derivative instruments. Derivative instruments
are contracts whose characteristics and value are derived from underlying financial
instruments, profit rates, exchange rates, or indices. They include futures, forwards,
swaps, and options transactions in the foreign exchange and profit rate markets.
Derivative contracts entered into by the Bank are primarily over the counter derivatives.
The Bank has an established Group Trading Book Policy Statement as guidance for
market risk management. This is reviewed regularly at least once a year, and/or upon
change in strategy or significant event that has a material impact on policy compliance.
The Group Asset and Liability Committee (Group ALCO) performs a critical role in the
management of market risk and supports the IRMC in the overall market risk
management. Group ALCO meets regularly and is the forum where strategic and tactical
decisions are made for the management of market risk; this includes the development of
the Banks market risk strategy, market risk management structure and the policies as well
as measurement techniques to be put in place.
The Group Market Risk Management within Group Risk Management is the working
level that forms a centralised function to support Senior Management to operationalise
the processes and methods, to ensure adequate risk control and oversight are in place.

Market Risk Assessment


The Bank applies risk monitoring and assessment tools to measure trading book positions
and market risk factors. Statistical and nonstatistical risk assessment tools applied include
Value-at-Risk (VaR), sensitivity analysis and stress testing. The Bank adopts a systematic
approach in managing these risks by types of instruments and nature of exposure. Market
risk is primarily monitored and controlled via a structure of limits and triggers such as cut

26

loss, VaR, trading and notional limit set in accordance with the size of positions and risk
tolerance appetites.
In addition, the Bank conducts periodic stress testing of its respective portfolios to
ascertain market risk under abnormal market conditions.
Market Risk Monitoring and Reporting
For effective control of market risk, defined management action triggers and risk limits
are established and actively monitored. Only authorised trading activities may be
undertaken by the various business units within the allocated limits. All trading positions
are monitored on a daily basis by independent support units. Should exposures or
transactions set off pre-established triggers, management will deliberate and determine on
course of actions required on a timely basis.

12. OPERATIONAL RISK


Operational risk is the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes,
people, systems and external events, which also includes IT, legal and Shariah noncompliance risk but excludes strategic and reputational risk. Operational risk is inherent
in the Banks operations and can never be eliminated entirely. The impact can be in the
form of actual financial loss as well as non-financial loss such as loss of reputation, noncompliance and unsatisfactory service level to customers.
One of the Banks primary safeguards against operational risk is the existence of a sound
internal control system, based on the principle of dual control checks and balances,
segregation of duties, independent checks and verification processes, and a segmented
system access control and authorisation process. These controls are documented through a
set of policies and procedures at the respective business and operation level.
The Groups Operational Risk Management Framework comprises a wide range of
activities and elements, broadly classified into:
Analysis and Enhancement The Group has implemented a Basel II compliant
operational risk management system to support its workflow and analytical capabilities.
Education and Awareness The Group undertakes change management activities to
improve risk management knowledge, culture and practices of the Bank personnel. This is
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aligned with the principle and requirement that the front-line business and support units
of the Group, are by nature of their direct involvement in interfacing with customers and
in operating the business, responsible for managing operational risk and acting as the first
line of defence.
Monitoring and Intervention This is where the principal head office risk control units,
including the risk management function, compliance function and the internal audit
function, actively manage operational non compliances and incidences as a second and
third line of defence respectively. The second line of defence also undertakes recovery
actions, including business continuity measures in cases of incidences causing disruption
to business activities.
Operational Risk Management Function and Organisation
The Group Operational Risk Management within Group Risk Management has the
functional responsibility for the development of operational risk framework, policy and
methodologies, and providing guidance and information to the business units on
operational risk areas. Its responsibility also includes generating a broader understanding
and awareness of operational risk issues at all levels in the Group. It also ensures that
operational risks from new products, processes and systems are adequately managed and
mitigated. The respective business units are primarily responsible for managing
operational risk on a day-to-day basis.
Regular operational risk reporting is made to the Senior Management, the GCRC, IRMC
and the Board. These reports include various operational risk aspects such as reporting of
significant operational loss and Shariah non-compliance events. Such reporting enables
Senior Management to identify adverse operational lapses, take prompt corrective
actions, and ensure appropriate risk mitigation decision making and action plans.

Risk Management Process and Methodologies


The Bank has defined an operational risk management process, comprising risk
identification, assessment, monitoring, and reporting.
Risk and Control Self-Assessment (RCSA)

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Each business unit is required to identify and assess their own operational risks. RCSA is
a risk profiling tool which facilitates effective operational risk management for the Bank,
and focuses on future risk assessment by using past records of loss or near misses, key
risk indicators, and related issues such as audit findings. The RCSA process is facilitated
by the business units themselves who together with personnel from Group Operational
Risk Management, would identify and assess key operational risks that could affect the
effectiveness of controls and impact the achievement of business objectives. For
identified risks lacking sufficient mitigation, the business units are required to establish
action plans to improve the control environment to contain the risks to acceptable levels.
Key Risk Indicators (KRIs)
Business units are required to monitor their risk exposures via KRIs and are required to
develop specific and concrete plans to address those where indicators are unfavourable.
KRIs are embedded into critical processes to provide early warning signals of increasing
risk and/or control failures by flagging up frequencies of events as a mechanism for
continuous risk assessment and monitoring.
Incident and Loss Management
Business and support units are required to report operational losses for further analysis of
root cause to avoid further recurrence.
This is also useful for reviewing the effectiveness of the RCSA and KRIs.

Risk Mitigation and Controls


Risk mitigation tools and techniques are used to minimise risk to an acceptable level and
aims to decrease the likelihood of an undesirable event and the impact on the business,
should it occur. The control tools and techniques, amongst others, are as follows:
Business Continuity Management
To mitigate the impact of unforeseen operational risk events, the Bank has on-going and
actively managed Business Continuity Planning (BCP) programmes for its major critical
business operations and activities at the Head Office, data centre, and branches locations.
The BCP programmes are subject to regular testing to ensure efficacy, reliability and

29

functionality, and come under the responsibility of the Business Continuity Management
Department.
The Board of Directors has an oversight function through the BRC and GMC. The Group
Business Continuity Management Steering Committee (GBCMSC) is the committee that
oversees the Banks business continuity framework, policies, budget and plans. The
GBCMSC reports to the GCRC.
Outsourcing
With the increasing need to outsource for cost and operational efficiency, the Groups
Policy on Outsourcing ensures that the risk arising from outsourcing activities is
adequately identified, assessed and managed prior to entering into any new arrangements
and on an on-going basis.
Takaful Management
The Bank considers risk transfer by means of Takaful to mitigate operational risk. The
Bank has a programme of Takaful designed to reduce its exposure to liability and to
protect its assets. The Bank purchases Takaful from leading insurers in the market
covering fraud, theft, property and casualty, business disruption, liability and other risks
for which it may be held responsible. These are provided by third-party Takaful providers
and will financially mitigate the economic consequences of risks.
Technology Risk
The Bank recognises the risk arising from the advancement and reliance upon
information technology to support business operations through the deployment of
advance technology and online systems to provide customers with convenient and reliable
products and services. The Groups Technology Risk Management Framework ensures
that a governance structure is in place for the identification, assessment and management
of technology risks within existing IT operations as well as prior to deployment of
applications and systems for internal as well as external customers.
New Product and Services Approval Process
The Bank has established a Policy on Introduction of New/Variation of Products &
Services Lifecycle which governs the risk management of new products, services, or
significant changes thereto. The responsible units have a duty to assess the operational
30

risk for new product launches and/or significant changes in product features or related
processes and working systems, as well as to ensure that operational risk is at an
acceptable level at all times.
Legal Risk
Legal risk is part of operational risk. It can arise from unenforceable, unfavourable,
defective or unintended contracts; lawsuits or claims; developments in laws and
regulations, or non-compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Business units work
together with the Banks legal counsel and external legal counsel to ensure that legal risk
is effectively managed.

13. POSSIBLE FACTORS THAT CAN CAUSE BANK TO FAIL


Liquidity
Islamic banks use money as a medium of exchange, while conventional banks
emphasizing the need to maintain liquidity and thus requires a sufficient amount of
reserves. The basic principle of Islamic banking is based on financing profit and loss
sharing and thereby exposing to high risk, so it requires liquidity and higher reserves.
This is because the nature of investments in assets that have a lower divisibility and
reversibility. By the way the reserve ratio for banks without interest shall be calculated on
the basis of the calculation of risks in the various forms of investment.
The complex problem in measuring liquidity is that liability management in the
conventional banking system has been gradually replacing asset management to fund
liquidity needs. At present, no such facilities exist under the Islamic banking system. As a
result, these banks have to depend on their central bank to supply cash. The liquidity
ratios required by the banking laws on demand and time deposits.
Existing operations in the lending activities of conventional banks for definite maturity is
based on the doctrine of 'the theory of expected revenue,' in which bank loans are not
self-liquidating within the meaning of the word 'theory of commercial loans. The loan is
paid out of future income of the borrower, and are liquid according to their nature,
guarantee, and marketability. Since Islamic banks is not based on the same principles, but
to invest in assets that are represented by commodities, shares in the company or

31

companies working capital, probability theory these assets into liquid is more difficult to
determine than in conventional banks. Also, greater fluctuations in liquidity ratios
because of the still largely agrarian nature of these economy will significantly affect the
ability of Islamic banks to provide credit to the private sector. This requires special
attention when setting liquidity ratios for each type of deposit and any kind of investment
to enable a higher level of liquidity than conventional banks
With regard to the elements comprising the liquid assets of Islamic banks, it would be
necessary to allow these reserves to be held in the form of financial instruments.
Similarly, the bank capital requirements under Islamic banking would be higher to protect
the depositors against unexpected losses, if any, on the investment portfolios. Increasing
the requirement of legal and loss reserves could provide additional safety cushion.

Financial Stability
The conventional banking system based on fractional reserve system has built-in
instability. Instability arises from the lack of coordination between the decisions of the
commercial banks and the central bank thus causing in destabilizing forces. Modern
banking of interest based issues on a fixed value of liabilities to depositors. If there is no
deposit insurance asset value can fall below the fixed liabilities, resulting in bankruptcies.
In the worst scenario, the welfare of each depositor depends on the actions of other
depositors. For example, if a borrower defaults and financial panic triggered, each
depositor will try to withdraw money as soon as possible. The negative external produced
by depositors could lead to instability in the banking system. Provision of deposit
insurance helps mitigate financial panics, but it has at the same time lead to inefficiencies
in the intermediation process.
For that reason, the lack of insurance coverage considered to be a problem for Islamic
banks. It is assumed that the Islamic bank depositors, because the objective of capital
gains or losses if not insured, will not remain with Islamic banks. Islamic economists
argue that under Islamic banking, because there is no fixed liabilities, depositors are
happy to remain in the bank when it suffered a decline in value of its assets. Therefore, no
external created, it does not require the provision of deposit insurance. However, it
requires the provision of insurance against fraud and theft in Islamic banking.

32

Islamic Banks Operating Under Conventional Banking System


Failure of Islamic banks to finance high-return projects
Islamic bank failed to provide high profits from high-return projects as the owners of
these projects are more prefer borrowing from conventional banks in which the cost of
borrowing turned out to be lower. This means that only projects with a rate of return equal
to or below the market rate of interest is abandoned by Islamic banks. In this situation,
Islamic banks cannot invest on projects that have a rate of return below the current rate of
interest thereby limiting their ability to use investment opportunities to their conventional
levels. This leads to limiting the use of the profit and loss sharing modes such as
Mudaraba and Musharaka. In other words, Islamic banks, in this case, switching to other
modes of financing like Murabaha, hire purchase and leasing.

33