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Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers

Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers

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You are on page 1of 39

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

Review

Chapter 1 Introduction

Section 1.1

Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated

PDMS Fingers

[1] A robot hand has ve

Problem Description

[2] The ngers size is 80x5x10.2

(mm). There are 14 air chambers in

the PDMS nger, each 3.2x2x8 (mm).

surgeon through internet.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Problem Description

of the PDMS elastomer

used in this case.

Stress (MPa)

4

[3] Geometric

model.

3

2

1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Strain (Dimensionless)

[6] Undeformed

shape.

[5] As air pressure applies, the

nger bends downward.

0.8

1.0

Chapter 1 Introduction

properties.

and supports.

[2] Create

geometric model.

model.

element mesh.

results.

Chapter 1 Introduction

[8] Strains.

[7] Displacements.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Stress-stiffening: bending stiffness increases with increasing axial tensile stress, e.g., guitar string.

The opposite also holds: bending stiffness decreases with increasing axial compressive stress.

Buckling: phenomenon when bending stiffness reduces to zero, i.e., the structure is unstable.

Usually occurs in slender columns, thin walls, etc.

undergo compressive stress. It in

turn reduces the bending stiffness.

[1] If we apply

an upward

force here...

Chapter 1 Introduction

Dynamic Simulations

deform very fast, inertia effect

and damping effect must be

considered.

dynamic effects, it is called a

dynamic simulation.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Modal Analysis

simulations is the simulation of free

vibrations, the vibrations of a

structure without any loading.

Purpose of a modal analysis is to

nd natural frequencies and mode

shapes.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Structural Nonlinearities

the response is linearly

When the solution deviates from

the reality, a nonlinear simulation

is needed.

-4

from large deformation, topology

Deflection (mm)

linear simulation pf

the PDMS nger.

-8

-13

-17

-21

relationship, etc.

-25

nonlinear simulation

of the PDMS nger.

36

72

108

Pressure (kPa)

144

180

Chapter 1 Introduction

Section 1.2

Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review

environmental conditions.

conditions.

Environment conditions include support and loading conditions.

Responses can be described by displacements, strains, and stresses.

10

Chapter 1 Introduction

Displacements

{u} = {

uX

uY

uZ

position (X,Y, Z), before

the deformation.

deformation.

deformation.

vector {u} of the particle is

formed by connecting the

positions before and after

the deformation.

deformation, the

particle moves to a

new position.

11

Chapter 1 Introduction

Stresses

acting on the boundary faces of an innitesimally small

body centered at that point.

The small body can be any shape.

we usually use an innitesimally small cube of which

each edge is parallel to a coordinate axis.

can calculate the stresses on any other shapes of

small body.

X

Z

12

Chapter 1 Introduction

13

Stresses

[1] The reference

frame XYZ.

{ }=

XY

{ }={

YX

XY

XZ

YX

YZ

ZX

ZY

YZ

ZY

XZ

XY

is normal to this face.

Y

YY

YZ

stress on X-face.

X

Z

ZX

ZX

YX

YZ

XY

ZY

XX

ZX

XZ

ZZ

negative X-face.

of the stress on X-face.

stress on X-face.

Chapter 1 Introduction

14

Strains

XY

{ }={

AB

AB

(dimensionless)

AB

AC

AC

(dimensionless)

AC

=

C

C

C A B (rad)

CAB

becomes A'B'C'. Assume the

deformation is innitesimally .

XY

YZ

ZX

A

Y

A

X

neighboring points B and C, which are

respectively along X-axis and Y-axis.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Strains

BD

(dimensionless)

AB

XY

DB

(rad)

AB

CE

(dimensionless)

AC

YX

EC

(rad)

AC

C

B

Y

A, A

A, A

15

Chapter 1 Introduction

Governing Equations

{u} = {

{ }={

{ }={

uX

uY

uZ

XY

XY

}

YZ

YZ

ZX

ZX

}

}

Totally 15 quantities

Strain-Displacement Relations (6 Equations)

Stress-Strain Relations (6 Equations)

16

Chapter 1 Introduction

X

E

X

E

XY

YZ

ZX

Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio ( )

XY

strain relations.

G

YZ

model.

ZX

ratio are called the material parameters

E

G=

2(1+ )

17

Chapter 1 Introduction

Thermal Effects Included

E

X

E

XY

YZ

ZX

E

XY

G

YZ

G

ZX

are involved, the coefcient of thermal

expansion, (CTE,

) must be specied in

material properties.

18

Chapter 1 Introduction

Equilibrium Equations

X

YX

X

ZX

+

+

+

XY

Y

Y

Y

ZY

+

+

+

XZ

Z

YZ

Z

Z

+ bX = 0

+ bY = 0

+ bZ = 0

are involved, the mass density must be

specied in material properties.

19

Chapter 1 Introduction

Section 1.3

Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual

Introduction

Basic Ideas

A basic idea of nite element methods is to divide the structural body into small and

geometrically simple bodies, called elements, so that equilibrium equations of each

element can be written, and all the equilibrium equations are solved simultaneously

The elements are assumed to be connected by nodes located on the elements' edges

and vertices.

20

Chapter 1 Introduction

21

Basic Ideas

discrete values (displacements at the

nodes) rather than to solve unknown

functions (displacement elds).

is a vector and has three components

(in 3D cases), the number of total

unknown quantities to be solved is

three times the number of nodes.

are called the degrees of freedom

(DOF's) of the structure.

structural body is divided into 4109

elements. The elements are

connected by 22363 nodes. There are

3x22363 unknown displacement

values to be solved.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Basic Ideas

K

{D} = {F }

freedom.

The force vector {F} contains forces acting on all degrees of freedom.

The matrix [K] is called the stiffness matrix of the structure. In a special

case when the structure is a spring, {F} as external force, and {D} as the

deformation of the spring, then [K] is the spring constant.

22

Chapter 1 Introduction

1. Given the bodies' geometries, material properties, support conditions, and loading

conditions.

2. Divide the bodies into elements.

3. Establish the equilibrium equation: [K] {D} = {F}

3.1 Construct the [K] matrix, according to the elements' geometries and the material

properties.

3.2 Most of components in {F} can be calculated, according to the loading conditions.

3.3 Most of components in {D} are unknown. Some component, however, are known,

according to the support conditions.

3.4 The total number of unknowns in {D} and {F} should be equal to the total number of

degrees of freedom of the structure.

23

Chapter 1 Introduction

4. Solve the equilibrium equation. Now, the nodal displacements {d} of each element are

known.

5. For each element:

5.1 Calculate displacement elds {u}, using an interpolating method, {u} = [N] {d}. The

interpolating functions in [N] are called the shape functions.

5.2 Calculate strain elds according to the strain-displacement relations.

5.3 Calculate stress elds according to the stress-strain relations (Hooke's law).

24

Chapter 1 Introduction

25

Shape Functions

[1] A 2D 4-node

quadrilateral element

d6

d5

d8

Z) from nodal displacements (discrete

values).

{u} =

{d}

the interpolation must be linear and

thus the shape functions are linear (of

X,Y, Z).

d7

Y

d4

d2

X

d3

d1

[2] Element's

nodes locate at

vertices.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Shape Functions

For elements with nodes at vertices as well as at middles of edges, the interpolation

must be quadratic and thus the shape functions are quadratic (of X,Y, Z).

Elements with linear shape functions are called linear elements, rst-order elements, or

lower-order elements.

Elements with quadratic shape functions are called quadratic elements, second-order

elements, or higher-order elements.

26

Chapter 1 Introduction

Workbench Elements

3D Solid Bodies

[1] 3D 20-node

structural solid.

Each node has 3

translational

degrees of

freedom: DX, DY,

and DZ.

[4] Tetrahedron.

[2] Triangle-based

prism.

27

Chapter 1 Introduction

2D Solid Bodies

[5] 2D 8-node

structural solid.

Each node has 2

translational

degrees of

freedom: DX and

DY.

[6] Degenerated

Triangle.

28

Chapter 1 Introduction

3D Surface Bodies

[7] 3D 4-node

structural shell.

Each node has 3

translational and 3

rotational degrees

of freedom: DX, DY,

DZ, RX, RY, and RZ.

[8] Degenerated

Triangle

3D Line Bodies

translational and 3 rotational degrees of

freedom: DX, DY, DZ, RX, RY, RZ.

29

Chapter 1 Introduction

Section 1.4

Failure Criteria of Materials

Ductile versus Brittle Materials

fractures.

Fracture strain is a measure of ductility.

30

Chapter 1 Introduction

For ductile materials, there often exists an

[2] Fracture

point.

[3] Yield

point.

deformation would be too large so that the

material is no longer reliable or functional;

deformation.

Stress

Therefore, for these materials, we are most

concerned about whether the material

reaches the yield point

Strain

.

[1] Stress-strain curve for a

ductile material.

31

Chapter 1 Introduction

[2] Fracture

point.

of brittle materials.

For brittle materials, there usually doesn't

exist obvious yield point, and we are

concerned about their fracture point

Stress

.

Strain

for a brittle material.

32

Chapter 1 Introduction

Failure Modes

tensile failure.

failure

33

Chapter 1 Introduction

34

Principal Stresses

stress vanishes is called a

principal direction.

is called a principle stress.

[8] Point of

maximum

shear

stress.

[5] Mohr's

circle.

pairs could be

drawn.

[2] Stress in

the base

direction.

[7] Point of

minimum

normal

stress.

(

XY

[1] Stress

state.

Y

XY

XY

XY

X

X

X

XY

XY

Y

direction that

forms 90o with

the base

direction.

[9] Another

Point of

maximum shear

stress.

[6] Point of

maximum

normal

stress.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Principal Stresses

three principal stresses.

and denoted by

The minimum normal stress is called the minimum principal stress and

denoted by

1.

3.

the minimum principal stress is often a negative value, a compression.

35

Chapter 1 Introduction

brittle material fractures because its tensile stress reaches the

fracture strength

certain point of a body, if the maximum principal stress reaches the

fracture strength of the material, it will fail.

1

36

Chapter 1 Introduction

its shear stress reaches the shear strength

of

max

the material.

body, if the maximum shear stress reaches the

2

y

max

3)

intensity.

37

Chapter 1 Introduction

In 1913, Richard von Mises proposed a theory for predicting the yielding of ductile

materials. The theory states that the yielding occurs when the deviatoric strain energy

density reaches a critical value, i.e.,

wd

w yd

(1+ )

w =

3E

yd

2

y

wd =

1+

6E

2) +(

2

3) + (

2

1)

38

Chapter 1 Introduction

After substitution and simplication, the criterion reduces to that the yielding

occurs when

1

2

2) +(

2

3) + (

2

1)

The quantity on the left-hand-side is termed von Mises stress or effective stress, and

denoted by

e =

1

2

) (

2

) (

2

39

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