You are on page 1of 39

# Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

## Failure Criteria of Materials

1.5

Review

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers

Section 1.1
Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated
PDMS Fingers
 A robot hand has ve
Problem Description
 The ngers size is 80x5x10.2
(mm). There are 14 air chambers in
the PDMS nger, each 3.2x2x8 (mm).

## ngers, remotely controlled by a

surgeon through internet.

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers

Problem Description

##  The strain-stress curve

of the PDMS elastomer
used in this case.

Stress (MPa)

4
 Geometric
model.

3
2
1
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

Strain (Dimensionless)

 Undeformed
shape.
 As air pressure applies, the
nger bends downward.

0.8

1.0

Chapter 1 Introduction

properties.

and supports.

 Create
geometric model.

model.

element mesh.

##  View the

results.

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Static Structural Simulations

 Strains.

 Displacements.

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Buckling and Stress-Stiffening

Stress-stiffening: bending stiffness increases with increasing axial tensile stress, e.g., guitar string.
The opposite also holds: bending stiffness decreases with increasing axial compressive stress.
Buckling: phenomenon when bending stiffness reduces to zero, i.e., the structure is unstable.
Usually occurs in slender columns, thin walls, etc.

##  The upper surface would

undergo compressive stress. It in
turn reduces the bending stiffness.

 If we apply
an upward
force here...

Chapter 1 Introduction

Dynamic Simulations

## When the bodies move and

deform very fast, inertia effect
and damping effect must be
considered.

## When including these

dynamic effects, it is called a
dynamic simulation.

## Section 1.1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers

Chapter 1 Introduction

Modal Analysis

## A special case of dynamic

simulations is the simulation of free
vibrations, the vibrations of a
structure without any loading.

## It is called a modal analysis.

Purpose of a modal analysis is to
nd natural frequencies and mode
shapes.

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.1 Case Study: Pneumatically Actuated PDMS Fingers

Structural Nonlinearities

## Linear simulations assume that

the response is linearly

## proportional to the loading.

When the solution deviates from
the reality, a nonlinear simulation
is needed.

-4

## Structural nonlinearities come

from large deformation, topology

Deflection (mm)

##  Solution of the

linear simulation pf
the PDMS nger.

-8
-13
-17

## changes, nonlinear stress-strain

-21

relationship, etc.

-25

##  Solution of the

nonlinear simulation
of the PDMS nger.

36

72

108

Pressure (kPa)

144

180

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review

Section 1.2
Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review

## Engineering simulation: nding the responses of a problem domain subject to

environmental conditions.

conditions.

## The bodies are described by geometries and materials.

Environment conditions include support and loading conditions.
Responses can be described by displacements, strains, and stresses.

10

Chapter 1 Introduction

Displacements
{u} = {

uX

uY

uZ

##  An arbitrary particle of

position (X,Y, Z), before
the deformation.

deformation.

deformation.

##  The displacement

vector {u} of the particle is
formed by connecting the
positions before and after
the deformation.

##  After the

deformation, the
particle moves to a
new position.

11

Chapter 1 Introduction

Stresses

## The stress at a certain point is the force per unit area

acting on the boundary faces of an innitesimally small
body centered at that point.

## The stress values may be different at different faces.

The small body can be any shape.
we usually use an innitesimally small cube of which
each edge is parallel to a coordinate axis.

## If we can nd the stresses on a small cube, we then

can calculate the stresses on any other shapes of
small body.

X
Z

12

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review

13

Stresses
 The reference
frame XYZ.

{ }=

XY

{ }={

YX

XY

XZ

YX

YZ

ZX

ZY

YZ

ZY

XZ

XY

##  This face is called Xface, since the X-direction

is normal to this face.

Y
YY

YZ

##  The Ycomponent of the

stress on X-face.

X
Z

ZX

ZX

YX
YZ

XY

ZY

XX
ZX

XZ

ZZ

negative X-face.

##  The Z-component

of the stress on X-face.

##  The Xcomponent of the

stress on X-face.

Chapter 1 Introduction

14

Strains

XY

{ }={

AB

AB

(dimensionless)

AB
AC

AC

(dimensionless)

AC
=

C
C

C A B (rad)

CAB

##  After deformation, ABC

becomes A'B'C'. Assume the
deformation is innitesimally .

XY

YZ

ZX

A
Y

A
X

##  To study the strain at A, consider its

neighboring points B and C, which are
respectively along X-axis and Y-axis.

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review

Strains

BD
(dimensionless)
AB

XY

DB
(rad)
AB

CE
(dimensionless)
AC

YX

EC
(rad)
AC

C
B

Y
A, A

A, A

15

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review

Governing Equations
{u} = {
{ }={
{ }={

uX

uY

uZ

XY

XY

}
YZ

YZ

ZX

ZX

}
}

Totally 15 quantities

## Equilibrium Equations (3 Equations)

Strain-Displacement Relations (6 Equations)
Stress-Strain Relations (6 Equations)

16

Chapter 1 Introduction

X

E
X

E
XY

YZ

ZX

## For isotropic, linearly elastic materials,

Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio ( )

## can be used to fully describe the stress-

XY

strain relations.

G
YZ

model.

ZX

## The Young's modulus and the Poisson's

ratio are called the material parameters

E
G=
2(1+ )

## of the material model.

17

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Stress-Strain Relations: Hooke's Law

Thermal Effects Included

E
X

E
XY

YZ

ZX

E
XY

G
YZ

G
ZX

## If temperature changes (thermal loads)

are involved, the coefcient of thermal
expansion, (CTE,

) must be specied in

material properties.

18

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.2 Structural Mechanics: A Quick Review

Equilibrium Equations

X
YX

X
ZX

+
+
+

XY

Y
Y

Y
ZY

+
+
+

XZ

Z
YZ

Z
Z

+ bX = 0
+ bY = 0
+ bZ = 0

## If inertia forces (e.g., dynamic simulations)

are involved, the mass density must be
specied in material properties.

19

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction

Section 1.3
Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual
Introduction
Basic Ideas

A basic idea of nite element methods is to divide the structural body into small and
geometrically simple bodies, called elements, so that equilibrium equations of each
element can be written, and all the equilibrium equations are solved simultaneously

The elements are assumed to be connected by nodes located on the elements' edges
and vertices.

20

Chapter 1 Introduction

21

Basic Ideas

## Another idea is to solve unknown

discrete values (displacements at the
nodes) rather than to solve unknown
functions (displacement elds).

## Since the displacement on each node

is a vector and has three components
(in 3D cases), the number of total
unknown quantities to be solved is
three times the number of nodes.

## The nodal displacement components

are called the degrees of freedom
(DOF's) of the structure.

##  In case of the pneumatic nger, the

structural body is divided into 4109
elements. The elements are
connected by 22363 nodes. There are
3x22363 unknown displacement
values to be solved.

Chapter 1 Introduction

Basic Ideas

K

{D} = {F }

## The displacement vector {D} contains displacements of all degrees of

freedom.

The force vector {F} contains forces acting on all degrees of freedom.
The matrix [K] is called the stiffness matrix of the structure. In a special
case when the structure is a spring, {F} as external force, and {D} as the
deformation of the spring, then [K] is the spring constant.

22

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Procedure of Finite Element Method

1. Given the bodies' geometries, material properties, support conditions, and loading
conditions.
2. Divide the bodies into elements.
3. Establish the equilibrium equation: [K] {D} = {F}
3.1 Construct the [K] matrix, according to the elements' geometries and the material
properties.
3.2 Most of components in {F} can be calculated, according to the loading conditions.
3.3 Most of components in {D} are unknown. Some component, however, are known,
according to the support conditions.
3.4 The total number of unknowns in {D} and {F} should be equal to the total number of
degrees of freedom of the structure.

23

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Procedure of Finite Element Method

4. Solve the equilibrium equation. Now, the nodal displacements {d} of each element are
known.
5. For each element:
5.1 Calculate displacement elds {u}, using an interpolating method, {u} = [N] {d}. The
interpolating functions in [N] are called the shape functions.
5.2 Calculate strain elds according to the strain-displacement relations.
5.3 Calculate stress elds according to the stress-strain relations (Hooke's law).

24

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction

25

Shape Functions

 A 2D 4-node
quadrilateral element

d6

d5

d8

## displacement elds (functions of X, Y,

Z) from nodal displacements (discrete
values).

{u} =

{d}

## For elements with nodes at vertices,

the interpolation must be linear and
thus the shape functions are linear (of
X,Y, Z).

d7
Y

d4
d2
X

d3
d1
 Element's
nodes locate at
vertices.

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction

Shape Functions

For elements with nodes at vertices as well as at middles of edges, the interpolation
must be quadratic and thus the shape functions are quadratic (of X,Y, Z).

Elements with linear shape functions are called linear elements, rst-order elements, or
lower-order elements.

Elements with quadratic shape functions are called quadratic elements, second-order
elements, or higher-order elements.

## ANSYS Workbench supports only rst-order and second-order elements.

26

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction

Workbench Elements
3D Solid Bodies

 3D 20-node
structural solid.
Each node has 3
translational
degrees of
freedom: DX, DY,
and DZ.

 Tetrahedron.

##  Quadrilateralbased pyramid.

 Triangle-based
prism.

27

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction

2D Solid Bodies

 2D 8-node
structural solid.
Each node has 2
translational
degrees of
freedom: DX and
DY.

 Degenerated
Triangle.

28

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.3 Finite Element Methods: A Conceptual Introduction

3D Surface Bodies

 3D 4-node
structural shell.
Each node has 3
translational and 3
rotational degrees
of freedom: DX, DY,
DZ, RX, RY, and RZ.

 Degenerated
Triangle

3D Line Bodies

##  3D 2-Node beam. Each node has 3

translational and 3 rotational degrees of
freedom: DX, DY, DZ, RX, RY, RZ.

29

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.4 Failure Criteria of Materials

Section 1.4
Failure Criteria of Materials
Ductile versus Brittle Materials

fractures.

## The fracture strain of a brittle material is relatively small.

Fracture strain is a measure of ductility.

30

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Mild steel is a typical ductile material.

For ductile materials, there often exists an

 Fracture
point.

 Yield
point.

## obvious yield point, beyond which the

deformation would be too large so that the
material is no longer reliable or functional;
deformation.

Stress

## the failure is accompanied by excess

Therefore, for these materials, we are most
concerned about whether the material
reaches the yield point

Strain

.
 Stress-strain curve for a
ductile material.

31

Chapter 1 Introduction

 Fracture
point.

## Cast iron and ceramics are two examples

of brittle materials.
For brittle materials, there usually doesn't
exist obvious yield point, and we are
concerned about their fracture point

Stress

.
Strain

##  Stress-strain curve

for a brittle material.

32

Chapter 1 Introduction

Failure Modes

tensile failure.

## The yielding of ductile materials is mostly due to shear

failure

33

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.4 Failure Criteria of Materials

34

Principal Stresses

## A direction in which the shear

stress vanishes is called a
principal direction.

## The corresponding normal stress

is called a principle stress.

 Point of
maximum
shear
stress.

 Mohr's
circle.

pairs could be
drawn.

 Stress in
the base
direction.

 Point of
minimum
normal
stress.
(

XY

 Stress
state.

Y
XY

XY

XY

X
X

X
XY
XY
Y

##  Stress in the

direction that
forms 90o with
the base
direction.

 Another
Point of
maximum shear
stress.

 Point of
maximum
normal
stress.

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Section 1.4 Failure Criteria of Materials

Principal Stresses

## At any point of a 3D solid, there are three principal directions and

three principal stresses.

## The maximum normal stress is called the maximum principal stress

and denoted by

The minimum normal stress is called the minimum principal stress and
denoted by

1.

3.

## The maximum principal stress is usually a positive value, a tension;

the minimum principal stress is often a negative value, a compression.

35

Chapter 1 Introduction

## The failure of brittle materials is a tensile failure. In other words, a

brittle material fractures because its tensile stress reaches the
fracture strength

## We may state a failure criterion for brittle materials as follows: At a

certain point of a body, if the maximum principal stress reaches the
fracture strength of the material, it will fail.

## In short, a point of material fails if

1

36

Chapter 1 Introduction

## In other words, a ductile material yields because

its shear stress reaches the shear strength

of

max

the material.

## materials as follows: At a certain point of a

body, if the maximum shear stress reaches the

2
y

max

3)

intensity.

## is called the stress

37

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Von Mises Criterion for Ductile Materials

In 1913, Richard von Mises proposed a theory for predicting the yielding of ductile
materials. The theory states that the yielding occurs when the deviatoric strain energy
density reaches a critical value, i.e.,
wd

w yd

(1+ )
w =
3E
yd

2
y

## And the deviatoric energy in general 3D cases is

wd =

1+
6E

2) +(
2

3) + (
2

1)

38

Chapter 1 Introduction

## Von Mises Criterion for Ductile Materials

After substitution and simplication, the criterion reduces to that the yielding
occurs when
1
2

2) +(
2

3) + (
2

1)

The quantity on the left-hand-side is termed von Mises stress or effective stress, and
denoted by

e =

1
2

) (
2

) (
2

39