You are on page 1of 135

INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULIC

TECHNICIAN CERTIFICATION
Manual

Including Study Guide,


Solutions, & Pre-Tests

Manual # 404 - 8/03


FLUID POWER CERTIFICATION BOARD
FLUID POWER SOCIETY
The International Organization for Fluid Power and Motion Control Professionals

Safety is Everyones Responsibility


As equipment is improved and its capabilities are expanded, the knowledge to operate and maintain it increases. Individuals must constantly upgrade
their skills and concerns for safety.
This review manual suggests several safety guidelines and rules. It obviously cannot cover every situation and is not intended to do so. Safety must
be of primary consideration at all times. Each job, regardless of the type of work involved, presents problems that require special alertness and good
judgment on your part. In addition, you must comply with the rules and requirements established by the particular site where the work is being
performed.
In all cases, each individual and employer shall review the safety hazards present and establish additional practices as needed to minimize them. It
is your obligation to work safely and to correct unsafe acts, practices, and/or conditions for the protection of yourself and others. It is extremely
important that you understand how each task is to be performed in a safe manner, and if you don not know how to do so, stop and ask how to
perform the task before you being the work.
Training, including the information in this document, for operators, maintenance personnel, assemblers, foreman, engineers, and other individual
working with pressurized fluids, is highly recommended.
Fluid Injections - Fine streams of escaping pressurized fluid can penetrate skin and thus enter the human body. These fluid injections may cause severe tissue damage,
gangrene, and loss of limb.
Consider various means to reduce the risk of fluid injections, particularly in areas normally occupied by operators and/or service personnel. Consider careful routing,
adjacent components, warnings, guards, shields, and training programs.
Learn about the dynamic forces that act on equipment as it is operated. Relieve pressure before disconnecting hydraulic and other lines. Tighten all connectors before
pressurizing the system. Avoid contact with escaping fluids. Treat all leaks as though they are pressurized and hot enough to burn human skin. Never use any part of
your body to check for leaks. Use cardboard instead.
If a fluid injection accident occurs, see a doctor immediately. Do not delay treatment or treat the injection as a simple cut.
Any fluid injected into the skin must be surgically removed within a few hours or gangrene may result. Doctors unfamiliar with fluid injection injuries should consult a
knowledgeable medical source.
Whipping Hoses - If a pressurized hose/tube assembly blows apart, the fittings can be thrown off at high speed, and the loose hose can flail or whip with great force.
This is particularly true with compressible fluid systems, such as compressed air systems. Where the risk exists, consider the use of guards and restraints to protect
against injury.
Burns from Conveyed Fluids - Fluid power media may reach temperatures that can burn human skin. If there is a risk of burns from escaping fluid, consider the use of
guards and shields to prevent injury, particularly in areas occupied by operators.
Fire and Explosion from Conveyed Fluids - Most fluid power media, including fire resistant hydraulic fluids, will burn under certain conditions. As fluid escapes from a
pressurized system, a mist or fine spray may be formed, The fluid may then flash or explode upon contact with an ignition force. Consider the use of guarding and
routing of fluid conductors to minimize the risk of combustion.
Fire and Explosion from Static-Electric Discharge - Fluid passing through fluid conductors can generate static electricity, resulting in a static electricity discharge. This
may create sparks that can ignite system fluids or gases in the surrounding atmosphere. When the potential of this hazard exists, select fluid conductors specifically
designed to carry the static electricity charge to ground, thereby reducing the risk of injury or damage.
Electric Shock and High Amperage Discharge - Electrocution could occur if hydraulic tubing conducts electricity to a person. In the case of high amperage, tubing could
short the electricity to ground, which in turn could create very high fluid temperatures (up to 5000 C, 9000 F). Routing electrical wires in contact with tubing or hoses
is not recommended; electrical wiring and hydraulic lines should be isolated by being separated and securely fastened to avoid contact.
Mechanisms Controlled by Fluid Power - Mechanisms controlled by fluid in tubing and hoses may become hazardous when the tube or hose fails. For example, when
a tube or a hose fails or has a catastrophic failure, objects supported by the pressurized fluid may fail. Vehicles or machines may loose their breaks and/or steering,
which causes loss of control.

FLUID POWER SOCIETY


Mailing: P.O. Box 1420, Cherry Hill, NJ 08034-0054
Shipping: 1930 East Marlton Pike, Suite A-2, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003-2142
Phone: 856-424-8998 Fax: 856-424-9248
E-mail: askus@ifps.org Web: http://www.ifps.org

Printed in USA

Copyright 2002

Manual #404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician


Certification

Introduction

outcomes. To this extent, if the candidate understands the subject matter given here and can
This Study Guide has been written for candidates answer the review questions correctly, he or she
who wish to prepare for the Industrial Hydraulic should be prepared to take the Industrial Hyraulic
Technician Certification exam. It contains num- Technician exam.
bered Outcomes, from which test items on the
To use the Study Guide, simply read each
exam were written, a discussion of the related
subject matter with illustrations, references for outcome and the related subject matter that
additional study, and review questions. While the follows, and then answer the review questions. For
Study Guide covers the basics of the exam, addi- convenience, record your answers to the review
tional reading in the references is recommended. questions on a separate piece of paper. After you
have answered several questions, refer to the
The numbered outcomes and review questions answers. If you answered all review questions corare intended to focus attention on a representative rectly, continue with your review. You are on the
sample of the subject matter addressed by the right track. If you answered a review question
exam. This does not mean that the Study Guide incorrectly, refer back to the outcome with the
will teach the test. Rather, the Study Guide is to same number as the review question, and then rebe used as a self-study course, or taught course read the related subject matter that covers the
if a Review Training Seminar is available, to material. If you are still in doubt about the correct
address representative subject matter covered by answer, additional reading is recommended from
the exam. Both the exam questions and review the references which are cited throughout the
questions have been written from the same Study Guide.

Copyright 2002, 1999, 1994 by Fluid Power Society. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be
reproduced or used in any form without permission in writing from the publisher. Address information
to Fluid Power Society,P.O. Box 1420, Cherry Hill, NJ 08034-0054.
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 1

Tom Wanke, Milwaukee School of Engineering


Terry Ward, The Knotts Company
A number of companies and individuals have provided Robert Yund, Hennipin Technical College
information and expertise during the preparation of the
revision of the Industrial Hydraulic Technician Administrative Coordination
Kerry Collins, Fluid Power Society
Certification Examination and Study Guide.

Acknowledgements

Certification Review Committee


Don DeRose, Fluid Power Society
Jim Fischer, Minnesota West Comm. & Tech. College
Clayton Fryer, Norgren
John Groot, The Knotts Company
Ray Hanley, Fluid Power Society
Ernie Parker, Hennepin Technical College
Paul Prass, Fluid Power Society
John Seim, Alexandria Technical College
Bob Sheaf, Certified Fluid Consultants
Jim Sullivan, Southern Illinois University

Design and Layout


Kylene Huffert, Innovative Designs & Publishing, Inc.
While a concerted effort has been made to present
the technical information accurately, errors and
oversights invariably creep into the first printing of
most manuscripts. Please send suggestions and
corrections to the attention of the Fluid Power Society,
P.O. Box 1420, Cherry Hill, NJ 08034-0054.

Disclaimer
The Fluid Power Society (FPS) has attempted to verify the formulas, calculations, and information contained in this
publication. However, the FPS disclaims any warranty, expressed or implied,of the fitness of any circuit, data, or
information discussed in this publication for a particular application. Whenever the reader intends to use any of the
information contained in this publication, the reader should independently verify that the information is valid and
applicable to the application. The FPS neither endorses/recommends, nor disapproves of, any brand name or particular
product use by virtue of its inclusion in this publication. The FPS has obtained the data contained within this publication
from generally accepted engineering texts, catalog data from various manufacturers, and other sources. The FPS does not
warrant any of this information in its application to a particular application. The FPS welcomes additional data for use in
future revisions to this and other FPS publications.

2 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Contents
Hydraulic Symbols
Outcome

Page

1.

Identifies pressure source graphic symbols. ..........................................................................11

2.

Identifies hydraulic graphic symbols that describe flow lines and connections. .....................12

3.

Identifies directional control valve symbols.............................................................................14

4.

Associates hydraulic directional control valve center position with actuator control. .............15

5.

Identifies hydraulic pressure control valves from detailed symbols........................................17

6.

Associates simplified flow control valve symbols with component function. ..........................17

7.

Identifies hydraulic flow control valves from both simplified and detailed symbols. ...............19

8.

Associates detailed flow control symbols with the function of the component.......................20

9.

Identifies symbols for hydraulic pumps and motors................................................................21

Statics
10. Understands the relationship between the height of a liquid and the
pressure reading in psig. ........................................................................................................22
11. Understands the relationship between the height of a liquid and the gauge pressure
reading in inches of mercury (in-Hg). .....................................................................................23
12. Understands that hydraulic pressure results from load resistance.........................................24
13. Uses cylinder bores and rod diameters to calculate static pressures. ...................................25
14. Relates resistive and tractive (overrunning) loads to static pressures
in hydraulic cylinders...............................................................................................................27
15. Understands that cylinder movement is caused by sufficient pressure working
against a movable area. .........................................................................................................28

Components
16. Determines hydraulic flow capacity from conductor sizes. .....................................................30
17. Calculates the speeds and forces associated with single rod hydraulic rams. ......................31

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 3

Contents
18. Understands how the hydraulic flow rate and cylinder rod velocity are used
to determine volumetric efficiency...........................................................................................32
19. Distinguishes between the operation of a pressure relief, pressure reducing,
unloading, sequence, counterbalance, and brake valves.......................................................33
20. Understands that load holding valves are required on truck mounted aerial lift cylinders. ....38
21. Understands the characteristics of hydraulic pressure relief valve and
unloading relief valve circuits..................................................................................................39
22. Understands that hydraulic pressure compensated flow control valves
maintain constant actuator speed regardless of the load.......................................................42
23. Understands that hydraulic pressure compensated flow control valves
maintain constant pressure across a variable orifice. ............................................................42
24. Understands that flow through a sharp edge orifice is less affected by
change in fluid temperature than flow across other types of restrictions. ..............................42
25. Understands the functions, porting, and purpose of differential areas in pilot
operated hydraulic check valves. ............................................................................................45
26. Understands that load holding, pilot operated to open, check valves
require an open center or float center directional control valve. ............................................46
27. Understands that the thermal expansion of fluid can cause high pressure and
thermal lock in hydraulic cylinders equipped with pilot operated check valves. .....................47
28. Distinguishes between the operation of a counterbalance valve and a pilot
operated check valve. .............................................................................................................48
29. Determines the pressure required to shift a pilot operated check valve. ...............................49
30. Interprets hydraulic pump specifications from performance curves. ......................................50
31. Predicts the operation of a hydraulic directional control valve from performance curves. .....53
32. Understands that pilot drains on hydraulic directional control valves should
have separate lines if the system experiences high return line back pressure. .....................54
33. Understands the purpose and operation of priority flow divider valves, bypass
flow regulators, and flow divider valves. .................................................................................55
34. Calculates fill times, oil capacities, and charge pressures for
hydropneumatic accumulators. ...............................................................................................57
4 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Contents
Controls
35. Identifies limit switch positions................................................................................................59
36. Identifies single-phase two-speed, and three-phase AC electric motor symbols. ..................60
37. Understands forward and reverse rotation wiring diagrams for
single-phase and three-phase AC electric motors..................................................................60
38. Identifies basic electrical symbols from ladder diagrams. ......................................................61
39. Understands the basics of hydraulic system electrical controls. ............................................62
40. Distinguishes between ladder diagram elements: electrical contacts
(push button switches, sensors, and relay contacts), and output elements
(resistance loads, such as relays, solenoids, lamps, and motors). ........................................63
41. Understands that electrical contacts have negligible resistance,
whereas output elements have appreciable electrical resistance. .........................................63
42. Understands that in a ladder diagram, the voltage drops across the switch
if it is open, or across the load if the switch is closed. ...........................................................64
43. Understands the interaction between ladder diagram and the directional control
valve shifting mechanism........................................................................................................65
44. Identifies the function of electrical components in a circuit. ...................................................66
45. Understands that solenoid coil hum is caused by alternating current and the bias spring. ...67
46. Understands that a solenoid shading coil helps hold the armature in place
as the main magnetic coil attraction drops to zero. ................................................................67
47. Knows that the shading coil in AC directional control valve solenoids minimizes
hum by providing an induced current that lags the applied current. ......................................67
48. Associates AC solenoid failures with failure of the armature, or failure
of the plunger, to seat. ............................................................................................................67
49. Understands the relationship given by Ohm's Law.................................................................69

Basic Circuits
50. Understands the function of a Graetz rectifier. .......................................................................70
51. Understands that system pressure in a series hydraulic circuit results
from the combined load on all of the actuators. .....................................................................71
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 5

Contents
52. Understands that pressure in a parallel hydraulic circuit results from
the load on the actuator with the greatest resistance.............................................................72
53. Understands that the pressure relief valve diverts the unneeded flow, at its set
pressure, to the reservoir when a fixed displacement pump is used. ....................................73
54. Recognizes basic hydraulic circuits from circuit drawings. .....................................................74
55. Identifies the purpose of hydraulic meter-in, meter-out, bleed-off, brake,
sequence, and counterbalance circuits. .................................................................................75
56. Recognizes the characteristics of meter-in, meter-out, and bleed-off circuits........................78
57. Recognizes the limitations of meter-in, meter-out, and bleed-off circuits...............................78
58. Identifies circuits that match applications. ..............................................................................79
59. Understands that hydraulic regenerative cylinder circuits increase
cylinder rod extension velocity. ...............................................................................................80
60. Understands that regenerative hydraulic circuits require adding the rod end return
flow to the cap end flow on the extension stroke....................................................................80
61. Understands how components interact in a hydraulic regenerative circuit. ...........................80
62. Calculates the cylinder rod force, cylinder rod velocity, and flow rate in the various
lines of a hydraulic regenerative cylinder circuit. ....................................................................80
63. Distinguishes hydraulic accumulator circuit purposes from a circuit drawing.........................82
64. Understands that hydraulic system heat generation in aerial trucks is caused
by boom actuation and portable hydraulic tool usage. ...........................................................83
65. Understands that a variable displacement, pressure compensated pump
reduces energy loss by avoiding relief valve operation at full pump
pressure during holding or clamping. .....................................................................................84
66. Understands that hydraulic load sensing circuits with variable displacement,
pressure compensated pumps maintain pressure at the approximate load pressure............84
67. Understands that hydraulic circuit synchronization can be achieved by
mechanical tying, metering, flow dividers, two equal displacement pumps, or
replenishing circuits. ...............................................................................................................85
68. Identifies circuits that allow two or more cylinders to operate in unison. ...............................85

6 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Contents
69. Understands how open center and tandem center directional control
valves unload fixed displacement pumps. ..............................................................................86
70. Identifies filter location from circuit drawings. .........................................................................87
71. Identifies circuit components that control (maintain and limit) clamping
cylinder pressure in a sequence/pressure reducing circuit. ...................................................89
72. Computes the expansion volume to be controlled when oil decompresses...........................90

Troubleshooting
73. Understands the function of the drain on a sequence valve. .................................................91
74. Understands the basics of troubleshooting hydraulic system electrical controls....................92
75. Understands the operation of the unloading valve in a two-pump, high-low
pressure system, an flow to calculate the system horsepower. .............................................93
76. Understands that a large ratio between the cap end and rod end areas can
cause a hydraulic ram to extend at low pressure. ..................................................................94
77. Understands that a single rod hydraulic cylinder may drift out if the load
can be moved by half of the pressure at the pressure port, applied to the
cylinder in regeneration. .........................................................................................................95
78. Understands that pilot operated to open check valves in cylinder circuits must be open
to drain when the directional control valve is in the center position in order
to operate (seat) properly........................................................................................................96
79. Associates slippage in a hydrostatic transmission with a worn pump or motor cartridge. .....97
80. Associates no movement in a hydrostatic transmission with the loss of flow.........................97
81. Analyzes hydraulic systems....................................................................................................99

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 7

Figures
Hydraulic Symbols
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

1. ........Pressure source symbol.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


2. ........Power and pilot line symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3. ........Quick acting couplings and connector symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4. ........2/2, 3/2, 3/3, and 4/2 control valve symbols.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5. ........Center positions for directional control valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6. ........Simplified and detailed pressure relief valve symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7. ........Simplified symbols for flow control valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
8. ........Simplified and detailed flow control valve symbols with component function. . . . 19
9. ........Detailed flow control valve symbol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
10. ......Hydraulic pump and motor symbols.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Statics
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

......Pump inlet located above surface of the fluid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


......Pressure results from load resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
......Pressure resulting from cylinders connected in series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
......Pressure resulting from two cylinders in series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
......Pressure resulting from a tractive (overrunning) load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Components
Figure 16. ......Pressures developed in a cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Figure 17. ......Pressures to extend and retract a ram.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Figure 18. ......Flow rate and cylinder rod velocity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Figure 19. ......Pressure relief valve symbol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Figure 20. ......Pressure reducing valve symbol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Figure 21. ......Unloading relief valve symbol.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Figure 22. ......Sequence valve symbol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Figure 23. ......Counterbalance valve symbol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Figure 24. ......Brake valve symbol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Figure 25. ........Direct-acting and two stage (compound) pressure relief valves
with optional external pilot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Figure 26. ......Pressure relieving and unloading relieving circuits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Figure 27. ......Restrictive and bypass flow control valves.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Figure 28. ......Pressure compensated flow control valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Figure 29. ......Temperature compensated flow control valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Figure 30. ......Smooth approach nozzle and sharp edge orifice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Figure 31. ......Pilot operated check valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Figure 32. ......Fixed displacement pump with open center valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Figure 33. ......Use of flow control in pilot check valve circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Figure 34. ......Pump inlet conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Figure 35. ......Pump performance curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Figure 36. ......Valve spool flow characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Figures
Figure 37. ......Bypass flow control valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Figure 38. ......Priority flow divider. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Figure 39. ......Flow Divider Symbol and Cross-section. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Controls
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.

......Limit switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
......Electric motor symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
......Single-phase and three-phase motor wiring diagrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
......Ladder diagram with basic symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
......Voltage drop in a ladder diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
......Ladder diagram and hydraulic circuit schematic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
......Applications of a capacitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
......Solenoid and shading coil current. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Basic Circuits
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.

......Graetz rectifier circuits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70


......Series hydraulic circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
......Parallel hydraulic circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
......Meter-in circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
......Meter-out circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
......Bleed-off circuit.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
......Motor brake circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
......Sequence circuit.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
......Counterbalance circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
......Regenerative cylinder circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
......Bleed-off regenerative circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
......Accumulator circuit to maintain system pressure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
......Accumulator circuit to dampen shock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
......Synchronous circuit using equal cylinder areas.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
......Location of system strainers and filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
......Sequence, pressure reducing circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Troubleshooting
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
79.
70.

......Two pump high-low pressure system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93


......Open center differential circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
......Closed center circuit that drifts out.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
......Improper venting of pilot operated to-open checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
......Mobile hydrostatic transmission circuit.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
......Pressure problem circuit.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
......Flow problem circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 9

Reference Equations

Reference Equations
FPS Industrial Hydraulic Technician Certification
Equations

Page #

Equation

Equation

Eq. #1

22

Pressurepsig = Positive Headft x Fluid SG x 0.433 psi/ft-H20

Eq. #2

23

Pump Inlet Pressurein-Hg =


Negative Headin x Fluid SG x 0.0736 in-Hg/in-H20

Eq. #3

24

Forcepounds = Pressurepsi x Areasq-in

Eq. #4

30

Conductor Flow Rategpm = Fluid Velocityft/sec x Areasq-in x 3.12

Eq. #5

32

Cylinder Flow Rategpm = Rod Velocityin/sec x Areasq-in x 0.26

Eq. #6

51

Absolute Pressurepsia =
14.7 + [Vacuumin-hg x -0.4912)

Eq. #7

57

57

in-Hg = NHin x SG x 0.0736


F=PxA
Qcon = QV x A x 3.12
Qcyl = RV x A x 0.26

PSIA = 14.7 + [NHV x -0.4912)

Initial Pressurepsia x Initial Volumecu-in =


Final Pressurepsia x Final Volumecu-in

Eq. #8

PSIG = PHft x SG x 0.433

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

Accumulator Usable Volumecu-in =


Flowgpm x 231 (Fill Timesec / 60 sec/min)

Eq. #9

69

Electromotive Forcevolts = Currentamps x ResistanceOhms

Eq. #10

90

Decompression Volumecu-in =
% Compressibilitydecimal x Volumecu-in

Eq. #11

90

Decompression Volumecu-in =
[% Compressibilitydecimal x Compressed
Volumecu-in x (Intensified Pressurepsi / 1000 psi)]

Eq. #12

93

Fluid HP = (Flowgpm x Pressurepsi) / 1714

Va = Q x 231 x (t / 60)
E=IxR

DV = %C x V
DC = [%C x CV x (IP / 1000)]

HP = (Q x P) / 1714

Note: The symbol Q is frequently used in equations to denote the flow rate, generally in gpm (gallons per minute).

10 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Hydraulic Symbols
Preventive Maintenance
Graphic symbols tested on the Industrial Hydraulic Technician exam are taken from ISO 1219 Fluid Power
Systems and Components - Graphic Symbols. Some differences exist between these symbols and those
given by USAS Y-32.10 USA Standard Graphic Symbols for Fluid Power Diagrams, that conform to the standards accepted by ANSI and NFPA, and to others that are commonly used, such as DIN 24300.
Many symbols, such as cylinders, pumps and motors, are familiar to most technicians. A number
of them, however, are used often in hydraulic circuits, but are misinterpreted. Several of these are
explained here as a representative sample of those tested by the exam.

Outcome 1.

Identifies pressure source graphic symbols.

The generalized graphic symbol for a pressure source consists of a circle with a dot in the center,
attached to a line. If the line is interrupted by a closed triangle, the pressure source is hydraulic. If the
line is interrupted by an open triangle, the pressure source is pneumatic. The difference, then, between
a hydraulic pressure source and a pneumatic pressure source is in the construction of the triangle. In
hydraulics, the triangle is filled. In pneumatics, the triangle is unfilled.

Fig. 1.Pressure source symbol.

Review: 1.1. Which one of the following is the


generalized symbol for a pressure source?
a.

b.

c.

d.
e.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 11

Hydraulic Symbols

Outcome 2.

Identifies hydraulic graphic line symbols that


describe flow lines and connections.

Flow lines provide passage for pressurized oil for power or control. Solid straight lines are used to
show a fluid power transmission line. If the line is curved to form an arc with a round dot enlargement
at each end, it means the line is a flexible hose, usually connected to moving parts.
Drawings are made with power, pilot, and drain lines running horizontally or vertically on the drawing.
Two lines that cross without connecting can be drawn, one across the other, without regard to whether
they touch. Or, if it adds clarity to the drawing, one line can be drawn with a loop over the other to
indicate that it crosses without connecting. A dot at the intersection of two lines is used to show when
two lines connect. Lines can connect in a tee or in a cross.
Dashed lines are used for pilot control or drain lines. A line with long dashes indicates that the line
is used for pilot control. A line with short dashes means that the line is used for a drain or bleed line.
The rules that govern solid hydraulic power lines that cross or connect also apply to dashed lines that
are used for pilots or drains.
Continuous (Power)
Dashes (Pilot Control
& Drain Lines)
Flow Lines Connecting
Flow Lines Crossing
Fig. 2. Power and pilot lines

One Conductor
Rotary Connector

Plugged Power Line


Power Line with Take Off

Three Conductor
Rotary Connector

Half a Quick Coupling


Quick Disconnect
Coupling Connected
Quick Disconnect
Coupling with Flow
Checks

Rotary Shaft Connector

Quick Disconnect Couplings

Connectors

Fig. 3.Quick disconnect couplings and rotary connections.

12 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Hydraulic Symbols
A plugged power take-off at the end of a power line is shown as an "X". If the power take-off
hydraulic line is shown, it will appear as a second line with a matching end that resembles an open
arrow. Quick disconnect couplings appear as two open arrows facing each other on a solid line. A
short perpendicular line between the two facing arrows indicates that the hydraulic line separates. Half
a coupling symbol without a ball check means the coupling is uncoupled and has an open end. If it
has a ball check, it means that the coupling is disconnected, but prevents external leakage by
sealing the opening. Connecting couplings that have two ball checks to prevent leakage unseat both
ball checks to provide a flow path.
Rotary connections that permit rotation are shown as one line inscribed by a circle with an arrow.
The number of lines inscribed by the circle shows how many conductors the rotary
connection can accommodate.
Rotary connection symbols should not be confused with a rotating shaft connection. Two parallel
lines, close together, with an open arc having an arrow at one or both ends, is the symbol for a
rotating shaft. An arrow at one end of the arc means that the shaft rotates in one direction. Arrows at
both ends of the arc mean that the shaft rotates in both directions.
Review 2.1.
How can a rotating shaft symbol be distinguished
from a swivel connection?
a. A swivel connection symbol has one arrow.
b. A shaft connection symbol has two arrows.
c. A swivel connection has a closed arc.
d. A shaft connection symbol has a closed
arc.
e. A rotary connection has one straight line.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 13

Hydraulic Symbols

Outcome 3.

Identifies directional control valve symbols.

Hydraulic directional control valves stop, start, and redirect the flow of oil. The number of positions are
shown as rectangular envelopes, with the lines and arrows giving the direction of flow when the valve
assumes the various positions. Two position valves have two envelopes. Three position valves have
three envelopes, and so on. The lines within the position envelopes indicate the number of flow paths
the valve can provide. This has been commonly referred to as "ways". For example, a two-way valve
has two flow paths, but this designation is not universally accepted. The accepted designation is to identify ports as well as flow paths, excluding pilot ports. Lines within an envelope show the flow path(s)
when that envelope is active. Ways refers to the quantity of flow ports a valve has. For example, a two
way valve has two flow ports, and a three way valve has three ports. Pilot pressure and drain ports are
not counted.
The order for the description of a directional control valve using ISO symbology (see sec. 7.0) is to
call out the number of ports, followed by the number of positions. Valves are shown for 2/2, 3/2, 3/3, and
4/2 directional control valves. A 2/2 valve has two ports and two positions. A 3/2 valve has three ports
and two positions, a 3/3 valve has three ports and three positions, and a 4/2 valve has four ports and
two positions.

Fig. 4. 2 /2, 3/2, 3/3, and 4/2 control valves.

Review: 3.1.
How many ports does the directional control valve
shown have?
a. Two.
b. Three.
c. Four.
d. Five.
e. Six.

14 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Hydraulic Symbols

Outcome 4.

Associates hydraulic directional control valve center


position with actuator control.

The center position on three-position directional control valves is used most often to provide an idle
or at rest function for the circuit. How the ports in the center position are connected to each other
depends upon which components are used and whether the circuit has an open or closed center.
For example, fixed displacement pumps are normally connected to open center, tandem center, or
through center circuits, and fluid is relieved to the reservoir at low pressure. This reduces power loss
caused by flowing oil over the pressure relief valve at higher than normal load pressure in the center
position.
Fixed displacement pumps in closed center accumulator circuits use a valve spool that blocks the Pport in the center position. The pump is unloaded by a pressure unloading valve at low pressure by a
pilot line connected to the high pressure (accumulator) side of the check valve. Variable displacement,
pressure compensated pumps have the P-port blocked when the directional control valve is in the center position, and the compensator reduces flow to nearly zero at the pressure setting that is determined
by the adjustment of the compensator spring.

Open

Closed

Float

Through
Center

A to T
P & B Blocked

Tandem

Fig. 5. Center positions for directional control valves.


A float center is sometimes used with hydraulic cylinders. A float center is sometimes called a motor
center when it is used with a hydraulic motor, allowing the motor to coast to a stop in the center position. In a float or motor center, the A, B, and T ports are connected and relieved to tank. If a fixed displacement pump is used without an accumulator in the circuit, the valve would have an open center (all
ports connected and relieved to tank) in order to unload the pump. If a pressure-compensated, variable
displacement pump is used, the P-port would be blocked and the A, B, and T ports would be connected, because the pressure compensator will destroke the pump.
If the speed of the cylinder is to be controlled in the center position of a float center circuit, for example on an aerial lift, the A and B passages will have built in flow control orifices. This would limit the
maximum rate of travel for a cylinder subjected to an external load.
The lines within the position envelopes indicate the flow direction of the fluid when that envelope
position is active. Ways refers to the quantity of flow ports (connections) a valve has. For example, a
two-way valve has two port connections, a three-way valve has three port connections, and a
four-way valve has four port connections. If a four-way valve is plumbed with connections to only
three ports, it is still considered to be a four-way valve. Pilot pressure and pilot drain ports are not included in counting the quantity of valve ports, as pilot ports are not flow ports.
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 15

Hydraulic Symbols
Review: 4.1.
In the center position, a four port, three position,
normally closed center (non-passing) hydraulic
valve has:
a. P and T ports blocked.
b. P and A ports blocked.
c. P, A, B, and T ports blocked.
d. P to B ports blocked, and A and T ports
connected.
e. P blocked, and A, B, and T ports connected
.
Review: 4.2.
Which hydraulic three-position directional control
valve center position would provide the safest
operation for a pressure compensated pump system
that controls an aerial truck boom? A
counterbalance valve adjusted to control the load
is manifold mounted to the cylinder.

A B
a.

A B

AB
c.

e.

PT

P T

A B

AB

PT

d.

b.
P T

PT

16 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Hydraulic Symbols

Outcome 5.

Identifies hydraulic pressure control valves from


detailed symbols.

Hydraulic components are illustrated using both simplified and detailed symbols. Simplified
symbols show the function of the component, whereas detailed symbols show internal connections
and how the component operates. If two or more functions are enclosed within one component, for
example a pressure relief valve with a reverse flow check valve, both functions are drawn within an
enclosure. Enclosures can be identified by a thin line around the component, interrupted by a dash.
Figure 6 illustrates the simplified and detailed symbols for a compound (pilot operated) pressure
relief valve. The simplified symbol indicates that pilot pressure acts against the piston or spool element to open the valve when the force overcomes the bias spring and connects the pressure port to
drain. The detailed symbol shows how the valve operates internally.
The balanced main spool is on the left, the pilot valve is on the right. System pressure acts on the
main spool against the bias spring and, at the same time, through the orifice, against the adjustable
pilot valve. When pressure is sufficient to unseat the pilot valve, it vents the balanced spool and the
valve opens. The valve is "balanced" in that pilot pressure acts on both sides of the balanced spool,
preventing it from shifting until the pilot valve directs the vent signal from the bias spring side to drain.

Reservoir
Simplified Symbol

Reservoir
Detailed Symbol

Fig. 6.Simplified and detailed pressure relief valve symbols.

Review: 5.1.
A compound, balanced piston (or spool) pressure
relief valve is balanced by:
a. flow.
b. stroke.
c. pressure.
d. spring force.
e. spool size.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 17

Hydraulic Symbols

Outcome 6.

Associates simplified flow control valve symbols with


component function.

Flow control valves have a fixed or variable output. The restriction in the simplified symbol is shown
as two arcs that form a narrow passage at the flow line through the symbol (Fig. 7). If an arrow is
drawn at 45 degrees through the restriction, it indicates that the flow control valve has a variable output.
It is accepted practice (in Y32.10, Section 2.10) to show pressure compensation on a simplified flow
control valve symbol by drawing an arrow on a line that crosses perpendicular to the horizontal flow
line. (Notice, however, that pressure compensation is not shown this way in the simplified symbols
given in ISO 1219, section 7.5.2.) The flow control can be pressure compensated either by varying a second restriction called a hydrostat, placed in series with the main flow restrictor, or by placing the hydrostat in a parallel circuit that redirects excess flow to the reservoir. Two-port, or restrictive, flow control
valves have the hydrostat located in series with the control orifice and are generally used with pressure compensated pumps. Three-port, or bypass, flow control valves have the hydrostat connected in
parallel to the control orifice. Bypass type flow controls are generally used with fixed displacement
pumps. The excess fluid is vented to the reservoir at the load pressure plus the hydrostat bias spring
pressure, rather than at the relief valve pressure setting. A version of the bypass type valve is called a
priority flow control valve. Rather than having to connect the third port to the tank at low pressure, the
excess flow may be used in other circuits at pressure rather than at the primary circuit.
If the valve has the pressure compensator in series with the flow restrictor, the perpendicular line
and arrow are the only additions to the symbol. However, if the flow control directs excess flow to the
reservoir, the symbol will have a line leading from the outside edge of the flow control valve to a reservoir
symbol. Flow control valves that direct excess flow to the reservoir constitute a bleed-off circuit.

Fixed Output
Fixed Output
Relief Port

Variable Output
Variable Output
Relief Port
Fig. 7.Simplified symbols for flow control valves.

Review: 6.1.
Which line in the simplified symbol in Fig. 7
indicates that the flow control valve has an
adjustable output?
a. Arrow at an angle.
b. Reservoir symbol.
c. Arrow on the flow line.
d. Two arcs that form a narrow passage.
e. Arrow on line that connects to flow line.
18 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Hydraulic Symbols

Outcome 7.

Identifies hydraulic flow control valves from both


simplified and detailed symbols.

Figure 8 illustrates simplified and detailed symbols for a pressure compensated restrictive type flow
control valve (without temperature compensation), with a reverse free flow check valve. The simplified
symbol shows an adjustable restriction and an upright arrow, indicating the valve is compensated for
changes in pressure caused by load variances. The detailed symbol also shows the adjustable restriction, but the pressure compensator portion of the valve, called a hydrostat, contains a balanced piston
throttling valve with pressure taps to both sides of the restrictor valve. The hydrostat is a normally open,
self regulating, pressure reducing valve. Notice that the outlet side of the restrictor orifice is connected to
the side of the pressure compensator that has the bias spring. Bias spring force is combined with pressure
at the downstream side of the flow control orifice to hold the valve open, while upstream pressure is
directed to throttle the valve closed. Since both sides of the compensator spool piston are the same
diameter, the pressure drop across the flow control when the valve is operating will just equal the pressure
caused by the bias spring. No matter what system pressure is, the pressure drop across the pressure
compensator will be constant, usually in the range of 50-150 psi.
The pressure compensator valve opens and closes in response to changes from this fixed
pressure drop across the throttling orifice. If the flow were to increase, for example if the load were
removed from a cylinder that is extending and its velocity increased, this would cause the pressure
drop across the restrictor orifice to increase, and the pressure compensator would throttle the flow to
restore the constant pressure drop. The outlet pressure caused by the load thus has little effect on the
constant pressure drop across the restrictor.

Simplified

Detailed

Fig. 8.Simplified and detailed pressure and temperature compensated


control valve symbols with component function.

Review: 7.1.
What determines the pressure drop across the
throttling orifice in the detailed symbol shown in
Fig. 8?
a. Load.
b. Throttling orifice.
c. Compensator bias spring force.
d. Upstream pressure.
e. Downstream pressure.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 19

Hydraulic Symbols

Outcome 8.

Associates detailed flow control symbols with the


function of the component.

Detailed flow control valve symbols show the flow control orifice, pressure compensator, and how
the two operate together. If they are in series, the valve is a restrictive type. If excess flow is directed
to the reservoir, the valve is a bypass type. Detailed symbols also show how the pressure compensator connects across the flow orifice, with the pressure tap downstream of the restrictor connected to the spring
side of the compensator. Remember that the bias spring holds the valve open with a slight force, and
to spring pressure is added the pressure downstream of the orifice. Since there is a pressure drop
across the orifice, the combination of bias spring and downstream pressure is just balanced by
upstream pressure which is higher when fluid flows through the restriction at the specified rate.
In a bypass flow control valve, the pressure compensator operates as a pilot operated and vented
relief valve, directing excess flow to the reservoir when the pressure drop across the flow orifice
exceeds the constant pressure of 50-150 psi that results when the specified rate flows through the orifice.
Note that in a bypass type flow control valve, the hydrostat, or pressure compensator, is normally closed.

Fixed Output
Restrictive Type
Fixed Output
Bypass Type

Variable Output
Restrictive Type
Variable Output
Bypass Type
All Still Need a Main System Relief Valve
Fig. 9. Detailed Flow Control Symbols.

Review: 8.1.
What is adjusted to regulate flow in the pressure
compensated,variable output, bypass type, flow
control valve shown in Fig. 9?

20 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Flow orifice.
Relief to drain.
Compensator Bias spring.
Pilot pressure to compensator.
Vent pressure to compensator.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Hydraulic Symbols

Outcome 9.

Identifies symbols for hydraulic pumps and motors.

The symbol used to identify hydraulic pumps and motors is a circle with a shaft connection. The
shaft connection is shown as two horizontal parallel lines that connect to one side at the mid-point. If
the component is a pump, it will have one or two solid triangles pointing outward inside the circle at 90
degrees from the shaft connection. One triangle indicates the pump has a fixed displacement and is
unidirectional. Two triangles indicate the pump has a fixed displacement and is bi-directional. If the
symbol has a line at a 45 degree angle with an arrow at one end, the pump is a variable displacement
pump. Various operators can be shown attached to the pump symbol to indicate how the displacement is
varied, including manual control, pressure compensated control, and servo control. The control is
shown as a rectangle of various designations. The manual operator symbol has the vertical end of the
rectangle extending slightly past the horizontal lines. The pressure compensated operator symbol has a
vertical line with an arrow at the top, inside the rectangle, and the end line does not extend past the
horizontal lines of the operator symbol.
Fixed Displacement
Single-Direction Pump

Variable Displacement
Manually Adjusted Pump

Variable Displacement
Pressure Compensated
Pump

Fixed Displacement
Uni-Directional Motor

Variable Displacement
Bi-Directional Motor

Variable Displacement
Bi-Directional Manually
Adjusted Motor
Fig. 10. Hydraulic Pump and Motor Symbols.

Hydraulic motor symbols are very much like pump symbols, except that the solid triangle points
inward rather than outward, indicating Energy In rather than Energy Out. Both pump and motor
symbols commonly show case drains.
Review: 9.1.
Which symbol part indicates that a hydraulic
pump in Fig. 10 is bi-directional?
a. Case drain.
b. One solid triangle.
c. Two solid triangles.
d. 45 degree line with arrow.
e. The rotation arrow on the shaft.
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 21

Statics

Statics
Outcome 10.

Understands the relationship between the height of a


liquid and the gauge pressure reading in psig.

Liquid heights and pressures have application to the location of the pump with respect to the reservoir.
Pumps mounted above the reservoir have a negative head (vacuum) at the inlet, while pumps mounted
below the reservoir have a flooded inlet and a positive head. Most pumps specify inlet conditions for
various fluids in order to prevent cavitation and damage to the unit.
The pressure at the inlet is computed from the height of the liquid in feet, and the specific gravity
of the liquid compared to water, which has a specific gravity of 1.
The formula used to compute gauge pressure in psi from a positive head is:
(Eq. 1)

Pressurepsig = Positive Headft x Fluid SG x 0.433 psi/ft-H20

PSIG = PHft x SG x 0.433

The constant 0.433 simply indicates that a column of water 1 foot high has a pressure of 0.433
psig.

Review: 10.1.
What is the pressure at the inlet of a pump mounted 4 feet below the surface of a hydraulic fluid that
has a specific gravity of 0.85?
a. 0.12 psig.
b. 1.47 psig.
c. 2.04 psig.
d. 3.86 psig.
e. 4.71 psig.

22 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Statics

Outcome 11.

Understands the relationship between the height of a


liquid and the gauge pressure reading in inches of
mercury (in-Hg).

Pumps that are mounted above the reservoir cause a vacuum or negative pressure to be formed
when the pump is operating. This negative pressure is read in inches of mercury (in-Hg). Mercury has
a specific gravity of 13.56. That is, its specific gravity, or the weight of an equal volume, is 13.56 times
that of water.
Typical maximum operating specifications given for pumps that are mounted above the reservoir
are 5 to 7 in-Hg. This means that the maximum vacuum or suction lift at the centerline of the pump is
equal to what would be required to lift a column of mercury in a tube at atmospheric conditions 5 to 7
inches. The fluid being lifted into the pump, however is not mercury, but one of the several fluids that
are used with hydraulic pumps. Water base hydraulic fluids have a specific gravity of approximately 1.
Hydraulic oils have specific gravity in the range of 0.85 to 0.95. Some synthetic fluids have a specific
gravity of 1.20. For this reason, the specific gravity of the fluid must be a factor in the formula to compute inches of mercury from the height of a column of fluid.
(Eq. 2)

Pump Inlet Pressurein-Hg =


Negative Headin x Fluid SG x 0.0736 in-Hg/in-H20 = NHin x SG x 0.0736

The constant 0.0736 indicates that there are 0.0736 inches of mercury for each inch of water.

Inlet

Pump

Pt2

Pt1

Outlet

Review: 11.1.
A pump inlet is located 24 inches above
the surface of a hydraulic fluid with a specific gravity of 0.90. How many
inches of mercury would be required to
lift the fluid to the inlet?
a. 1.59 in-Hg.
b. 1.76 in-Hg.
c. 1.96 in-Hg.
d. 2.59 in-Hg.
e. 3.01 in-Hg.

Reservoir
Fig. 11. Pump inlet located above surface of fluid

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 23

Statics

Outcome 12.

Understands that hydraulic pressure results from load


resistance.

The fluid pressure in a cylinder results from a force acting on each square inch of piston area
within the bore diameter. It also acts at right angles to all surfaces within the cylinder, but the
pressure is most easily computed from the area of the bore because this is the moveable area.
Pressure is determined from:
(Eq. 3)

Forcepounds = Pressurepsi x Areasq-in

F=PxA

Where the force is in pounds, the area is in square inches, and the pressure is in pounds per
square inch of bore area. Knowing two of the three variables allows one to solve for the third variable.
When a closed cylinder filled with oil is externally loaded at mid-stroke, the force of the load is transmitted through the cylinder rod to the fluid. Since the fluid cannot escape, the force tries to compress
the fluid, generating a pressure in the fluid. The magnitude of the pressure is determined by the cross
section area of the cylinder in which the movable piston is fitted. The smaller the cross-section area,
the greater the pressure, and the larger the area, the lesser the pressure.

Load
Pressure

Force
Area

Pressure

Fig. 12. Pressure results from load resistance.

24 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Statics


F

Outcome 13.

Uses cylinder bores and rod diameters to calculate


static pressures.

When two cylinders like those shown in Fig. 13 are filled with oil and
connected by a hydraulic line, the force of the load on the rod of one cylinder is transmitted undiminished through the fluid to the rod of the other
cylinder, and the pressure will be the same throughout the system. If the
cylinders have the same bore diameter, movement of one piston will
result in an equal movement of the other, and the force "in" will be the
same as the force "out".
F

Fig. 13. Force transmitted through


hydraulic fluid.

Figure 14 shows a different arrangement. These two cylinders are connected in series and transmit force through the fluid across the first piston on the left to the second piston on the right. Neglecting friction, the pressure would be the same in each chamber filled with fluid
if double rod cylinders were used, because the areas on both sides of each piston would be equal.
However, because single rod cylinders like those shown in the figure are used, the areas are not equal
and the pressure in each successive chamber changes.
How much the pressure changes from chamber to chamber depends upon the ratio of the areas
between the blank side of the piston and the rod side of the piston.
To calculate the pressure in the cylinder as the force is transmitted back through the fluid, the two
variables that are known, for example, the force and cross-section area of the cylinder, are used to
compute the third one, in this case the pressure. Remember that the pressure will have to be recalculated
each time the force is transmitted through the cylinder piston if the areas on both sides of the piston
are not equal. Begin at the load and proceed back to the place where the pressure gauge is located.
Notice in Figure 14 that the pressure below the 2 inch diameter piston is caused by the force of the
4000 pound load. Also notice that this pressure acts against the rod side of the 3 inch diameter piston.
That is, the movable area equals the area of the 3 inch diameter piston minus the area of the 1.5 inch
diameter rod. This movable area is called the annualr area. The product of the pressure and annular area
of the piston around the 1.5 inch diameter rod creates the force to generate the pressure read by the gauge
on the blank side of the 3 inch diameter piston. The final pressure on the gauge will equal this force
divided by the area of the blank side of the 3 inch diameter piston.
Static
Load
4000 lb

1 Rod

1.5 Rod

psig

Fig. 14. Pressure resulting from two cylinders in series.


IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 25

Components
Review: 13.1.
Assuming no friction, what is the approximate
static pressure reading on the gauge in Fig. 14?
(Both cylinders are full of oil.)
a. 187 psi.
b. 212 psi.
c. 295 psi.
d. 557 psi.
e. 955 psi.

26 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Outcome 14.

Relates resistive and tractive (overrunning) loads to


static pressures in hydraulic cylinders.

A resistive load is acted upon by the hydraulic actuator. A tractive, or overrunning load, is one that
acts upon the hydraulic actuator.
The pressure caused by a resistive load is illustrated in Fig. 15. Here the load is supported by a
vertically mounted hydraulic cylinder and acts in the direction to retract the cylinder. The pressure just
equals the force divided by the cross-section area of the cylinder, if friction is ignored.
If a cylinder with the same rod and bore dimensions is mounted horizontally and supports an equal
load that tends to extend the cylinder rod, the pressure still equals the force divided by the cross-section area of the cylinder, but in this case the area is the annular area between the bore and cylinder
rod. Thus, the pressure will be higher because there is less area than the full bore area.
Pres?

1.5 Rod
3

2 Tons
Fig. 15. Pressure resulting from a tractive (overrunning) load.

Review: 14.1.
A 3 inch bore horizontally mounted hydraulic
cylinder with a 1-1/2 inch diameter rod supports a
tractive force of 2 tons at mid-stroke. What is the
pressure in the rod end of the cylinder?
a. 377 psi.
b. 565 psi.
c. 754 psi.
d. 923 psi.
e. 1131 psi.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 27

Components

Outcome 15.

Understands that cylinder movement is caused by


sufficient pressure working against a movable area.

Static cylinder pressure is caused by the load and equals what is necessary to just balance it. To
move the load, the pressure is actually somewhat higher to account for inertia and flow losses.
If a double rod cylinder that is full of fluid with both ports closed is loaded from one end and the
piston seal leaks, the cylinder rod will drift away from the load as fluid transfers across the piston seal
from the high pressure side to the low pressure side of the piston, equalizing the pressure on both
sides of the piston.
If a single rod cylinder filled with fluid is mounted in the vertical position with the rod end up and
loaded, the pressure will develop at the cap end of the cylinder. The magnitude of the pressure in psi will
be equal to the force acting against the cylinder in pounds, divided by the cross-section area of the
bore in square inches. For example, if a 3-1/2 inch bore cylinder with a 1-1/2 inch diameter rod is filled
with fluid and supports a force of 5000 lbs in the direction to retract the cylinder, the pressure at the
cap end will be:
Pressure = 5000 lb / 9.62 sq-in = 520 psi.

5000 lb

1.5
Rod

3.5
Fig. 16. Pressures developed in a cylinder.

This example assumes, of course, that there is no leakage across the piston seal. If there is leakage
across the piston seal, or if there were a small hole in the piston, enough fluid would transfer across
the seal to equalize the pressure on both sides of the piston. What would occur then, assuming the
load acts to retract the cylinder, is that the pressure on both sides of the piston would rise because the
area supporting the load is no longer the cross-section of the bore, but instead is the cross-sectional area
of the cylinder rod. Thus, the pressure generated would be:
Pressure = 5000 lb / 1.77 sq-in = 2830 psi.

28 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components
This same phenomenon can cause a single rod cylinder with a leaking piston seal to drift out if
pressure is applied to the rod end port of a single rod cylinder and the blank end port is blocked. Fluid
will transfer across the leaking piston seal to equalize the pressure, and the force in pounds exerted
on the cylinder rod to extend it will equal the pressure multiplied by the cross-section area of the rod.
If the relief valve on the fluid supply were set to 1000 psi, the force available to extend the rod would
be:
Force = 1000 psi x 1.77 sq-in = 1770 lb.
This assumes that the seal at the rod end of the cylinder does not leak at this pressure. Also notice that
this is not a particularly high load for the cylinder, which leads to the conclusion that single rod cylinders left
loaded to capacity in the vertical position, such that the load exerts a force to retract the cylinder for
extended periods of time, may cause high enough pressures to damage the rod seal but only, if the piston
seal leaks toward the rod end of the cylinder.
If the piston seal were to leak from the blind end of the cylinder to the rod end of the cylinder, the
pressure of the fluid would increase in the entire cylinder as the pressure would be equal on both sides
of the piston, and the load will be supported only by the rod area at the blind end of the cylinder. As
the fluid pressure increases, the volume of the fluid will diminish slightly due to pressure intensification
of the fluid. Thus, the rod will retract a small amount and then remain stationary, unless of course, the
rod seal then leaks. (See Outcome 72).

Review: 15.1.
If the cylinder shown if Figure 16 (see page 28)
was extended 10 inches, and then only the piston
seal were to leak towards the rod end, theoretically the cylinder rod would:
a. extend completely.
b. drift up.
c. retract completely.
d. leak fluid.
e. retract slightly.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 29

Components

Components
Outcome 16.

Determines hydraulic flow capacity from conductor


sizes.

Tubing, pipe, and hose are sized from different standards.

Hydraulic tubing is sized from the outside diameter. The inside diameter is determined by the wall
thickness: the thicker the wall, the higher the pressure, but the lower the flow rate at a given fluid velocity.
The oil flow capacity can be determined from tables, or, given the wall thickness, the inside diameter
can be computed and used to solve for flow rate. For example, tabled values from handbooks list the
flow rate for 3/4 inch, 0.065 inch wall thickness tubing at 14.1 gpm at 15 ft/sec. This is the approximate value calculated using:
(Eq. 4)

Conductor Flow Rategpm = Fluid Velocityft/sec x Areasq-in x 3.12

Qcon = QV x A x 3.12

The constant 3.12 is converts the velocity from ft/sec to in/sec, and then from cu-in/sec to gpm, i.e.,
(12 x 60 / 231).
While tubing has replaced pipe, for the most part, on hydraulic systems, it can be found on some
older applications and where high flow rates are required. Pipe is sized by the nominal inside diameter.
Nominal sizes given for pipe are approximate inch sizes for the inside diameter. Pipe wall thickness and
pressure rating are given by Schedule number, with Schedule 40, Schedule 80 and Schedule 160 being
the most common. Tables are also used to determine flow rates in pipes. The equation given to calculate the flow rate in tubing is the same one used to compute the flow rate in pipe. Tabled values
show that a 1 inch Schedule 40 pipe has an I.D = 1.049 inches, and will flow 11 gpm at a velocity of
4 ft/sec.
Hydraulic hose is sized by the inside diameter, which is usually given as a dash size. Dash
numbers equal the number of 16ths of an inch. A dash 8 hose, for example, has an inside diameter
approximately equal to 1/2 inch (8/16ths). The flow capacity of hose does not show in some handbooks, but is easily computed using Eq. 4. when tabled is not available for the application or velocity in question.
An important point to remember is that flow capacity is proportional to velocity. Velocity is typically increased with system pressure to reduce line and component size. Higher pressure systems are
thus smaller and lighter. Common maximum flow rates given are 4 ft/sec for the pump inlet and 10
ft/sec for the pump outlet at a pressure of 1000 psi. If the pressure of the system is raised to 2000 psi,
the outlet velocity at the pump can be raised to 15 ft/sec. These are just rules of thumb given by some
authorities, however, and the flow velocity specified for a particular system is determined from the engineering parameters for that system.
Review: 16.1.
What minimum size Schedule 40 pipe would flow
6 gpm and still keep the velocity below 4 ft/sec?
a. 3/8
b. 1/2
c. 3/4
d. 1
e. 1-1/4
30 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Outcome 17.

Calculates the speeds and forces associated with


single rod hydraulic rams.

Hydraulic rams have a large diameter rod, usually half the bore of the cylinder, or greater. Single
rod rams come as single-acting and occasionally double-acting cylinders. Staged rams are called telescoping cylinders. A typical application for a hydraulic ram is a dump body cylinder.
Pressures, forces and flow rates associated with extending rams are the same as for single rod
hydraulic cylinders. That is, to extend a ram, fluid acts on the cross section of the cylinder bore. To
retract a ram, the fluid acts on the annular area around the ram, which is determined by subtracting
the area of the ram from the area of the bore. If the bore of the cylinder and required return force of
the ram are known, the pressure and annular area are computed, and are used to determine the largest
allowable ram size. Ram speeds and flow rates are then determined from the annular area.

Ram Extend

Ram Retract

Fig. 17. Pressures to extend and retract a ram.

Review: 17.1.
A hydraulic ram with a 3 inch bore operates at a
relief valve pressure of 2000 psi. If the ram must
exert a retraction force of 2500 lb, what is the
maximum diameter of the rod?
a. 1.75
b. 2.72
c. 2.83
d. 3.42
e. 4.00

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 31

Components

Outcome 18.

Understands how the hydraulic flow rate and cylinder


rod velocity are used to determine volumetric efficiency.

The basic formula that relates flow rate, cylinder rod velocity, and cross-section area of a cylinder is
(Eq. 5)

Cylinder Flow Rategpm = Rod Velocityin/sec x Areasq-in x 0.26

Qcyl = RV x A x 0.26

The constant 0.26 is derived from:


(1 gal/231 in3 x 60 sec/min) = (1/3.85) = 0.26
Eq. 5 can also be used to compute the bypass leakage through pumps, motors, and cylinders, as
well as the volumetric efficiencies of these components. In a typical application, the flow rate from the
pump, which is given in the specifications, is delivered to a hydraulic cylinder of known bore and rod
size. If the pump delivers the flow rate given in the specifications, the efficiency of the cylinder can be
determined by timing a portion of the extension stroke, for example 12 inches, and then
computing the effective flow rate using Eq. 5. The effective flow rate is the amount of oil that the velocity of the cylinder indicates is flowing. By subtracting the effective flow rate from the flow rate given in
the specifications, the amount of bypass leakage can be determined. The percent volumetric efficiency of the cylinder is computed by dividing the effective flow by the theoretical flow given in the specifications, and then multiplying by 100.
Just because the cylinder rod does not extend or retract at the velocity calculated from pump flow
specifications does not mean that fluid is bypassing the cylinder piston seal, but it does mean that fluid
is bypassing somewhere. Other places bypass leakage can occur are within the pump, across the
spool in the directional control valve, or even across a leaking pressure relief valve. If the cylinder does
not operate at the expected velocity, the delivery from the pump should be checked with a flow meter.

Extends

Fig. 18. Flow rate and cylinder rod velocity.

Review: 18.1.
A 2 inch bore single rod hydraulic cylinder that
receives hydraulic fluid at 1.75 gpm extends 12
inches in 6 seconds. How much fluid is
bypassing the piston?

32 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

0.05 gpm.
0.12 gpm.
0.95 gpm.
1.15 gpm.
1.63 gpm.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Outcome 19.

Distinguishes between the operation of a pressure relief,


pressure reducing, unloading, sequence,
counterbalance, and brake valves.

Pressure relief, pressure reducing, unloading, sequence, counterbalance, and brake valves control
the pressure in the system. One of these valves can serve multiple purposes, depending upon where
it is located in the circuit, how it is plumbed, how the pilot circuit operates, and whether or not the valve
has a separate drain.
Pressure relief valves limit maximum system pressure. They sense the pressure upstream of the
valve. When the pressure reaches the setting of the valve, it relieves the excess pump flow to the reservoir. Two-stage, pilot operated, pressure relief valves are internally pilot operated, and internally drained
to the reservoir at atmospheric pressure. Remote pilot circuits operate the same as pilot circuits that
are integral with the valve, but the remote pilot valve can be located at the operator's station. Circuits
with fixed displacement pumps must have a pressure relief valve.
Pilot Valve
Poppet

Pilot
Spring
Pilot
Adjustment

Vent Port
Sensing Passage

Main Stage Spring

Sensing Orifice

Bias
Spring

Inlet

Main Stage Spool

Sensing
Orifice

Main
Stage

Vent Port
Pilot Stage

Pilot
Adjustment

Internal Drain
Passage

Reservoir

Outlet

Reservoir

Fig. 19. Pressure relief valve symbol.

Pressure reducing valves are used to control the force of cylinders in branch circuits. They control the
force by sensing the pressure at the outlet port and then throttling the flow to reduce the pressure to
the setting of the valve. They are not used, however, to operate a branch circuit at a lower pressure,
as it might seem. That is, the pressure reducing valve in a branch circuit is not used to provide two
circuits at two pressures, one at relief valve pressure in the main circuit, and the second at reduced
pressure in the branch circuit. Rather, in a typical application, the pressure reducing valve comes into
operation when a cylinder in a branch circuit stops against a load resistance and the pressure increases to reach the pressure setting of the reducing valve, and thus limits the maximum output force of the
cylinder in the branch circuit. Because pressure reducing valves sense the pressure at the outlet port,
they are externally drained. Obstructing the drain on a pressure reducing valve would prevent the
valve from operating, that is, closing. Thus, to cancel out the operation of the pressure reducing valve,
all one has to do is plug the drain passage.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 33

Components
Pressure Adjustment
External Drain

Pressure Adjustment

Spring
Main
Circuit

Main

Branch

Pilot Passage

Pilot Passage

Branch
Circuit

Fig. 20. Pressure reducing valve symbol.

Unloading valves are used with high-low pump circuits and accumulator circuits to save power. In
a typical accumulator application, hydraulic oil from a fixed displacement pump will pass through an
isolating check valve to fill the accumulator. After the accumulator fills, pressure on the accumulator
side of the check valve pilot operates the unloading valve to unload the pump to the reservoir at low
pressure. This saves power. Since the pressure in the accumulator is maintained by the check valve,
the unloading valve will remain open as long as the accumulator can maintain the pressure in the circuit. When the pressure in the circuit drops below the pressure setting of the unloading valve, the
unloading valve closes to refill the accumulator. Unloading valves are externally piloted, and may be
internally or externally drained. An external drain is used if there is back pressure on the tank port of
the unloading valve, for example, if the fluid is unloaded through a filter, heat exchanger or circuit that
creates a back pressure that would upset the pilot circuit. An unloading valve has a low pressure drop
across the valve when it is operating. That is, the valve is held fully open by the pilot signal when the
valve unloads the low-pressure pump.
Accumulator

Pump
Fig. 21. Unloading relief valve symbol.

Sequence valves are used on clamp and work circuits to assure minimum clamping force before
the work portion of the cycle begins. Sequence valves may be internally or externally pilot operated,
but they must have an external drain because the outlet port is pressurized, and this would interfere
with the operation of the pilot section of the valve. Sequence valves may be equipped with reverse
free-flow check valves. Sequence valves are normally closed, pilot operated to open, to allow full flow
to the actuator. In a typical application, flow is directed to extend both the clamp and drill
cylinders simultaneously. The sequence valve is installed in series with the drill cylinder. The clamp
cylinder receives fluid first, with minimum force determined by the pressure required to open the
sequence valve at the drill cylinder. When the clamp cylinder pressure setting is reached, the
34 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components
sequence valve opens and the drill cylinder will advance. The maximum extension force of both
cylinders is determined by the pressure setting of the system relief valve, or by a pressure reducing
valve, if one is used, in either circuit, and the bore diameter of the cylinders. When the directional control valve is reversed to retract the cylinders, some means must be employed to prevent both cylinders
from retracting at the same time. This would cause the clamp to relax while the drill was still in the
work piece. The proper sequence would be first to retract the drill, and then to retract the clamp. One
method to accomplish the reverse sequence would be to install a second sequence valve in the rod
end line of the clamp cylinder. This would route flow first to the rod end of the drill cylinder, causing it
to retract, followed by opening of the sequence valve when the pressure steps up, directing flow to the rod
side of the clamp cylinder. Both cylinders will now operate in the proper sequence. It should be noticed
that the clamp cylinder loses pressurized flow to hold the clamp closed when the directional control
valve is shifted to retract both cylinders.

Fig. 22. Sequence valve symbol. Internally Piloted

Fig. 23. Counterbalance valve symbol.

Counterbalance valves prevent a loaded cylinder with potential energy from falling (extending or retracting). They can be internally or externally piloted, or both, and are internally drained. If conditions exist that
would interfere with internally draining a counterbalance valve, it can be externally drained, but usually this
is not necessary. Counterbalance valves are equipped with a free reverse flow check valve to retract the
cylinder.The simplest counterbalance valve application is to support a constant load. In a down-acting press
application, the counterbalance valve would be installed at the rod end of the cylinder to control return oil
flow. This would prevent the press platen from dropping. Pilot pressure to open an internally piloted counterbalance valve would be set approximately 100 psi above the pressure in the rod end of the cylinder
caused by the weight of the platen. In order for the platen to be lowered (and powered down), the pressure at the blind end of the cylinder would have to be sufficient to generate 100 additional psi at the rod
end of the cylinder. The 100 psi, added to the pressure generated by the weight of the platen, would
open the counterbalance valve and allow the platen to lower smoothly. Some sources recommend that
a counterbalance valve should be set at 1.3 times the induced load presssure
A second application of a counterbalance valve is to support a varying overrunning load, for example, a load that moves over center, changing from a resistive load to a tractive load. Again, the counterbalance valve is installed in the rod end of the cylinder, but in this application it is more efficient to
externally pilot operate the valve from the cap end of the piston rather than internally pilot operate the
valve from the rod end of the cylinder. This is because the load varies. During the time the cylinder is
extending against a resistive load, there is no load induced pressure at the rod end of the cylinder and the
counterbalance valve has to be powered open. That is, the pressure at the rod end of the cylinder to
open the counterbalance has to be created by the pressure on the cap side of the cylinder. This is
inefficient. When the load goes over center, pressure at the rod end of the cylinder will be created by
the overrunning load, but it may not be constant due to a changing angular position with respect to the
cylinder rod, so the pressure at the rod end varies. This would require that the counterbalance valve be
set for the highest load, making it necessary to provide excess pressure at the load end to open the valve
and maintain movement. A better solution is to use the pressure at the cap end of the cylinder to externalIHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 35

Components
ly pilot operate the counterbalance valve. When the load is resistive, the counterbalance valve will be piloted full-open. When the load overruns and becomes tractive, it will have a tendency to run away from the
fluid at the blind end, pilot pressure will drop, the counterbalance valve will close, waiting for pump flow to
catch up with the cylinder movement, and for the pressure to build to the pilot pressure setting required to
open the counterbalance valve. Thus, opening and closing of the counterbalance valve will be independent
of the load pressure on the rod side of the cylinder.
A third counterbalance application is on a press where maximum tonnage is required. This application
always uses an external pilot. If the valve were internally piloted, the counterbalance force, equal to the
weight of the platen, would be subtracted from the total force, reducing the tonnage of the press.
Brake valves are installed in the exhaust lines of hydraulic motors to prevent over speeding when
the motor is under an overrunning load, and to prevent excessive pressure buildup when decelerating
and stopping the motor load. If the motor is bi-directional, the brake valve is equipped with a reverse
free flow check valve to allow reverse operation of the motor. When the valve is used for braking, it is
externally pilot operated from the pressure line to the motor. When the motor is operating under load,
pressure from the inlet line pilot pilots the brake valve open, so the brake valve offers minimum resistance to oil flow at the motor outlet. An overrunning load will cause a loss of pressure at the inlet as
well as in pilot line pressure that opens the valve as the load runs away from the fluid. The brake valve
will then restrict the return flow from the motor, causing a braking action. When the directional control
valve is shifted to the neutral position, pressure at the inlet is lost and the brake valve closes, raising the
pressure in the motor outlet line and braking the motor. If some provision were not provided to open
the brake valve something would break. An internal pilot line to the motor outlet senses the increased
pressure from braking and operates the valve spool, sometimes by a separate and smaller piston than
the external pilot has, to internally pilot operate the brake valve at a pressure setting that keeps the
pressure within safe limits of the machine. That is, the pressure required to pilot operate the spool
internally equals the amount of back pressure on the motor to provide the maximum amount of braking without over pressurizing the system.

Pump

Motor

External
Pilot

Internal Pilot

Fig. 24. Brake valve symbol.

On pressure control valves, the adjustment stem is generally turned clockwise to increase the
pressure setting, through this is not always true. Sometime valves within a given manufacturers product may increase the pressure setting by turning the adjustment stem counter-clockwise. This is especially true of some counterbalance (valves sometimes referred to as holding or overcenter valves).
36 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components
Review: 19.1.
Which one of the following valves always uses both Review: 19.4.
internal and external pilots to operate the valve What condition determines if a pressure control
spool?
valve needs an external pilot drain?
a. Brake.
a. Pilot pressure.
b. Cross port relief.
b. Inlet pressure.
c. Pressure relief.
c. Downstream (Outlet) pressure.
d. Sequence.
d. System pressure.
e. Pressure reducing.
e. Relief valve pressure.
Review: 19.2.
Review: 19.5.
Which one of the following circuit conditions would Which one of the following valves is pilot operated
require using an external pilot to operate a coun- from the outlet port and externally pilot drained?
a. Braking.
terbalance valve?
b. Unloading.
a. Constant load.
c. Counterbalance.
b. Over center load
d. Pressure relief.
c. Maximum tonnage.
e. Pressure reducing.
d. Reverse flow capability.
e. Load holding capability.
Review: 19.3.
Which one of the following valves uses a check to
isolate part of the circuit?
a. Brake.
b. Unloading.
c. Counterbalance.
d. Pressure relief.
e. Pressure reducing.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 37

Components

Outcome 20.

Understands that load holding valves are required on


truck mounted aerial lift cylinders.

Counterbalance valves may be used to prevent a load from falling should a hose or tube rupture.
Their purpose is to prevent injury to personnel and damage to equipment. Press circuits are obvious examples of industrial applications. In order to achieve this purpose, the valve must be mounted directly to
the cylinder Pilot operated check valves will also hold a load in position, but their operation is not as
smooth as that of counterbalance valves in throttling the flow as the load is lowered. If a cylinder is to be
locked into place with a counterbalance valve, be sure to choose a counterbalance valve with a poppet
type rather than a spool type element. Both counterbalance valves and pilot operated check valves are
mounted close to the cylinder port with rigid plumbing.
The common practice is to use pilot operated check valves to hold static loads, and to use counterbalance valves to hold dynamic loads. In an aerial lift like those used on boom-trucks, for example,
the man lift boom is commonly held in position by a counterbalance valve, while the outriggers that steady
the truck frame are held in position by pilot operated check valves. The boom is a dynamic load in that
it is moved frequently, while the outriggers are set and remain stationary during operation of the aerial lift.
The ANSI standard that covers aerial lifts is A92.2 (revised 1990) titled: American National
Standard for Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices. An aerial device is defined as
any device, extensible, articulating, or both which is designed to position personnel and handle materials. This includes boom aerial devices, aerial ladders, articulating boom aerial devices, vertical towers, or a combination of any of these.
Review: 20.1.
Which load holding valve is used to lock a cylinder
in place so it will hold position without drift?
a. Brake.
b. Sequence.
c. Unloading.
d. Pilot operated check.
e. Reducing.

38 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Outcome 21.

Understands the characteristics of hydraulic pressure


relief valve and unloading relief valve circuits.

Three common hydraulic pressure relief valve configurations are 1) direct acting, 2) pilot operated,
sometimes termed two stage or compound pressure relief valves, with the second stage being internally or remotely pilot operated, and 3) unloading relief, where the external pilot stage is operated from
the high pressure portion of the circuit to unload the pump.

Direct acting pressure relief valves have a single element that is acted upon by system pressure.
They open when the pressure reaches a predetermined setting. Typically, they have a wide pressure
override, which is the difference between the cracking pressure and full-open pressure, as well as
full-open pressure and reseat pressure, and their operation is not smooth. They have the advantage
of responding quickly to an over pressure situation. When pump flow is diverted over a relief valve to
tank at the maximum system pressure, the energy countained in the hydraulic fluid is converted into
heat. System overheating may occur.

Two-stage pressure relief valves actuate the main stage with a pilot stage. Two stage pressure
relief valves have less pressure override than direct acting pressure relief valves, because the pilot
stage controls the main spool, which is hydraulically balanced on one end by the pressure and the
force of the bias spring, and on the other side by the force caused by pilot pressure against the spool.
Thus, the net force to open the main stage spool is never greater than the force of the bias spring.
However, two-stage pressure relief valves still throttle return flow to the reservoir from the pump at
maximum system pressure, which converting the power of the system to heat.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 39

Components

Remote Stage

Pilot Stage

Direct Acting

Two Stage

Two Stage, External Pilot

Fig. 25. Direct-acting and two-stage (Compound) pressure relief valves with optional external pilot.

Unloading valves are used with two-pump high-low circuits and fixed displacement pump
circuits used with an accumulator to save energy. In a two-pump high-low circuit, the unloading valve
dumps the high-volume, low pressure fixed displacement pump to tank at low pressure when the load
resistance rises to the pressure to the pressure setting of the valve. In an accumulator circuit, the
unloading valve unloads the fixed displacement pump at low pressure to reservoir when the accumulator is fully charged. To unload the pump in both of these circuits, there has to be a pressure source
capable of pilot operating the unloading valve. To accomplish this, a check valve is placed in the circuit. In a high-low two pump circuit, the check valve is placed in the line between the pumps. In an
accumulator circuit, the check valve is placed between the pump and the accumulator. This provides
the pressure to actuate the unloading valve and unload the pump at low pressure until such time as it
is needed. Note that the pressure drop of the fluid flowing over an unloading valve is very low. This is
because the unloading valve has been piloted open. Therefore, very little heat is being produced by
the unloaded flow.

40 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Relief Valve

Unloading

Fig. 26. Pressure relieving and unloading circuits.

Review: 21.1.
Which one of the following is an advantage of a
hydraulic direct acting pressure relief valve?
a. Fast response.
b. Holds pump prime.
c. Low pressure override.
d. Low power loss at full flow.
e. Pump flow diverted at high pressure.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 41

Components

Outcome 22.

Understands that hydraulic pressure compensated


flow control valves maintain constant actuator speed
regardless of the load.
Understands that hydraulic pressure compensated
flow control valves maintain constant pressure across
a variable orifice.
Understands that flow through a sharp edge orifice is
less affected by changes in fluid temperature than
flow across other types of restrictions.

Outcome 23.

Outcome 24.

10 gpm

10 gpm
10 gpm
10 gpm

20

20

Restrictive Type

Bypass Type

A flow control valve limits the flow rate to an


actuator. This controls the speed of the actuator.
There are two basic types of flow control valves:
restrictive and bypass. Flow control valves also
come in fixed flow or variable flow versions, and
may be pressure and temperature compensated. Because most flow control valves restrict the
flow in only one direction, a reverse free flow
check valve is commonly found within the component.

Fig. 27. Restrictive and bypass flow control valves.

Restrictive type flow control valves throttle the flow through the valve, with excess flow returned to
the reservoir by the pressure relief valve. For example, if a 20 gpm fixed displacement pump supplies
a cylinder with 10 gpm of oil that is throttled by a flow control valve, the remaining 10 gpm would have
to pass over the pressure relief valve to the reservoir. It should be noted that pressure compensated
restrictive flow controls are generally used with pressure compensated pumps which will then destroke
to the flow demand determined by the flow control valve. Therefore excess flow will not flow over the
relief valve. Energy will be used and excess heat will not be generated.
Bypass type flow control valves bleed off excess flow directly to the reservoir. At slightly more than
load pressure, rather than at full system pressure.
A variable flow control valve has an external adjustment to vary the size of the main metering
orifice. A pressure compensated flow control valve also has a pressure balanced compensating spool
that enables the valve to maintain a constant flow regardless of actuator load. Detailed symbols for bypass and restrictive type flow control valves are shown in Fig. 28. The pressure compensator spool is
biased by a 50 to150 psi spring. The hydraulic pressure drop across the pressure compensator will
maintain a constant pressure drop across the main metering orifice and thus a constant flow at the
output, regardless of the load on the actuator. The pressure drop will remain constant as long as the
inlet pressure from the pump to the flow control valve is greater than the outlet pressure to the actuator.
Consider an example where the load induced pressure is 1000 psi, and the pressure drop across main
metering orifice is 150 psi at 10 gpm. If the load induced pressure increases to 1500 psi, the compensator piston will throttle the flow in order to maintain 150 psi pressure drop across the main metering
orifice. As long as the pressure drop across the main metering orifice is 150 psi, the flow rate will remain
at 10 gpm. Of course, the main pressure relief valve will have to be set higher than 1650 psi.
42 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Metering

Main
Orifice

Pressure
Compensator

Bypass Type

Restrictive Type

Fig. 28. Pressure compensated flow control valve.

Temperature compensation changes the size of the metering orifice as the fluid heats up. The common method used to provide temperature compensation is a bi-metallic rod.
Bi-metallic rod temperature compensation varies the size of the flow control orifice as the fluid
changes temperature. When an oil heats up it affects the viscosity. Hotter fluid becomes thinner and
more fluid will pass through a fixed area orifice. Of course when it cools down, the fluid becomes thicker and less fluid will pass through a fixed area orifice. To keep the flow constant, the area of the orifice is reduced as the temperature increases.
The bi-metallic rod is attached to the valve neePressure Compensator
dle, and as the fluid temperature increases, the rod
lengthens, closing the valve slightly, thereby
reducing the flow area and flow rate through the
valve. The opposite occurs when the fluid cools
and the temperature drops. Bi-metallic temperature compensation is reasonably accurate, but
the design has some limitations, the biggest of
which is that accuracy is dependent upon the flow
characteristics of the fluid. If the fluid is changed,
the characteristics of the compensator also
change, and so does the accuracy of the valve.
Orifice

Bi-Metallic Rod

Fig. 29. Temperature compensated flow control valve.


IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 43

Components
Sharp edged orifices are more accurate than are orifices of other shapes in controlling the flow rate
as the temperature of the fluid changes, because they reduce the effects of changes in friction loss
with changes in fluid viscosity. All orifices generate friction losses as the fluid passes through them,
The magnitude of this loss varies as the fluid temperature increases or decreases. Moreover, the
longer the orifice, the greater change in friction loss as the viscosity changes. A sharp edge orifice is
simply a very short orifice and the friction loss as fluid passes through it is less affected by changes
in the viscosity as the fluid temperature increases and decrease. Flow variations of 1% to 2% are
reported for flow control valves equipped with sharped edge orifice temperature compensation in the
range of 65F to 165 F.
Nozzle

Orifice

Fig. 30. Smooth approach nozzle


and sharp edge orifice.

Review: 22.1.
A pressure compensated flow control valve delivers
8 gpm with a pressure drop across the main
metering orifice of 75 psi. If the downstream
pressure changes from 1500 to 1800 psi, what will
be the pressure drop across the main metering
orifice?
a. 75 psi.
b. 90 psi.
c. 105 psi.
d. 150 psi.
e. 300 psi.

Review: 23.2.
Which one of the flow control valves will control
the flow most accurately for all system conditions?
a. Manual.
b. Pressure compensated.
c. Temperature compensated.
d. Pressure and temperature compensated.
e. None of the above.

Review: 24.1.
In a flow control valve, what is the difference
between a bi-metallic temperature compensator
and a sharp edged orifice temperature compensator?
Review: 23.1.
a. Bi-metallic element is more accurate.
If the load pressure on a pressure compensated
b. Sharp edged orifice has more friction.
flow control valve doubles, the pressure drop
c. Viscosity changes affect sharp edged
across the main metering orifice will:
orifices less.
a. half.
d. Bi-metallic element heats the fluid.
b. double.
e. Sharp edged orifice has less turbulence.
c. quadruple.
d. reduce slightly.
e. remain the same.
Note: see underlined condition in the text.

44 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Outcome 25.

Understands the functions, porting, and purpose of


differential areas in pilot operated hydraulic
check valves.

Pilot operated (to open) check valves hold a loaded cylinder in position to prevent a load from
falling. The poppet valve provides a leak-free seal. As with other check valves, pilot operated check
valves allow free flow in one direction, and check the flow in the opposite direction. Unlike regular
check valves, however, pilot operated check valves allow reverse flow by using a pilot signal to move
the pilot piston to unseat the poppet.
Counterbalance valves are also used to prevent a loaded cylinder from falling, but their operation
is smoother than a pilot operated check valve. Counterbalance valves, are available with either poppet or spool type pressure control elements. In order to prevent a loaded cylinder from drifting, a poppet type valve must be used. Spool type counterbalance valves may be used as brake valves in
hydraulic motor applications as external brakes are used to prevent loaded motors from rotating.
Pilot operated check valves have three or four ports. A three ported valve has an A port, a B port,
and a pilot pressure port. Free flow is from the valve port to cylinder port, and checked flow is from
the cylinder port to directional valve port. Pressure at the cylinder port forces the poppet against the
seat. The pilot port is the X-port. A pilot signal to the pilot pressure port acts against the cross-sectional area of the pilot piston, which moves to unseat the poppet, allowing reverse flow through the valve.
The pilot piston has a larger area than the poppet piston. This allows the poppet to be shifted
open against system pressure by a lower pilot pressure. The relative effective cross-section areas of the
pilot piston to poppet are given by a ratio. Common
Pilot
(Port X) ratios are 3:1 and 5:1, meaning that the effective pilot
piston area is two or three times that of the poppet. If
a piloted operated (to open) check valve has a 3:1
Cylinder Port Alternate
Drain
ratio, a pressure of 500 psi at the drain port would
Internal
(Port Y)
open the poppet against a system pressure of 1500
Drain
psi, if friction and return spring force on the poppet
Fig. 31. Pilot operated check valve actuated in open position.
were ignored.
Poppet
Piston

Directional
Valve Port

Pilot Piston

Some pilot operated check valves have an external drain port for the pilot section. If the valve port
of the valve is routed to reservoir when the valve is in the holding position, the pilot piston drain can
be connected internally. If the directional valve port is pressurized, the pilot valve must have a separate drain port for the pilot piston.
The need to drain the spring chamber is why a flow control valve is normally mounted between the
cylinder and the pilot operated check valve. If the FCV is located between the piloted operated check
valve and the directional control valve, there is a risk of not draining the pilot drain of the P.O. check,
and the check could remain open allowing the cylinder to drift.
Review: 25.1.
Which one of the following is true for the pilot
operated (to open) check valve shown in Fig. 31?

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Fluid can flow only in one direction.


Poppet piston is larger than pilot piston.
Fluid is checked at the B-port.
Pilot check valves have two ports.
Pilot pressure equals system pressure.
Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 45

Components

Outcome 26.

Understands that load holding, pilot operated to open,


check valves require an open center or float center
directional control valve.

Fixed displacement pumps, with no accumulator in the system, must unload when the valve is in
the center position. This means that if a pilot operated check is used, the directional valve will have
an open center. That is, all ports will be connected and open to the reservoir. If the system has an accumulator with a check valve located between the pump and the control valve, pilot pressure from the accumulator is used to pilot open an unloading valve after the accumulator fills. This gives the system fast
response capability, and has been used on some systems to expand the application of fixed displacement
pumps. In such a system, in order to relieve pressure on the pilot port to the holding check valve in the
center position, a float center position directional control valve is used. This arrangement connects the A
port and B port of the cylinder to the reservoir, while the P port to the directional control valve is
blocked.
Variable displacement pumps also use a float center position directional control valve to ensure that
the pilot port to the check valve is drained while the pump deadheads at no flow but at
maximum system pressure.
The pilot port on load holding check valves must be open to drain when the directional control valve
is in the center position for the valve to hold. Notice in Fig. 32 that both pilots are open to the reservoir with the directional control valve in the center position. Remember that if the pilot port is not
drained, the pilot piston will not retract, preventing the poppet from seating.

Review: 26.1.
Which valve spool center is required for a
cylinder circuit with a pilot operated check
valve when used in combination with a fixed
displacement pump and accumulator in the
system?
a. Closed center.
b. Open center.
c. Tandem center
d. Through center.
e. Float center.

Fig. 32. Fixed displacement pump


with open center valve.

46 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Outcome 27.

Understands that the thermal expansion of fluid can


cause high pressure and thermal lock in hydraulic
cylinders equipped with pilot operated check valves.

Pilot operated check valves provide a positive seat and zero leakage across the valve. This feature
can cause them to thermally lock a hydraulic cylinder. Thermal lock occurs when a cylinder becomes over
pressurized at both ports (or the opposite port if the cylinder is at the end of its stroke), and cannot be
released. If pilot check valves are inserted in single or double-acting cylinders, and the cylinders are
fully extended, there is no place else for the fluid to go if the fluid temperature increases. This can happen to mobile cylinders exposed to temperature extremes in the sun, or to cylinders used to open and
close furnace doors. Heating the fluid causes it to expand, and with no place to go, the cylinder over
pressurizes and locks up.
One way to prevent thermal lock is to install a port relief valve between the cylinder and pilot check,
set higher than system relief valve pressure. If an over pressure condition occurs, the port relief valve
will allow a small amount of fluid to drain from one side of the cylinder piston, relieving the over
pressure condition.

Review: 27.1.
Which of the following would most likely cause
thermal lock in a double-acting cylinder held at
mid-stroke?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Closed center control valve spool.


Counterbalance valves in each line.
Pilot operated checks in each line.
Sequence valves in each line.
P to T, and A to B center spool.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 47

Components

Outcome 28.

Distinguishes between the operation of a


counterbalance valve and a pilot operated check valve.

Pilot operated check valves provide a leak free seal, but counterbalance valves provide smoother
operation when controlling the downward movement of a load. This occurs because when the pilot
check valve is opened, the load causes cylinder flow to lead delivery from the pump, and the pilot signal is lost. This causes the valve to snap closed. When delivery from the pump catches up with the
cylinder, pilot pressure builds, moving the pilot piston and the valve opens. This opening and closing
of the pilot piston causes a jerky motion as the pilot signal is lost and then regained. One method used
to smooth out the operation is to install a flow control valve between the cylinder and the cylinder port
of the check valve. Such an arrangement is shown in Fig. 33. This prevents flow through the check
valve from leading flow from the pump, and loss of the pilot signal.

Cylinder
Port

Pilot Port

Directional
Valve
Port

3000 lb

Fig. 33. Use of flow control in pilot check valve circuit.

Review: 28.1.
The best place to install a flow control valve to
smooth out the operation of a pilot
operated check valve as it lowers a load is:
a. Before the cylinder inlet port.
b. Between the cylinder and the PO
check valve.
c. At the PO check valve drain
port.
d. At the PO check valve pilot port.
e. Between the PO check valve
and the PCV valve.

48 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Outcome 29.

Determines the pressure required to shift a pilot


operated check valve.

The force to hold a pilot operated check valve closed is provided by system pressure acting against
the cross-sectional area of the poppet. The force to open the valve comes from pilot pressure acting
against the cross-sectional area of the pilot piston. These opening and closing forces are approximate,
of course, because friction and the force of the spring to close the valve are not accounted for.
Pilot pressure usually comes from the opposite leg of the hydraulic cylinder being lowered, or an
outside source, so that it cannot be said that pilot pressure is equal to system pressure. In fact, it could
be much lower. Notice in Fig. 33, that pilot pressure to open the check valve comes from the cap end
of the cylinder, which is supporting a tractive (overrunning) load that generates pressure on the rod
side of the cylinder. Added to this pressure to support the tractive load will be the intensified pressure
at the rod end caused by pressure at the cap end of the cylinder. For example, if the cap end to rod
end ratio is 2:1, the pressure will be doubled.
To determine the pilot pressure to open a pilot operated check valve, simply divide the pressure
holding the poppet closed by the ratio of the valve, which is the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of
the pilot piston to the cross-sectional area of the poppet. For example, if the pressure holding the poppet closed is 1500 psi, and the pilot operated check has a ratio of 3:1, the pressure to open the valve
would be 500 psi.
Note: on cylinder applications the pressure to open the check would vary depending on the
cylinder area ratios. Remember that this is the approximate pressure to open the valve
because it ignores the force of the return spring, which could account for 50-75 psi, and
friction losses.
Review: 29.1.
The pressure holding a pilot operated to-open
check valve with a 4:1 ratio in the closed position
is 2400 psi. What minimum pilot pressure would
open the valve? (Ignore friction and return spring
force.)
a. 600 psi.
b. 1200 psi.
c. 1800 psi.
d. 2400 psi.
e. 4800 psi.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 49

Components

Outcome 30.

Interprets hydraulic pump specifications from


performance curves.

Pump performance is given by output specifications. Equally important are pressure conditions
at the inlet.
Pressure conditions at the inlet vary, from a negative gauge pressure, usually measured as a
vacuum in inches of mercury (Hg), to a positive gauge pressure, in which case the inlet is said to be
flooded or supercharged. Pressure specifications are determined for the fluid being used, as well as
the type of pump, the heavier the fluid, the more pressure is needed to be sure that the inlet does not
cavitate. Cavitation will ruin a pump in short order.
The formula used to compute positive gauge pressure in psi that results from a positive head (inlet
above the pump) is:
(Eq. 1)

Pressurepsig = Positive Headft x Fluid SG x 0.433 psi/ft-H20


PSIG = PHft x SG x 0.433

The constant 0.433 is the gauge pressure resulting from a column of water one foot high acting on
one square inch of surface area.
If the reservoir is located below the pump inlet, a negative head and gauge pressure result. For
negative heads, from equation 1, the relationship between head and gauge pressure is:
Pressurepsig = Negative Headft x Fluid SG x 0.433 psi/ft-H2O
For negative head stated in inches rather than in feet:
Pressurepsig = (Negative Headin / 12 in/ft) x Fluid SG x 0.433 psi/ft.
The specific gravity of water is 1, while the specific gravity of mercury (Hg) is approximately 13.6.
Most petroleum base oils have a specific gravity between 0.85 and 0.95. High water content fluids
have a specific gravity of water, and synthetics, such as phosphate esters, have a specific gravity of
approximately 1.2.
A common specification given by manufacturers for the inlet of a pump operating on a petroleum
base fluid is 5-7 in-Hg vacuum. This is the maximum allowable difference between
atmospheric conditions and inlet conditions when the pump is operating. That is, the gauge at the
pump inlet will read zero before the pump is started and primed, and about 5 in-Hg when the pump is
running. A typical graph showing the relationship between pump rpm and inlet pressure is shown in
Fig. 34.
Sometimes the equivalent inlet pressure is given in absolute pressure. Remembering that absolute
pressure equals gauge pressure plus 14.7. Working from equation 1:
Absolute Pressurepsia = 14.7+ [(-Headin / 12) x Fluid SG x 0.433 psi/ft-H20]
50 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components
PSIA = 14.7 = [(-Hin / 12) x 0.433
2 in-Hg = approximately 1 psi

1 psi = 2.036 in-Hg

1 in-Hg = 0.4912 psi

Sometimes the allowable negative head pressure of a pump is given in units of inches of mercury.
Equation 6 converts a negative head stated as a vacuum in units of inches of mercury (in-Hg) into psig,
and then solves for an answer stated in absolute pressure values (psia).
Absolute pressurepsia = 14.7 + (Vacuumin-Hg x -0.4912)

PSIA = 14.7 + (NHV x 0.4912)

(Eq. 6.)

For a vacuum reading of 5 in-Hg, the absolute pressure would equal:


PSIA = 14.7 + (5 in-Hg x -0.4912) = 12.2 psia
Cavitation occurs when the vacuum is higher than specifications for the pump and fluid being used.
Gauges installed in the inlets of pumps that are cavitating typically show a vacuum reading in the range
of 15 to 21 in-Hg. For comparison purposes, this would be an absolute pressure of about:
PSIA = 14.7 + (19 in-Hg x -0.4912) = 5.4 psia
Pumps operating on high water content fluids typically have the reservoir mounted above the pump,
which floods or supercharges the inlet, and the pressure is often given in psia.

30

14
Recommended
Operating Range

Absolute Pressure PSIA

25
20

Minimum Recommended
Inlet Pressure

10
6

15

Supercharge
Pressure PSIG

Pump performance curves describe operation over the range of outlet pressure and flow rate.
Specific to performance are: input torque, input horsepower, delivery, volumetric efficiency and overall
efficiency. Typical performance curves for a hydraulic pump are shown in Fig. 35.

0
5 in-Hg
Vacuum

10
5

1400

1800

2200

2600

3000

Speed - RPM
Fig. 34. Pump inlet conditions.

Review: 30.1.
A pump draws a vacuum of 7 in-Hg. What is the
equivalent of this pressure in psia?
a. 7.9 psia
b. 11.3 psia
c. 14.7 psia
d. 18.7 psia
e. 26.5 psia
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 51

Components

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

200

Volumetric Efficiency

180

Overall Efficiency

8000

160

6000

140
120
100

Delivery - GPM

P
tH
u
p
In

ue
orq
T
t
u
Inp
4000

80
60
40
20
0

Torque In. Lbs.

Efficiency - Percent

90

Flow GPM & Horsepower

100

2000

0 200 500

1000

1500

2000

Outlet Pressure - PSI

2500

3000

Fig. 35. Pump performance curves.

Input torque in pound-inches, and input horsepower, give the input requirements to turn the pump.
Both curves are approximately straight lines, increasing slightly with pressure over the range of operation.
Graphs are commonly laid out with outlet pressure across the bottom, and flow rate up the side.
Pump speed in rpm may or may not be given, but flow rate is approximately constant over the full
range of pressures under which the pump is expected to operate, falling off slightly as pressure increases.
Volumetric efficiency is given as a percent and compares the actual flow rate delivered by the pump
to the theoretical delivery as indicated by its cubic inch displacement (cir) and rpm. Volumetric efficiency
is a measure of pumping efficiency. Piston pumps typically have the highest volumetric efficiencies.
Overall efficiency is the product of mechanical and volumetric efficiencies. It is a computed value
used to determine at which pressure the pump makes the most efficient use of the power consumed.

Review: 30.2.
Approximately what minimum size motor would
the pump described by the performance curves in
Fig. 35 require to operate at 2000 psi?
a. 90 hp.
b. 100 hp.
c. 110 hp.
d. 120 hp.
e. 140 hp.

52 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Outcome 31.

Predicts the operation of a hydraulic directional control


valve from performance curves.

Hydraulic directional control valves are sized from flow coefficients for a range of flows, for example, a
particular valve might be specified for a range of flows from 6 to 10 gpm. Within this flow range, different spool configurations have different flow characteristics. That is, for the same flow rate, three
different spools will have three different pressure drops.
Pressure drop curves for directional control valves commonly give the flow rate across the top and
bottom of the graph in gpm and lpm, with the pressure drop given up both sides of the graph in psi and
bar.
Reading a particular manufacturer's flow characteristic graph requires locating the spool number or letter, finding the required flow rate for the application across the bottom or top of the graph, and then
reading the pressure drop along the sides of the graph.

Flow - GPM
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
140
4

130
120

8
3

110
100

6
5

90
80
70
60

50

40

Pressure Drop - PSI

Pressure Drop - bar

Review: 31.1.
Which valve spool from the Fig. 36
would provide a flow rate of 10 gpm
and still keep the pressure drop in
the 50 psi to 60 psi range?
a. Valve spool 1.
b. Valve spool 2.
c. Valve spool 3.
d. Valve spool 4.
e. None of the above.

30
20

10

0
0

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Flow - lpm

Fig. 36. Valve spool characteristics.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 53

Components

Outcome 32.

Understands that pilot drains on hydraulic directional


control valves should have separate lines if the
system experiences high return line back pressure.

Two-stage pilot operated directional control valves must have a provision to drain the pilot signal at
the opposite end of the main spool in order for the valve spool to shift. Blocking the pilot drain will
prevent the valve spool from shifting.
The most common plumbing arrangement is to drain the opposite end of the main valve spool to
the reservoir port, thereby eliminating the need for a separate drain. This is satisfactory as long as
there is no back pressure on the reservoir port. Separate drain lines are sometimes installed in systems that experience high return line pressures.
A typical obstruction that could impede the pilot drain is a pressure check valve installed in the
return line to the reservoir to maintain a back pressure when a fixed displacement pump is unloading
through an open center valve. Here the check valve is used to create back pressure to provide
minimum pilot signals in the neutral position. A second example is a return line oil filter with high
bypass spring forces, that comes into operation as the filter becomes loaded. In either case, the
correct procedure is to run a separate pilot drain from the directional control valve to the reservoir to
prevent back-pressure from interfering with the operation of the valve spool.

Review: 32.1.
A separate pilot drain line should be used
on an open center directional control valve
when there is:
a. a by-pass spring in the return line.
b. low back pressure in the return line.
c. a pressure check valve in the return line.
d. more than one directional valve in the
system.
e. no drain connection available in the return
line.

54 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Outcome 33.

Understands the purpose and operation of priority


flow divider valves, bypass flow regulators, and
flow divider valves.

Bypass flow regulators, priority flow dividers, and proportional flow dividers are flow control valves generally found in mobile applications. In mobile applications, a fixed displacement pump is commonly bolted
directly to the engine, supplying a variable delivery as rpm changes.
There may be some times when the pump delivers less flow than the flow control valve is adjusted to
provide to the circuit. Until the circuit receives the maximum flow for which the valve has been adjusted,
all flow passes through the valve from inlet to outlet, and the bypass port will remain closed. Once the
pump delivers more flow than the valve is adjusted to deliver, the bypass flow control will direct the excess
flow to the reservoir at 100 to 150 psi more than the load pressure, due to the bias spring force.
Priority flow dividers first direct flow to the priority outlet until the specified demand is met, after which
the remaining flow is directed to the secondary outlet. For example, a priority valve may be used to supply
hydraulic fluid for power steering and service brakes, followed by other functions of the system, such as a
loader. Referring to Fig. 38 the valve starts out with flow blocked to the secondary port. As flow through
the spool increases, the pressure drop across the orifice causes the spool to move in the direction of flow
and to compress the spring. Continued movement of the spool opens the secondary port to allow flow
greater than what is required at the priority outlet to be routed to the secondary outlet. Though a nonadjustable valve is shown in Figure 38, adjustable versions are also available.
Priority
Outlet

Secondary
Outlet

Inlet
Inlet
Bypass

Outlet

Fig. 37. Bypass flow control valve.

Fig. 38. Priority flow divider.

Flow dividers split the flow into two parts. Generally the flow is split equally between the two outlet ports,
though both fixed non-equal split flow dividers and variable flow dividers are available. Flow dividers are
generally located between the directional control valve and the actuators. Some flow dividers are flow combiners as well, and meter flow both to and from the actuators.
Gear motor type flow dividers are constructed using gear motor parts. The housing has one inlet port
and two or more outlet ports, depending on the quantity of metering sections. The metering sections are
linked via a common shaft. The principle is that the flow will be metered equally by each set of motor gears.
Gear type flow dividers are generally very accurate in their metering, and work as flow dividers/combiners.
Working port relief valves are usually installed in order to limit pressure intensification that will occur if one
cylinder deadheads before the other cylinder.
Valve type flow dividers are available as flow dividers and as flow divider/combiners. Valve type flow
dividers operate based upon pressure drop. An important point to recognize is that the flow rate across an
orifice is dependent on the pressure drop across the orifice. The greater the pressure drop, the greater the
flow rate will be across the orifice; the lower the pressure drop is across an orifice, the lower the flow rate
will be across the orifice.
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 55

Components
Figure 39 shows a cross-sectional view of a flow divider/combiner. Port 3 would be connected to one
of the working ports of the directional valve and ports 2 and 4 would be connected to actuators, either cylinders or motors. If the valve is connected to cylinders, it is generally connected to the cap ends of the cylinders as the fluid flow to and from the cap end is greater than the flow to and from the rod end. This gives
the valve more fluid to work with which results in greater accuracy. The rod end of the cylinders would be
teed together and then connected to the other working port of the directional valve. If a flow divider was not
used in a circuit, as long as the load encountered by each cylinder was equal, the speed of the actuators
would be equal. If a flow divider was being used in the circuit, and the load remains equal, the spools in
the flow divider will remain centered by the springs. Thus, flow to each branch of the circuit would be equal
and the speed of the actuators would be the same. If the cylinders encountered differing loads though, and
a flow divider was not installed in the circuit, speed synchronization would be lost. A flow divider would
maintain synchononization.

USASI/ISO:
4

Fig. 39. Flow Divider Symbol and Cross-Section

If the load in the cylinder connected to port 2 increased,


the flow rate across the metering orifices at the right end
of the valve would normally decrease as the pressure drop
across the metering orifices would decrease. In the meantime, flow to port 4 would increase as the flow takes the
path of least resistance. Therefore, the cylinder connected
to port 4 would extend faster. The flow divider senses the
pressure drop imbalance though and the spool on the left
would shift, closing down the metering orifices to port 4,
thereby creating more pressure drop across the metering
orifices for port 4. This increased pressure drop would
reduce the flow rate across the valve to port 4 and the
cylinder connected to the port would slow down. Thus, the
speed of the cylinders would be synchronized.

One advantage of valve type flow divider/combiners over gear motor type flow dividers is that if one
cylinder reaches full stroke first, the second cylinder will still receive makeup flow allowing it to fully stroke.
Additional makeup valves are not required. Another advantage of valve type flow dividers is that in most
applications provision to prevent pressure intensification in mis-synchronized cylinders is not required as
is the case when a gear motor type flow divider is used. In practice, this is generally not an issue as most
gear motor flow dividers incorporate integral relief valves which protect against pressure intensification that
is developed when one cylinder bottoms out first. The advantage of using gear motor type flow dividers is
that they are not dependent upon pressure drop to work effectively and provide very accurate metering as
long as they are not worn internally which would allow bypassing of the fluid.

Review: 33.1.
Which one of the following valves would be used
to direct flow to the power steering and loader
functions of a front end loader?
a. Bypass flow regulator.
b. Priority flow divider.
c. Proportional flow divider.
d. Restrictor flow control.
e. Bypass pressure relief.
56 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Components

Outcome 34.

Calculates fill times, oil capacities, and charge


pressures for hydropneumatic accumulators.

A hydro-pneumatic accumulator operates by placing the compressible gas, generally dry nitrogen,
over the incompressible hydraulic fluid in a constant volume accumulator. The hydraulic pressure
developed and the volume of fluid available to the system are dependent upon the precharge pressure
and expansion characteristics of the gas. If the temperature of the gas is kept nearly constant, the
pressure change in the gas is inversely proportional to its volume, and the expansion and contraction
of the gas is considered to be isothermal (constant temperature). For example, when 100 cubic inches of gas originally at 1000 psia is compressed to 50 cubic inches, the pressure will rise to 2000 psia.
Conversely, if the volume of gas is increased to 200 cubic inches, its pressure would diminish to 500
psia. Where the expansion and contraction of the gas are sufficiently slow to generate little or no heat,
performance of the gas can be stated approximately by the formula:
(Eq. 7)

Initial Pressurepsia x Initial Volumecu-in = Final Pressurepsia x Final Volumecu-in


P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

where P and V represent the absolute pressure and volume of the gas, the subscripts represent different pressures and volumes of the gas, and temperature remains constant.
For purposes of explanation and review for the technician exam, expansion and contraction of the
gas will be considered to be isothermal, even though it is understood that expansion and contraction
at high cycle rates could result in as much as a 20% difference in results.
The simplest accumulator problems deal with cycle times and fill rates. Basically, these are flow
problems that can be solved with the formula:

(Eq. 8)

Accumulator Usable Volumecu-in = Flowgpm x 231 ci/gal x (Fill Timesec / 60 sec/min)


Va = Q x 231 x (t / 60)

More complex problems deal with determining the amount of oil a given accumulator will deliver
between the high and low operating pressures of the system. This requires setting up the equality
between the given conditions, where three of the four factors are known, and then solving for the unknown.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 57

Components
Review: 34.1.
A precharged empty accumulator receiving 5 gpm
fills in 30 seconds. What is the approximate
usable volume available from the accumulator?
a. 19 cu-in.
b. 39 cu-in.
c. 347 cu-in.
d. 578 cu-in.
e. 1155 cu-in.
Review: 34.2.
An accumulator that holds 3 gallons of usable oil
discharges in 25 seconds. What is the average
flow rate?
a. 2.5 gpm
b. 3.6 gpm.
c. 7.2 gpm.
d. 8.6 gpm.
e. 9.8 gpm.
Review: 34.3.
A 2 gallon accumulator is precharged to 1500
psig. How much oil does the accumulator hold
when the system is at 2500 psig?
a. 92 cu-in.
b. 128 cu-in.
c. 184 cu-in.
d. 278 cu-in.
e. 462 cu-in.

58 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Controls
Outcome 35.

Identifies limit switch positions.

Limit switches are one of several basic electrical symbols commonly found in hydraulic control
diagrams. They are opened and closed to provide the proper sequence of operation and interlocks for
electrical control circuit ladder diagrams.
Limit switches are shown (Fig. 40) in four positions: 1. normally open, 2. normally closed, 3.
normally open, held closed, and 4. normally closed, held open. The normal position of the limit switch
identifies its function in the unactuated position (for example, normally open), and how it is used in the
specific application, for example held closed or held open.
If the movable end of the switching element is shown above the contact, the switch is normally
closed. If the movable end of the switching element is shown below the contact, the switch is normally
open. The position of the switch, open or closed, indicates how the switch is being used in a specific
application. Arrows are optional, but give emphasis to how the switch is being used. For example, if
a hydraulic cylinder in the retracted position actuates the switch to hold it open, and allows it to close
when the rod begins to extend, the switch would be shown as a normally closed, held open, which is
position (4) in Fig. 40.

1.

Normally Open

2.

Normally Closed

3.

Normally Open, Held Closed

4.

Normally Closed, Held Open

Review: 35.1.
The normal position for a hydraulic cylinder
is "retracted". Which limit switch in Fig. 40
would energize the DC solenoid to retract
the cylinder?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

Fig. 40. Limit switches.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 59

Controls


T1

Outcome 36.

Identifies single phase, single phase two speed, and


three-phase AC electric motor symbols.
Understands forward and reverse rotation wiring
diagrams for single phase and three phase AC
electric motors.

Outcome 37.

The most common AC electric motor symbols shown


with hydraulic circuits are single phase, single speed; and
Single Phase, single speed single speed three phase. Less common is the AC single
phase, two speed motor symbol, which is used for cooling fans.

T2

T1 T2 T3

Three Phase, single speed

High Com Low

T1 T2 T3
Single Phase, two speed

Referring to Fig. 41, single-phase, single-speed AC


motors have two leads showing and a ground. Many single-phase, single speed motors can be adapted to either
ll0 VAC or 220 VAC current. Single phase, two speed
motors have three leads, two motor winding leads and a
common. Three phase, single speed motors have three
separate motor winding leads.

Fig. 41. Electric motor symbols.

T4

T1

L1

T5

L2

T1

T8

L1

T4

T5

L2

T8

Hydraulic pumps are assembled for left or right hand


rotation, requiring that the electric motor be wired properly. The wiring diagrams in Fig. 42 show the motor windings, relay contacts, thermal overload relays, and line
connections. Notice that the single phase motor has a
capacitor in series with the starting winding.

Capacitor Start:
There are rules of thumb for reversing the rotation of
electric motors: Single-phase single-speed motors: In
L1
almost every case, these motors cannot be reversed
Running Winding
Starting Winding
L2
by reversing T1 and T2. If the motor cannot be
T4
To
reversed by reversing the connections, a motor shop
CS
line
Capacitor
T5
will have to disassemble the motor and rewire it internally to reverse the direction. Single-phase capacitorstart motors: Most single phase motors used in industry are of the capacitor start type. To reverse
the direction of these motors, reverse T5 and T8. This will reverse the start winding. Single-phase
two-speed motors: These motors can only be reversed by swapping external leads. A motor shop will
have to disassemble the motor and rewire it internally to reverse the direction. Three-phase motors:
To reverse the rotation of a three phase motor, reverse any two of the three leads.
T8

T1

Safety precaution: Applying a rule-of-thumb is only a general statement about


how the wiring is changed. In all specific cases, the wiring diagram supplied with the
motor and switch should be used to assure that the leads are properly connected.

60 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 38.

Identifies basic electrical symbols from ladder diagrams.

Six basic symbols are found on ladder diagrams: switches, relay coils, relay contacts, signal lights,
solenoids, and limit switches. In addition, the line is shown to the left and right of the ladder rungs,
with the left being positive, and the right being negative.

Push Button Switch


+
Relay Coil
LS 1

CR
CR

LS1

Indicator
Light

CR

Solenoid
Fig. 43. Ladder diagram with basic symbols.

A basic ladder diagram for a double-acting hydraulic cylinder with a four-way, two position
directional control valve is shown in Fig. 43. The push button switch on the first rung of the ladder
initiates the start process. The control relay is energized, and both relay contacts close, the first one
to hold the circuit latched when the push button is released, and the second to energize the solenoid,
which shifts the solenoid valve to extend the cylinder. At the end of the stroke, the cylinder rod opens
the limit switch to interrupt the circuit and both relay contacts open. The solenoid on the directional
control valve is then de-energized and the directional control valve return spring reverses the valve to
retract the cylinder.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 61

Controls

Outcome 39.

Understands the basics of hydraulic system electrical


controls.

Push button switches are manual contactors that are actuated by the operator. They carry low
current. Typically, they are used to close or open a relay circuit which carries the main current.
Relay coils are used to open or close relay contacts. They are shown separate from the relay
contacts on the ladder diagram because they are part of the control circuit, but in actual practice they
are part of the magnetic contactor. The relay coil and relay contacts make up the control relay, which
is an electrically actuated switch. Signal lights are placed in the control circuit to show whether the
circuit is closed (light is on) or open (light is off). Signal lights let the operator know which parts of the
circuit have been energized. When troubleshooting a malfunctioning system, a signal light will
indicate which part of the circuit should be energized. If the signal light should be lit but is not, this
could indicate a loss of line voltage, open circuit, faulty component, or in some instances, a burned out
signal lamp bulb.
Solenoids are magnetic coils around a moveable armature. When the coil is energized it creates
a magnetic field that causes the armature to move to a position within the coil. Solenoids are used to
operate directional control valves.
Limit switches are used to signal the end of a motion in a control sequence, for example, when a
cylinder or machine member has reached the end of its stroke. In a hydraulic circuit, if the switch is
normally closed, typically it will open at the end of the stroke to discontinue the control circuit. This, in
turn, will open the relay contact, which will de-energize the solenoid. If the directional control valve
were spring returned, such as the four-way, two position valve circuit shown in Fig. 43, the return spring
would reverse the position of the valve, causing the cylinder to retract.

Review: 39.1.
A limit switch is used to:
a. limit the voltage the control circuit.
b. Indicate when the maximum pressure has
been reached.
c. signal the beginning or end
of an event.
d. move the solenoid armature.
e. indicate when the circuit is energized.

62 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 40.

Outcome 41.

Distinguishes between ladder diagram elements:


electrical contacts (push button switches, sensors,
and relay contacts), and output elements
(resistance loads, such as relays, solenoids, lamps
and motors).
Understands that electrical contacts have negligible
resistance, whereas output elements have appreciable
electrical resistance.

There are two types of ladder diagram elements: electrical contacts and output elements. Also
course, there are conductors, the positive bus on the left, negative or common bus on the right, and
wiring to connect the elements between the busses.
Electrical contacts consist of push button switches, sensors and relay contacts. Electrical contacts
are always placed on the left side of the diagram. Push button switches are hand operated to start,
and for safety reasons, to stop the operation of the system. A relay contact is an electro-magnetic
switch. A small switching current through an electromagnet in the relay opens or closes the contacts
that will carry the main load. Sensors are also switches that respond to changes in such system indicators
as pressure, temperature, and fluid level. Electrical contacts have low resistance.
Output elements consist of resistance loads, such as relays, solenoids, signal lamps and motors.
Relays open or close the relay contacts. For purposes of explaining ladder diagrams, the resistance
load of the relay is kept separate from the relay contact. They are also shown separately on the ladder diagram, with the relay coil placed on the right and relay contact placed on the left, even though
both are incorporated within the same component. Solenoids are used to operate directional control
valves and consist of a stationary field and a moveable armature. Solenoids are resistance loads and
generate heat. Signal lamps indicate which rungs on the ladder diagram and components in the
system are energized. Signal lamps do not consume much energy, but they are still resistance
elements. Electric motors have a lower resistance than signal lamps, which causes them to draw more
current. Thus, all output elements have more resistance than electrical contacts, which are designed
to carry current, but not consume it.

Review: 40.1.
Which of the following ladder diagram elements
would consume the least current?
a. Solenoid.
b. Relay coil.
c. Signal lamp.
d. Electric motor.
e. Pressure switch.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 63

Controls

Outcome 42.

Understands that in a ladder diagram, the voltage


drops across the switch if it is open, or across the
load if the switch is closed.

There is a voltage drop across an electrical element when it consumes power. This is the case with
all resistance loads, for example, relays, solenoids, signal lamps, and electric motors. To consume
electrical energy, the resistance load must be connected between the bus lines. This requires that a
push button switch, or another electrical contact, would have to be actuated in order to provide the signal lamp with power. A switch and resistance load are shown in Fig. 44.
There is also a voltage drop across the switch when it is open. The resistance is very high, infinite
for all practical purposes, so there is no current draw, but there is still a voltage drop. This is the same
drop as would be measured between the bus lines.
When a contact like a push button switch is connected in series with a resistance element, such as
a lamp, exactly where the voltage drop occurs depends upon whether the switch is open or closed.
When the switch is open, the voltage drop is across the switch and no current is consumed. When the
switch is closed, the voltage drop is across the load, and the current consumed is caused only by the
resistance element. Remember, the switch has a very low resistance, and for practical purposes will
not consume any current, even though it is in series with the load.

Fig. 44. Voltage drop in a ladder diagram.

Review: 42.1.
Which meter reads the voltage drop in the ladder
diagram shown?
a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
e. None. (All the meters the same.)

64 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 43.

Understands the interaction between ladder diagram


and the directional control valve shifting mechanism.

Ladder diagram circuits are used to connect electrical components, and to show how the control
circuit operates. The ladder diagram can also be related directly to the hydraulic schematic.
The ladder diagram and hydraulic schematic in Fig. 45 show how the two are related to shifting the
directional control valve. The same components, for example the solenoids and limit switch, are
labeled on both drawings.
PB
1A

1B

1
CR

3A LS 2

3B

2
CR

1 CR
4

4A

LS 2

Sol 1
4B
Sol 2

Sol 1
1 CR

2 CR
5

5A

5B

Sol 2
5C

Fig. 45. Ladder diagram and hydraulic circuit schematic.

When the push button switch is pushed momentarily, relay coil 1 is energized momentarily, closing
the control relay 1 contacts momentarily. This energizes solenoid 1 momentarily and the directional
control valve shifts to direct fluid to the cap end of the cylinder, and the cylinder rod extends. At the
end of the stroke, the cylinder rod closes limit switch 2, energizing relay coil 2 momentarily. This
energizes solenoid 2 momentarily, which reverses the direction of the directional control valve and
directs fluid to the rod end of the cylinder and the cylinder rod retracts. The cylinder will remain at rest
until the push button switch is actuated again. Notice that both drawings use the same designations
for the limit switch and solenoids. Also notice that the push button switch should not be held
actuated because this would cause the cylinder to stall in the extended position, overheating both
solenoid coils.
Review: 43.1.
Which electrical element in the ladder diagram
shown in Fig. 45 begins the sequence to retract
the cylinder rod?

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Push button switch.


Control relay 2.
Limit switch 2.
Solenoid 1.
Solenoid 2.

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 65

Controls

Outcome 44.

Identifies the function of electrical components in a


circuit

The electrical circuit shown in Fig. 46 energizes a throttle solenoid that increases engine rpm to the
drive pump when the circuit calls for more flow. The pressure switch completes the circuit through a
DC solenoid coil, which pulls the plunger into the magnetic field, and in so doing, holds the engine
throttle partially open. When the required flow has been satisfied, the switch opens and the solenoid
coil de-energizes, releasing the throttle. The purpose of the capacitor in the circuit is to protect the
switch from arcing when it opens by storing electrical energy that would otherwise bridge the gap of
the contacts just when they open. Several types of switching circuits use capacitors to protect the
contacts.
Another common purpose for the capacitor is in the starting winding of single phase motors, which
gives the motor a high starting torque characteristic.

Capacitor

Fig. 46. Application of a capacitor.

Review: 44.1.
Which electrical component protects a switch
against arcing?
a. Coil.
b. Capacitor.
c. Relay contact.
d. Pressure switch.
e. Circuit breaker.

66 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 45.
Outcome 46.

Outcome 47.

Outcome 48.

Understands that solenoid coil hum is caused by


alternating current and the bias spring.
Understands that a solenoid shading coil helps hold
the armature in place as the main magnetic coil
attraction drops to zero.
Knows that the shading coil in AC directional control
valve solenoids minimizes hum by providing an
induced current that lags the applied current.
Associates AC solenoid failures with failure of the
armature, or failure of the plunger, to seat.

Shading Coil Current

In North America, the standard frequency for AC


current is 60 cycles per second. This means that the voltage increases and decreases in voltage at 60 cycles per
second. The magnetic field that pulls a solenoid in is
strongest during the alternating cycle when the voltage
0 peaks, and as the voltage drops to zero the magnetic field
0
0
becomes weak. This causes the solenoid to produce a 60
cycle hum. One way to maintain the magnetic field as the
AC voltage fluctuates is to mount a shading coil, which consists of a single turn winding of heavy copper, in the face of
the magnetic assembly. The shading coil cuts flux lines to
Fig. 47. Solenoid and shading coil current.
produce its own magnetic field, but it is mounted so that the
field is 90 degrees out of phase (1/4th of the cycle) with the main winding. This causes the shading coil
magnetic force to be maximum when the main winding magnetic force is zero. The relationship of the
shading coil magnetic field to the main winding magnetic field is shown in Fig. 47. Having a shading coil
in the solenoid not only increases the force of the solenoid as the voltage fluctuates through zero, but
reduces the hum that accompanies alternating current.
As an AC solenoid cycles, most of the heat per unit of time is generated by the high inrush current as
the solenoid pulls the plunger into the coil. For example, the inrush current when an AC solenoid begins
to close could be six or seven times the current when the solenoid is holding closed.
Other factors that increase the heat buildup in solenoids are high cycle rates, high line voltage, and
not allowing the solenoid to completely close. Remember that AC inrush current is higher as the
solenoid closes, so that if an obstruction or debris prevents full closure, the current and heat build-up will
continue to be higher than the solenoid coil can tolerate and it will overheat, causing an internal short or
burnout.
If the plunger is not seating, or the coil is shorted internally, the solenoid will make more noise than is
normal as it vibrates with a 60 cycle hum. Debris could prevent the plunger from seating, but so too could
incomplete shifting of the valve spool, or even a broken part in the solenoid. The best way to find out if the
noise is a shorted coil or a valve spool that has not completely shifted is to shift the valve with the manual override to see if the noise is reduced. If it is, the problem is probably a stuck spool or solenoid. If seating the solenoid does not reduce the noise, the solenoid probably has an internal short. While a solenoid
may fail from high voltage, a more common reason for failure is low voltage. When the voltage is too low,
the plunger may not fully shift the valve spool. This will cause the inrush current to remain high, causing
heat buildup. Low voltage will also increase the current consumption, and the resistance to the higher current flow will also produce heat, which will cause the coil to burn out.
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 67

Controls
Review: 47.1.
AC directional control valve solenoid hum is
controlled by:
a. reducing solenoid inrush current.
b. lowering solenoid line voltage.
c. reducing solenoid shifting rate.
d. reducing solenoid return spring force.
e. installing a solenoid with a shading coil.

68 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 49.

Understands the relationship given by Ohm's Law.

Ohm's Law describes the relationship among the voltage, amperage and resistance in a DC circuit
such that:
(Eq. 9)

Electromotive Forcevolts = Currentamps x ResistanceOhms

E=IxR

Ohm's Law is used in checking the continuity and resistance of directional control valve solenoids.
The first check of an electrical component is a continuity check to verify if the component is burned
out, internally shorted, or shorted to ground. To check the continuity of a component, an ohm meter
is set to the 100 ohm scale and calibrated to a full scale reading with the leads connected. A full scale
reading indicates that the resistance is zero. A continuity check of contact elements, such as push
button switches, sensors, and relay contacts, should indicate that the resistance is zero.
Following a continuity check, resistance loads, such as relay coils, solenoids, lamps, and motors,
are checked to determine if they have the proper resistance value as given by the specifications for the
component. For example, knowing the resistance specifications for a solenoid is helpful when
replacements are selected, and checking the resistance of both solenoids on a two solenoid directional
control valve will verify that the right replacement is being used. To make the resistance check,
recalibrate the ohm meter to the appropriate ohm scale, disconnect the solenoid leads, and touch the
ohm meter probes to each lead. A typical 24 volt DC directional control valve solenoid that draws a
holding current of 1.8 amperes should have a resistance of approximately 13 ohms. If the solenoid is shorted or burned out, the replacement should check out with the specifications, and also have approximately the same resistance as the other solenoid if the valve has two solenoids.

Review: 49.1.
What is the resistance of a 32 volt DC solenoid
that has a holding current of 3.5 amperes?
a. 0.11 ohms.
b. 2.61 ohms.
c. 3.50 ohms.
d. 9.14 ohms.
e. 94.81 ohms.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 69

Basic Circuits

Basic Circuits
Outcome 50.

Understands the function of a Graetz rectifier.

A Graetz rectifier directs all flow in one direction through the center section of the component.
Typical applications are one-way flow control on double acting cylinders, and one-way filtration control
on hydrostatic transmission filters. The Graetz rectifier eliminates the need for a second component
to serve the same function in the opposite direction.
Notice in Fig. 48. that flow from top to bottom enters the filter through the upper left check valve,
travels through the filter from left to right, and exits the bottom through the lower right check valve.
When the flow is from bottom to top, fluid enters from the bottom left check valve, again flows left to
right through the filter, and exits out the top through the upper right check valve. Whether the flow is
from top to bottom or bottom to top through the component, the flow is always left to right through the
center section of the component.
To equalize the extension and retraction rates of a double acting , double rod cylinder, flow controls are normally installed at each port. A Graetz rectifier circuit combined with a pressure compensated flow control vavle solves this problem with one component, and can be installed in either port.
Keep in mind that fluid can only flow through a pressure compensated flow control in one direction.
The pressure compensated flow control will also compensate for the differing loads as the cylinder is
extended and retracted.

Filter Circuit

Cylinder Circuit
Fig. 48. Filter Circuit and Cylinder Circuit

70 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Basic Circuits

Outcome 51.

Understands that system pressure in a series


hydraulic circuit results from the combined load on
all of the actuators.

In a series hydraulic cylinder circuit like that shown in Fig. 49, all actuators would move at the same
time because they are connected together. If the cylinders have the same size bore
diameters and rod diameters, the rate of travel would be the same because they have double rods.

If the cylinders are full of oil, the pressure at gauge P3 is caused by load 3, the pressure at P2 is
caused by load 2 plus the pressure at gauge P3, and the pressure at gauge P1 is caused by load 1
plus the pressure at P2. Thus, the pressure in a series circuit is additive, that is, each load adds in a
series, beginning with the farthest one from the oil source.

Load 2

Load 1

Load 3

P3

P2

P1

Cylinder 1

Cylinder 2

Cylinder 3

Fig. 49. Series hydraulic circuit.

Review: 51.1.
In a series hydraulic circuit like that in Fig. 49, with
equal bore and rod diameter double-end-rod
cylinders holding equal loads at mid-stroke, which
of the following is true?
a. P3 = P1 + P2 - Load 1
b. P1 = Load 1 + P2 + P3
c. P2 = P1 + P3 - Load 1
d. P1 = P2 = P3
e. P3 = P1 - P2 + Load 1

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 71

Controls

Outcome 52.

Understands that pressure in a parallel hydraulic


circuit results from the load on the actuator with
the greatest resistance.

In a parallel hydraulic circuit, the pressure source connects to all actuators, for example, to the
lower side of the three pistons shown in Fig. 50. Notice that all three actuators receive fluid from the
same source. Also remember that the pressure created at the bottom of each cylinder is the same,
regardless of the magnitude of the loads.
If the cylinders have the same size bores and rod diameters, when fluid is pumped into the cylinders, Cylinder 1 will lift because it supports the smallest load, and the pressure created on the lower
sides of all three cylinder pistons will be the pressure that results from lifting Load 1. When Cylinder
1 has extended fully, Cylinder 2 which supports the next higher load resistance will begin to extend,
and the pressure that results in all three cylinders will be the pressure that results from lifting Load 2.
The same is true when Cylinder 3 begins to lift Load 3. Thus, there will be three pressure levels as the
three loads are extended.

Load 2

Load 1

Load 3

Cylinder 1

Cylinder 2

Cylinder 3

Fig. 50. Parallel hydraulic circuit.

Review: 52.1.
Which of the following could not occur in the operation of the circuit in Fig. 50?
a. Load 1, 2, and 3 lowered.
b. Load 1, 2, and 3 raised.
c. Load 1 raised, load 2 and 3 lowered.
d. Load 2 raised, load 1 and 3 lowered.
e. Load 1 and 2 raised, load 3 lowered.

72 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 53.

Understands that the pressure relief valve diverts


unneeded flow, at its set pressure to the reservoir when
a fixed displacement pump is used.

Relief valves are installed in hydraulic systems to limit the system pressure and to protect the system. The
pressure relief valve that protects the system is generally termed the system relief valve.
When used with a fixed displacement pump, or a variable volume non-pressure compensated pump, the
relief valve provides a means of diverting unneeded flow to tank (to the reservoir). The fluid that flows over the
relief valve will generate heat. This is because the energy that was put into the fluid by the pump is not used to
perform useful work. This wasted energy comes out of the system in the form of heat. During slack portions of
the machine cycle, other methods of diverting the pump flow should be used in order to prevent or reduce heat
generation.
When used with variable volume pressure compensated pumps, the relief valve protects the system from
over-pressure should the compensator fail, causing the pump to go to full stroke. Relief valves used with pressure compensated pumps need to be set high enough above the compensator setting that the valve will fully
close (reseat pressure) after opening to relieve pressure. Thus, the reseat pressure must be greater than the
compensator pressure setting.
The pressure at which the relief valve first begins to open is termed the crack (or cracking) pressure. The
pressure rises from this point as the flow through the valve reaches full flow. The difference between the crack
pressure is called pressure rise or pressure override. This difference in pressure is caused by the pressure drop
of the fluid flowing through the valve. The point at which the relief valve fully closes is termed the reseat pressure. The reseat pressure is always lower than the crack pressure.
Relief valves are also commonly used in branch circuits to limit pressure or to protect components. These
valves are then called circuit relief valves. These relief valves do not protect the entire system. Rather, they protect just a portion of the system. Circuit relief valves are not substitutes for the main system relief valve. Circuit
relief valves are located between a directional valve and an actuator. When the directional valve is centered (in
the case of a three position valve), the circuit relief valve is isolated from the pump and therefore cannot protect
the pump or the rest of the system.
One example of a circuit relief valve is the use of one or two relief valves used with a hydraulic motor that
is connected to an overrunning load. After the directional valve is centered, if the center condition of the directional valve blocks flow from the outlet port of the motor to the reservoir, the overrunning load will load the motor
shaft effectively turning the motor into a pump. Pressure will intensify between the motor outlet port and the
directional valve. This will usually cause something to break. The solution is to install a relief valve between the
lines that run between the motor and the directional valve. The inlet of the relief valve is connected to the motor
outlet line. The outlet of the relief valve is connected to the motor inlet line. If the motor is a bidirectional motor,
then two relief valves are used, each protecting side of the motor. This type of circuit relief valve is called a crossport relief valve, or valves.
Occasionally circuits need to be protected from shock caused by the load. A circuit relief valve may be
installed that tees into the line running between the directional valve and the cylinder port. The outlet port of the
relief valve is then connected directly to tank. A relief valve used in this application with a cylinder is called a
cylinder relief valve and is generally set higher than the setting of the main relief valve. This way, the circuit relief
valve will not open under normal circuit operation. A variation on a cylinder relief valve would be when a circuit
relief valve is used with a hydraulic motor. Unlike a crossport relief valve usually associated with hydraulic motor
circuits, the outlet line is connected to tank rather than to the other port of the motor. Used in this application,
the relief valve serves as a load relief valve.

Review: 53.1.
Which of the following valves is used to protect a
fixed displacement pump?

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Brake.
Sequence.
Pressure relief.
Pressure reducing.
Flow control.
Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 73

Controls

Outcome 54.

Recognizes basic hydraulic circuits from circuit


drawings.

Hydraulic circuits are designed to serve a particular purpose and can be described by how they
operate. Several of these basic circuits have become standardized. Following are a few of the basic
circuits with a brief statement about how they operate.
Meter-in circuits regulate the flow of oil to an actuator with an in-line throttling restriction.
Meter-out circuits regulate the flow of oil from an actuator with an in-line throttling restriction.
Bleed-off circuits regulate the flow of oil to an actuator by bleeding off the over supply of oil from
the pressure line through a throttling restriction to the reservoir.
Brake circuits throttle the outlet flow from a loaded rotary actuator with a pilot operated valve.
Sequence circuits use pressurized oil from the inlet to open the flow passage to a cylinder at a
predetermined pressure.
Counterbalance circuits use pilot pressure from the inlet or return port of the cylinder to open the
return port from a loaded cylinder.

74 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 55.

Identifies the purpose of hydraulic meter-in, meter-out,


bleed-off, brake, sequence, and counterbalance circuits.

Meter-in circuits regulate inlet flow to control the speed of the actuator against a resistive load. This
means the load is always positive against the actuator, and there is no tendency for the load to overrun. In a meter-in circuit with a fixed displacement pump (and no accumulator in the system), the
excess flow would be returned to the reservoir over the pressure relief valve at maximum system pressure. The check valves permit reverse free flow when the respective valve is not metering.
Resistive
Load

Fig. 51. Meter-in circuit.

Tractive
Load

Fig. 52. Meter-out circuit.

Meter-out circuits regulate flow to control the speed of the actuator against tractive loads. This
means that the load has a tendency to overrun, for example, a cylinder that powers a load over center during part of the stroke. In a meter-out circuit with a fixed displacement pump, the excess flow at
the inlet would be returned to the reservoir over the pressure relief valve at maximum system pressure. The check valves permit reverse free flow when the respective valve is not metering.
Bleed-off circuits regulate flow to control the speed of the actuator by bleeding off a portion of the
flow to the reservoir. They are used with restrictive loads, much the same as a meter-in circuit, but the
major difference is that the pressure of excess oil returning to the reservoir is only slightly above the
load pressure in the actuator.
A brake circuit is used on hydraulic motors to prevent them from overrunning, and from cavitating
the motor. A common configuration is to use an external pilot connected to the motor inlet port to keep
the valve open at minimal pressure differential when the motor is under load, and an internal pilot to
provide deceleration control. The brake valve is connected to the motor outlet and is pilot operated with
a low pressure signal from the motor inlet line. When the motor is under load, pressure in the inlet line
pilots the brake valve fully open and it offers little resistance to flow. If the load causes the motor to
overrun, the motor will cavitate as it will need more fluid than the pump is supplying, as the motor
would be running ahead of the pump. The pressure will drop in the external pilot line and the brake
valve spool will shift to throttle the motor outlet flow. Thus, the pressure builds in the outlet
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 75

Controls
Resistive
Load

Fig. 54. Motor brake circuit.

Fig. 53. Bleed-off circuit.

between the motor and the brake valve. When the pump supply catches up with the speed of the
motor, pressure builds at the motor inlet port, and this again pilots the brake valve open. To decelerate the motor without damage, an internal pilot shifts the brake valves spool to meter the flow and bring
the load smoothly to rest. If the motor is bi-directional, the brake valve will need to have an integral check
valve to permit reverse free flow.
Note that because motors inherently have internal leakage, a brake valve will not hold a loaded motor
in place over a period of time. If a loaded motor musht be kept from rotating while it is stopped, either an
internal or external brake is required.
A sequence circuit sets the order of events in a circuit. For example, a pressure sequence valve is
commonly used in a two cylinder clamp and drill circuit to make sure that the clamp cylinder has closed
the vise against the work piece before the drill cylinder advances the drill. Because the
pressure on the sequence valve is adjustable, the sequence valve is also used to set the minimum
force on the clamp cylinder before the drill cylinder advances. Sequence valves are internally piloted
open from the inlet port, and must be externally drained because both inlet and outlet ports are pressurized. Sequence valves are also one-way flow valves, so a reverse free flow check valve must be included if reverse flow through the valve is required.
Counterbalance valves are used to prevent a loaded cylinder from falling. They operate much the
same as a brake valve. The valve functions as a safety valve, a deceleration valve, and prevents the load
from running ahead of the pump. The valve cannot be operated by moving the control valve unless the
pump is operating. In a press application that uses a vertically mounted cylinder with the cylinder rod
extending downward, the valve is installed between the DCV and rod end of the cylinder and may be operated by either the internal pilot or external pilot. If the internal pilot is used, intensified pressure on the
rod side of the piston is used to pilot the valve open. In a cylinder with a 2 to 1 bore to rod area ratio, for
example, 500 psi on the blank side of the piston would result in a pressure of 1000 psi on the rod side
of the piston, not counting the pressure that can be attributed to the load being supported by the cylinder. If the counterbalance valve is piloted open externally, a lower pressure signal comes from the line
connected to the cap end of the piston. Maximum tonnage in presses requires that the pilot signal come
from the cap end of the piston. When the valve receives the pilot signal internally from the rod end of
the piston, the pressure required to open the valve is not available on the rod end of the piston to do
useful work.
76 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Drill

Fig. 55. Sequence circuit.

Load
Fig. 56. Counterbalance circuit.

Review: 55.1.
Which of the following valves must be externally
drained?
a. Sequence.
b. Relief.
c. Brake.
d. Pressure Reducing.
e. None of the above.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 77

Controls

Outcome 56.
Outcome 57.

Recognizes the characteristics of meter-in, meter-out,


and bleed-off circuits.
Recognizes the limitations of meter-in, meter-out, and
bleed-off circuits.

Meter-in circuits are applied only to resistive loads. Meter-in circuits are accurate in maintaining the set
speed of cylinders, compensate for pump leakage, and allow several branch circuits to be supplied from
the same pump, as long as the total flow from the pump exceeds the demand of the branch circuits. Meterin flow controls are also required for extending single acting cylinders and for speed control of circuits with
sequence valves or presure switches that would be prematurely actuated if meter-in flow control was used.
The major disadvantage associated with meter-in circuits is that the load must be resistive. If conditions
change and the load overruns, the meter-in circuit looses control of the actuator. Because the load is in
series with the flow control, at low actuator speeds, most of the delivery from a fixed displacement pump
is relieved over the pressure relief valve at full pressure, generating substantial heat.
Meter-out circuits are applied to loads that change conditions, for example, from resistive to tractive or
overrunning. Historically, the rule of thumb has been "when in doubt, meter out", but watch out for pressure intensification at the rod end of cylinders and motors with over-running loads. The rule is intended to
cover the situation where the load may overrun and cause personnel or equipment damage. Meter-out circuits have about the same accuracy as meter-in circuits.
The major disadvantage of meter-out circuits is pressure intensification at the rod end of the
cylinder and back-pressure applied to motors, which increases the potential for wear and failure of the rod
end seals. For example, if the rod has a 2 to 1 ratio, pressure intensification can be twice the relief valve
setting, not counting the pressure caused by the tractive load at the rod end. Meter-out circuits assure safe
control of overrunning loads with a low pressure drop across the piston seal, but light loads cause more
piston seal leakage because intensified pressure at the rod end could be higher than maximum system
pressure. There is also the possibility that other circuits supplied by the same pump can cause the actuator to extend unevenly because pressure surges are transmitted to the piston. Finally, because the flow
control is in series with the actuator, the circuit is inefficient when only a small part of the pump flow is used
because the remainder must pass over the relief valve, generating heat.
Bleed-off circuits are applied only to resistive loads, as are meter-in circuits, but they are more efficient
than either meter-in or meter-out circuits. This is because the flow control is in parallel with the actuator,
and the unused flow is directed to the reservoir at slightly above load pressure, rather than at relief valve
pressure.
Bleed-off circuits are less accurate than either meter-in or meter-out circuits, because of variations in
pump and directional control valve leakage, and the unused flow is not available to other branch circuits.
This means that other branch circuits would require a separate pump.
a. the best pump utilization for other branch
Review: 56.1.
circuits.
Compared to meter-in and meter-out circuits,
b. have the highest system efficiency.
bleed-off circuits will have:
c. have more piston seal leakage.
d. resistance to overrunning loads.
e. the best accuracy.
78 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 58.

Identifies circuits that match applications.

Each application imposes certain requirements on a circuit. This determines which circuit works
best for the application. For example, meter-in circuits have a high accuracy for resistive loads. They
would be appropriate to control the extension speed of a single acting fork lift cylinder, but would not
be appropriate for use with a drill cylinder that has a tendency to lunge during the drilling operation. A
drilling operation would require a meter-out circuit, but a double acting telescoping cylinder lifting a
dump truck bed could not use a meter-out circuit. Here pressure intensification at the rod end would
be so high that it would rupture the seals or swell the cylinder. A bleed-off circuit could be used in
place of a meter-in circuit to reduce heat loss, but it cannot accommodate overrunning loads. In
addition, there may be a loss of accuracy. Bleed-off circuits cannot be used when branch circuits are
being used, because the unused flow is returned to reservoir at approximately the load pressure of the
actuator.
Brake circuits control overrunning loads on hydraulic motors, and offer the additional advantage of
disabling the circuit when the pump is not running. A brake control circuit is necessary on a rotary
actuator where rpm control and stopping capacity are required. Note that due to internal leakage characteristics, loaded motors will drift even if brake valves are used in the circuit. In order to prevent a
motor from drifting, either an internal or external brake must be used.
Pressure sequence circuits order the events of two or more actuators, for example, a clamp-drill
sequence, a clamp-rivet sequence, or a clamp-mill operation. A pressure sequence circuit will order
events based upon pressure levels, and set the minimum force of the first actuator by the pressure
level at which the sequence valve at the second actuator opens. The maximum force of both actuators
is established by the setting of the pressure relief valve or pump compensator. If maximum system
pressure produces too much force at a cylinder actuator, a pressure reducing valve can be installed in
that branch circuit.
Counterbalance circuits prevent a loaded cylinder actuator from falling. Pilot check valve circuits
also hold loaded cylinders in place, but each circuit has a unique application. Counterbalance circuits
operate more smoothly and are used extensively in press circuits and aerial lift circuits, but they are
leak free only if the pressure element of the valve is a poppet, rather than a spool. For example, manufacturers commonly give the leakage rate across a counterbalance spool in drops per minute at rated
pressure. If the cylinder must be locked in place with a leak-free seal, a pilot operated to open check
valve may also be used. An outrigger stabilizer cylinder on an aerial lift truck has this requirement.
Once extended in place, outrigger cylinders must hold the load indefinitely. Of course the cylinder pistons cannot bypass oil if this requirement is to be met. As back-up safety protection, a hand operated
shut-off valve is commonly installed in series with the pilot check valve.
Review: 58.1.
Which of the following circuits provides a leak-free
seal to hold a cylinder actuator in position?

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Brake.
Sequence.
Pilot operated check.
Unloading.
Pressure reducing.
Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 79

Controls

Outcome 59.
Outcome 60.

Outcome 61.
Outcome 62.

Understands that hydraulic regenerative cylinder


circuits increase cylinder rod extension velocity.
Understands that regenerative hydraulic circuits
require adding the rod end return flow to the cap end
flow on the extension stroke.
Understands how components interact in a hydraulic
regenerative circuit.
Calculates the cylinder rod force, cylinder rod velocity,
and flow rate in the various lines of a hydraulic
regenerative cylinder circuit.

Regenerative cylinder circuits increase the velocity of the cylinder rod during the extension stroke
without requiring additional flow from the pump. This is accomplished by redirecting flow from the rod
end of the cylinder to the cap end of the cylinder, making the cross-sectional area of the cylinder rod
the effective area against which the fluid is acting.
If a cylinder has a 2:1 ratio, meaning the area of the bore is twice the cross-sectional area of the
rod, a regenerative circuit will cause the cylinder rod to extend and retract at the same velocity. It will
also exert the same force in both directions. A circuit of this type could be used on a reciprocating table
grinder.
As the ratio of cylinder bore area to rod cross section area increases, the extension velocity
increases, and the effective area against which the fluid is exerting force decreases. Thus, there is a
proportional decrease in the effective force exerted by the cylinder during the extension stroke.
Regenerative circuits of this type are used for rapid advance of the cylinder to reduce lost time when
the cylinder is approaching the work, but doing no work, for example closing a riveting fixture, before
upsetting the rivet. To provide full cylinder force at the end of the extension stroke, full flow is directed
to the cap end of the cylinder, and fluid from the rod end of the cylinder is routed to the reservoir
through the directional control valve.
The plumbing on a regenerative circuit directs pump flow as well as rod end flow to the cap end of
the piston during the time the cylinder extends. To accomplish this (see Fig. 57), the line from the rod
end of the cylinder is connected between the pump and directional control valve through a check valve.
This allows rod end flow to join pump flow when the cylinder extends. To separate rod end flow from
the cap end flow when the cylinder retracts, a second check valve is inserted in the line between the
control valve B port and the cylinder port to allow free flow to the rod end of the cylinder when it
retracts, and cap end flow is directed to the reservoir.
The simplest means to gain the full force from the cylinder at the end of the extension stroke, without losing the advantage of rapid extension through regeneration, is to bleed off a small amount of fluid
from the rod end of the circuit to the reservoir through a variable flow control valve. A simplified circuit that
illustrates the concept is shown in Fig. 58. When the cylinder contacts the work piece and stalls, a slight
amount of fluid is bled through the flow control valve to allow full pressure to develop at the cap end of
the cylinder. In a double acting cylinder circuit there would also be some leakage, but the cylinder is not
under load. While the amount of fluid bled off from the cylinder represents a slight loss in
volumetric efficiency, such a circuit would provide "rapid advance," "normal return," and "full cylinder
force" at the end of the extension stroke, with a minimum of components.
80 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

V1

V2

V3

Fig. 58. Bleed-off regenerative circuit.

Fig. 57. Regenerative cylinder circuit.

Review: 60.1.
Which component forces the circuit in Fig. 57 to
regenerate flow?
a. Pump.
b. Cylinder.
c. Check valve V1.
d. Check valve V2.
e. Control valve V3.
Review: 62.1.
In the circuit shown in Fig. 58, a hydraulic cylinder
with a 2-1/2 inch diameter bore and 1-3/4 inch rod
extends under regeneration at a pressure of 1500
psi. What is the maximum clamping force?
a. 664 lbs.
b. 3608 lbs.
c. 3750 lbs.
d. 7363 lbs.
e. 9847 lbs.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 81

Controls

Outcome 63.

Distinguishes hydraulic accumulator circuit purposes


from a circuit drawing.

Hydraulic accumulators store pressurized fluid. Five of their more common applications are 1)
maintaining system pressure, 2) absorbing hydraulic shocks, 3) supplementing pump delivery, 4) cushioning loads, and 5) compensating for thermal expansion of the fluid.
An accumulator maintains system pressure by compensating for losses due to leakage. A pressure compensating circuit like that shown in Fig. 59 will maintain cylinder clamping force with the directional control valve in the center position, and provide make-up fluid for leakage across the valve spool
while the pump unloads to reservoir. After extending the cylinder until it stops, fluid from the pump fills
the accumulator up to the relief valve pressure setting. Centering the valve isolates the accumulator
which then provides fluid to keep the clamp closed. Shifting the control valve to retract the cylinder will
also relieve the accumulator.

Fig. 60. Accumulator circuit to dampen shock.


Fig. 59. Accumulator circuit to maintain system pressure.

A circuit designed to cushion a load uses the accumulator to dampen out shocks. A fork lift circuit
with an accumulator is shown in Fig. 60. Fluid from the pump directs fluid to the mast cylinder and
accumulator, both of which have the same pressure. After the load is raised, the accumulator absorbs
shocks when the load is moved over uneven surfaces. Notice that the fluid moves freely through the
check valve into the accumulator when the load encounters a jolt, but is metered back into the circuit
slowly as the load assumes its original position. This dampens the action of the shock absorber.

Review: 63.1.
How do accumulator circuits that maintain
system pressure differ from accumulator circuits
that cushion loads?
82 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

How the load is controlled.


Purpose of the check valve.
How the accumulator is relieved.
Placement of the pressure relief valve.
Force exerted by the cylinder actuator.
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 64.

Understands that hydraulic system heat generation


in aerial lift trucks is caused by boom actuation and
portable hydraulic tool usage.

Heat generation in aerial lifts is caused by continued use of the hydraulic system and system
inefficiencies.
Aerial trucks use hydraulics for boom actuation as well as portable tool usage at the upper platform.
Operations, such as stringing lines and setting transformers, do not require extensive movement of the
booms, turntable, and hydraulic tools at the upper platform, and therefore do not generate much heat.
Tree trimming, on the other hand, requires frequent movement of the platform, and continued use of
the tools such as hydraulic chain saws.
Remember that mobile hydraulic reservoirs are small by comparison to stationary industrial
hydraulic system standards. Each reservoir must be sized to meet the needs of a particular system.
Industrial systems use the rule of 2 to 3 times the gpm capacity for fixed displacement pumps. Mobile
systems are sometimes as small as 1/3 the pump flow gpm for fixed displacement pumps. As a result,
mobile systems often operate at higher temperatures than industrial systems, particularly during hot
weather.

Review: 64.1.
Which aerial truck hydraulic application generates
the most heat?
a. Tree trimming.
b. Line stringing.
c. Line maintenance.
d. Insulator cleaning.
e. Street light maintenance.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 83

Controls

Outcome 65.

Outcome 66.

Understands that a variable displacement, pressure


compensated pump reduces energy loss by avoiding
relief valve operation at full pump pressure during
holding or clamping.
Understands that hydraulic load sensing circuits with
variable displacement, pressure compensated pumps
maintain pump pressure at approximate load pressure.

The power expended by a fluid power system is proportional to the pressure and flow rate. In an
ideal system, the power transmitted to extend and retract a loaded cylinder would be expended to
accomplish useful work, and except for friction, would not generate wasted heat. In the worst case,
when the system deadheads, full flow from a fixed displacement pump is dumped over the relief valve
at maximum system pressure, and total delivery from the pump is converted to heat without
accomplishing any useful work. Most systems operate somewhere in between these two extremes.
Fixed displacement pumps commonly use three position directional control valves with an open
center to reduce heat loss. During the work portion of the cycle, when the valve is in either extreme
position, the cylinder deadheads and excess fluid is directed to the reservoir over the relief valve.
During the idle portion of the cycle, which is of greater duration, pump flow is directed to the reservoir
through an open or tandem center valve spool configuration at low pressure. An unloading circuit with
an accumulator and closed center directional control valve can be used to unload the pump if the system is to maintain operating pressure during the idle portion of the cycle.
Variable displacement pumps, while more expensive than fixed displacement pumps, reduce heat
loss by reducing delivery when it is not needed. The pressure is limited by the setting of the
compensator at a value above the maximum load pressure, but less than the pressure relief valve, if
one is used. The only heat loss from the pump, then, is generated by make-up flow for leakage at
compensator pressure, and friction caused by fluid bypassing (slippage) inside the pump. Depending
upon the circuit, there may be additional heat loss caused by flow control valves and pressure reducing valves. In a load sensing circuit with a pressure compensating pump, maximum pressure is maintained slightly above the load pressure. The pilot signal from the load line to the pump compensator is
regulated by a hydrostat much like that in a pressure compensated flow control valve. That is, the hydrostat maintains a constant pressure drop across a variable orifice. When the value of the load is low,
the pilot signal will stroke the pump compensator. When the load deadheads and the pressure
increases, the compensator will de-stroke the pump compensator to maintain a pressure slightly above the
load pressure.
Review: 66.1.
In general, which one of the following circuits
is the most power efficient?
a. Fixed displacement, relief valve.
b. Variable displacement, relief valve.
c. Fixed displacement, load sensing.
d. Variable displacement, load sensing.
e. Variable displacement, pressure
compensated.
84 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 67.

Outcome 68.

Understands that hydraulic circuit synchronization can


be achieved by mechanical tying, metering, flow
dividers, two equal displacement pumps, or
replenishing circuits.
Identifies circuits that allow two or more cylinders
to operate in unison.

Synchronous circuits allow two or more actuators to operate in unison, regardless of the magnitude
of the load. Three methods commonly used to synchronize cylinders are: 1) Connect the cylinders
together mechanically, 2) meter equal amounts of fluid into or out of the cylinders with flow control
valves, equal displacement pumps, or a flow divider, and 3) connect double end rod cylinders that
have equal piston areas in series. This would require that both cylinders have the same bore and rod
diameters.
The two double rod cylinders shown in Fig. 61 have the same bore and rod diameters, and they are
connected in series. When cylinder 1 extends, cylinder 2 also extends because flow from the return side
of cylinder 1 is plumbed to the pressure side of cylinder 2. Because the cylinders are connected in
series, the pressure required to move load 1 is added to the pressure to move load 2. If the loads were
equal, the pressure to operate the circuit would be double the pressure to operate one of the cylinders.
Correction for minor variations in synchronization at the end of each stroke can be made by using
a replenishing circuit to supply make-up oil that was lost to internal leakage. At the end of each stroke,
one or both of the cylinder rods contacts a limit switch that energizes a valve to supply make-up fluid to
the cylinder that has not fully extended or retracted.
Cyl 1

Cyl 2

Retract

Review: 68.1.
Which type of circuit is used to synchronize the
cylinders in Fig. 61?
a. Metered flow.
b. Replenishing.
c. Flow divider.
d. Equal loading.
e. Series circuit.
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Extend

Fig. 61. Synchronous circuit using equal cylinder areas.

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 85

Controls

Outcome 69.

Understands how open center and tandem center


directional control valves unload fixed
displacement pumps.

Fixed displacement pumps must be unloaded during the idle portion of the cycle to prevent the
pump from generating wasted heat. One common way to unload a fixed displacement pump is to use
an unloading valve to return pump flow to reservoir. Closed center circuits with fixed displacement pumps
and an accumulator use this circuit. Another method of unloading a fixed displacement pump in a
closed center circuit is through the use of a solenoid vented relief valve. When no flow from the pump
is needed, a normally open solenoid valve vents a pilot operated relief valve. Whenever one of the
directional control valves is energized (3-position directional valves must be used), the solenoid valve
connected to the vent port of the relief valve is energized closed and the relief valve closes, opening
only when its pressure setting is reached, or the solenoid vent valve is de-energized.
One other common way to unload the pump is to use an open center, through center, or tandem
center three position directional control valve spool to direct flow to the reservoir at low pressure when
the valve is in the center neutral position. Open center circuits with fixed displacement pumps are
found on many mobile applications.
One disadvantage of through center, open center, and tandem center circuits is the loss of pressure
in the center position to operate pilot operated directional control valves. To solve this problem, a
spring loaded check valve is installed in the return line between the directional control valve and the
reservoir to restrict the flow. Spring force on the check which opens in the direction of the reservoir
determines the pressure setting in the return line. A spring force to provide 65 to 150 psi is usually sufficient to provide pilot signals.

86 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 70.

Identifies filter location from circuit drawings.

Hydraulic filters may be located at five places in the system (see Fig. 62): 1) inlet (strainer or filter),
2) pressure line, including last chance filters placed at valves, 3) relief line (bypass), 4) return line, and 5)
separate off-line filtration unit.
Pressure
Line

Relief Line

Off Line

Inlet
Line

Return
Line

Fig. 62. Location of system filters and strainers.

Filters and strainers differ by the way particles are trapped. By definition, strainers direct the fluid
in a straight line through the element, which is made up of one or more fine mesh screens attached to
a sheet of metal core, and thereby trap particles mechanically. For example, a strainer made from 200
mesh screen will trap particles larger than 74 micrometers. Strainers are sometimes equipped with
ceramic magnets to remove metallic contaminants from the fluid.
By contrast, filters direct the fluid in a tortuous path through one or more layers of a porous element to
remove smaller particles and silt. Filters have more pressure loss than do properly sized strainers, and
therefore are not usually recommended for inlet lines because element loading could result in high pressure
losses, causing the pump to cavitate. Because an inlet filter must be coarse enough to prevent high pressure differentials, some authorities question their effectiveness and recommend against their use. As the
filter element becomes loaded with contamination, the pressure drop across the element increases. Most
filters now come equipped with indicators that show when the element has become loaded with contaminants.
Full-flow pressure line filters are located just downstream of the pump to protect components from
large particle contamination. The decision to use a pressure filter is considered in light of the consequences that could be associated with a catastrophic pump failure, which would spread large particles
throughout the system. It is also influenced by the amount of shock the system experiences, since
hydraulic shocks are known to release trapped contaminants that have accumulated in pressure line
filters, which also sends contaminants throughout the system.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 87

Controls
Bypass filters and strainers are located in a relief or unloading valve line to filter hydraulic fluid
returning to the reservoir during the idle portion of the cycle.
Return line filters are most common as the main system filter because all fluid circulates back to
the reservoir. A finer filter element with large capacity can be located in the return line with less possibility
of damage to components should the filter become loaded and bypass unfiltered fluid, or if the filter
element should degrade and migrate downstream.

Off-line filtration circuits use a separate pump to circulate hydraulic fluid from the reservoir through a
large capacity filter element. The filter operates under ideal conditions in that an element with a large
capacity for contaminants can be used, filtration of fine as well as coarse contaminants is attainable,
and the filter is not subjected to system pressure spikes, flow surges, or shock loading.

Review: 70.1.
Which one of the following is the most common
location for a hydraulic filter?
a. Off-line.
b. Return line.
c. Pressure line.
d. Inlet suction line.
e. Unloading relief valve line.

88 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 71.

Clamp Cylinder
Pressure
Reducing
Valve
Work
Cylinder

Internally Piloted
Sequence Valve

Relief
Valve

Fig. 63. Sequence, pressure reducing circuit.

Identifies circuit components that control (maintain


and limit) clamping cylinder pressure in a
sequence/pressure reducing circuit.

Clamp and work circuits use pressure sequence valves


and pressure reducing valves to control minimum and maximum
cylinder forces. The sequence valve in Fig. 63 is in the work cylinder circuit, and the pressure reducing valve is in the clamp cylinder
circuit. Both directional control valves are shown in position to
retract the cylinders. The positions of the sequence and pressure
reducing valves with respect to the cylinders look much alike, but
their purposes in each circuit are different.
The sequence valve prevents the work cylinder from
extending until the pressure at the clamp cylinder raises to the setting of the sequence valve. This has the effect of establishing the
minimum force of the clamp cylinder before the work cylinder is
allowed to extend.
The pressure reducing valve sets the maximum pressure,
and thus the maximum force, of the clamp cylinder. After the clamp
cylinder extends and meets the work piece, the pressure will rise
because the resistance to flow has increased. At the setting of the
pressure reducing valve, the valve will close to prevent any further
pressure build-up in the clamp circuit.

When the pressure reaches the setting of the sequence valve, it will open to permit the work cylinder to extend. If there were no pressure reducing valve in the clamp cylinder circuit, the minimum force
of the clamp cylinder would be controlled by the sequence valve in the work cylinder circuit, or the
pressure relief valve.
Notice that the sequence valve and pressure reducing valve operate independently. That is, the
sequence valve could open before or after the pressure reducing valve throttles the flow to limit the
pressure at the clamp cylinder, and that the maximum force of the work cylinder is limited by the
setting of the pressure relief valve and could be much higher than the sequence valve setting.

Review: 71.1.
The purpose of the pressure reducing valve in the
circuit shown in Fig. 63 is to:

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

a.
b.
c.
d.

limit the force of the clamp cylinder.


eliminate reverse flow check valves.
limit the force of the work cylinder.
assure minimum pressure on the clamp
cylinder.
e. eliminate three position directional control
valves.
Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 89

Controls

Outcome 72.

Computes the expansion volume to be controlled when


oil decompresses.

For practical purposes, hydraulic oil is considered to be nearly incompressible when it transmits
power but, in fact, it compresses somewhat under pressure. Estimates place the compressibility at
approximately 0.5% to 1.5% per 1000 psi, depending upon how much air is entrained in the fluid, and
how much the cylinder stretches. This usually presents no problem in low volume circuits, but in high
volume circuits, such as vertical presses with large bore cylinders, releasing pressurized fluid after the
press cycle to retract the cylinder can generate damaging shock waves back through the plumbing as
the fluid expands. This process of expanding after having been compressed is called decompression.
To control the rate of decompression, and thus prevent shock waves from damaging the system, the
pressure is released gradually with a decompression valve. The amount of oil that must be
decompressed is computed from the percent compressibility factor and the total volume of oil:
(Eq. 10)

Decompression Volumecu-in = % Compressibilitydecimal x Volumecu-in

DV = %C x V

Sometimes the compressibility of a fluid is stated as its compressibility per thousand psi. For example, one reference source the compressibility of hydrocarbon based fluids is approximately 0.50% of
its volume for every 1000 psi the fluid is pressurized, up to about 4000 psi. Based upon this, an alternate to Equation 10 is Equation 11:
(Eq. 11)

Decompression Volumecu-in =
[% Compressibilitydecimal x Compressed Volumecu-in x (Intensified Pressurepsi / 1000 psi)]

DC = [%C x CV x (IP / 1000)]

Review: 72.1.
A press cylinder with a 20 inch bore releases oil at
the end of a 30 inch stroke through a decompression
valve. If the oil is compressed 2%, how much oil
could flow to return when the pressure is
released?
a. 18 cu-in.
b. 94 cu-in.
c. 125 cu-in.
d. 188 cu-in.
e. 250 cu-in.

90 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

Review: 72.2.
How much oil must be released from a press
cylinder with a 30 inch bore to relieve the pressure
from 3000 psi to 0 psi if the ram is extended 25
inches. The compressibility of the fluid is 1/2% per
thousand psi.
a. 11 cu-in
b. 88 cu-in.
c. 265 cu-in.
d. 884 cu-in.
e. 2651 cu-in.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting
Outcome 73.

Understands the function of the drain on a sequence


valve.

As discussed previously, in a clamp and work cylinder circuit, the pressure sequence valve
establishes the minimum clamp force required before the work cylinder receives fluid.
Sequence valves are built similarly to pressure relief valves but have an external drained spring
chamber. The valve must have an external drain because both the inlet and outlet ports are pressurized. If the drain line were to become obstructed, the valve would not open because the spool or poppet movement would be blocked by a column of fluid.
Sequence valves can also be equipped with a reverse free flow check valve. For example, if the
sequence valve were installed at a cylinder port to set the pressure at which the cylinder rod would
extend, the reverse free flow check valve would allow return flow when the cylinder retracted.
Review: 73.1.
Which of the following will cause a sequence
valve to fail to open.
a. Open pilot drain line.
b. Weak bias spring.
c. Plugged drain line.
d. High inlet port pressure.
e. High outlet port pressure.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 91

Troubleshooting

Outcome 74.

Understands the basics of troubleshooting hydraulic


system electrical controls.

Most electrical problems are solved by the electrician rather than the Industrial Hydraulic
Technician. However, there are some basic tests that are made to determine whether the failure is
related to the hydraulic system, or to the electrical controls.
Solenoid operated directional control valves sometimes fail to operate. The malfunction can be
caused by a seized or incompletely shifting valve spool, but it could also be caused by a failed solenoid.
In fact, a seized or incompletely shifting valve spool can cause an AC solenoid failure.
The first step is to determine that the pilot valve spool (if so equipped) and main valve spool are
shifting completely in their bores. Incomplete shifting can be caused by debris as well as blocked pilot
ports.
Safety precaution: Care must be exercised that shifting the valve spool does not cause the
machine to activate accidently, which could cause personal injury and machine damage.
If a solenoid has overheated, buzzes, and remains hot, it is a sign that it has an internal short,
which means that the coil has an electrical leak. The coil wire insulation has broken down and the
wires are touching inside the coil. A lesser possibility is that the coil has an internal ground. If the
solenoid will not operate at all, first check that it is receiving electrical power, and that the interlock
switch is working properly. The interlock switch prevents both solenoid coils from being energized at
the same time.
If the solenoid coil is receiving electrical power, but will not function, shut off and lock out the
electrical power. Then disconnect both leads to the solenoid. Check the continuity of the coil with an
Ohm meter on the 100 x R Ohm scale. The needle should move to near zero, meaning that the coil
has a low resistance.

Review: 74.1.
A shorted directional control valve solenoid coil:
a. has a broken wire.
b. has a pinched wire.
c. has a high resistance.
d. has an electrical leak.
e. has an electrical lead missing.

92 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Troubleshooting

Outcome 75.

Understands the operation of the unloading valve in


a two pump, high-low pressure system, and how to
calculate the system horsepower.
A two pump high-low hydraulic circuit provides high flow at low
pressure, and low flow at high pressure. The object is to maximize the
efficiency of the system. This allows a relatively small system with two
inexpensive fixed displacement pumps to accomplish the work of a large
variable displacement pump.

Fig. 64. Two pump high-low pressure system.

When pressure requirements are low, both pumps provide a combined high flow to speed up the circuit. When high pressure is required
for the work portion of the cycle, the low volume pump takes over and the
high volume pump is unloaded to reservoir. The product of the flow and
pressure always remains within the power capacity of the prime mover.

Notice that the circuit in Fig. 64 has a pilot line that leads from the high pressure pump line to the unloading valve. The high volume pump is unloaded at low pressure, for example, at 500 psi to 700 psi. The main
system relief valve is set at the high pressure rating to protect the low volume pump, for example 2250 psi.
The horsepower output of the two pump system is computed for both pumps at the unloading valve pressure, and for the low volume pump at the main system relief valve setting. Both of these horsepower values must be
less than the power output of the prime mover. In the case shown in Figure 64, lets assume that the low pressure pump flows 10 gpm and that its unloading valve is set at 500 psi. The high pressure pump flows 3 gpm and
its relief valve is set at 2500 psi. Using Equation 11:
(Eq. 12.)

Fluid HP = (Flowgpm x Pressurepsi) / 1714

HP = (Q x P) / 1714

We find that up to the unloading valve pressure the system will require 3.8 hp. The low pressure pump will
require 0.9 hp until it reaches 500 psi, at which time it is unloaded at some low pressure, generally about 25 to
65 psi. At that point its horsepower draw is negotiable, but is still a factor in practice. The horsepower that is
required by the high pressure pump at 2500 psi is 4.4 hp.
If both pumps were to be operated together above the setting of the unloading relief valve, the prime mover
would stall, or the system would break somewhere, for example, at the pump drive coupling. The same result
could occur if the check valve were installed backward. This would prevent the high volume, low pressure, pump
from delivering flow to the system, and the unloading valve may not relieve the circuit. In this case the prime
mover would stall or something would break.

Review: 75.1.
Jog starting a two-pump high-low pressure
system after assembly causes the electric motor
to stall. A circuit for the correct installation is
shown in Fig. 64. Which of the following could be
at fault?
a. Wrong electric motor rotation.
b. The check valve is installed backward.
c. The pump to motor coupling is misaligned.
d. The unloading valve return line is disconnected.
e. The vent connection is open on the relief valve.
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Review: 75.2.
What is the minimum size motor needed to power
a hi-low pump system that has a 24 gpm high volume low-pressure pump set to unload at 500 psi,
and a 4 gpm low-volume high-pressure pump if
the main system relief is set at 3000 psi?
a. 5 hp
b. 7.5 hp
c. 10 hp
d. 15 hp
e. 20 hp
Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 93

Controls

Outcome 76.

Understands that a large ratio between the cap end and


rod end areas can cause a hydraulic ram to extend at
low pressure.

Open center circuits can cause cylinders with a large ratio between the cap and rod end to extend
when the control valve is in the neutral position.
Notice in the circuit in Fig. 65 that when the open cenNo Load ter control valve is in the neutral position, that both ports
are pressurized because the check valve that allows free
flow in the direction of the reservoir creates a back pressure caused by spring force against the check. The check
valve provides a back pressure so that the open center
circuit can operate pilot circuits and still allow the fixed
displacement pump to unload at low pressure.

Fig. 65. Open center differential circuit.

At first review it appears that the cylinder would regenerate, but that is not the case. Both ends of the cylinder
are pressurized, the same as in a regenerative circuit, but
flow from the rod end is not connected exclusively to the
cap end of the cylinder. That is, most of the pump flow is
unloading to the reservoir. The cylinder extends because
the cap end of the cylinder has a larger area than the rod
end of the cylinder, and the greater the difference
between them, the greater is the tendency for the cylinder
rod to extend.

This problem is solved in fixed displacement pump circuits by installing a directional valve spool
that connects the pump and the cap end cylinder port to the reservoir, with the rod end cylinder port
blocked. If a pressure compensated pump is used, a valve spool is chosen that blocks the P port and
the cylinder rod end port, and connects the cylinder cap end port to the T port.

Review: 76.1.
Which of the following types of cylinders would
most likely drift out under no load, if the open
center valve were under back pressure?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

One to one cylinder.


Two to one cylinder.
Three to one cylinder.
Four to one cylinder.
Five to one cylinder.

94 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 77.

Understands that a single rod hydraulic cylinder


may drift out if the load can be moved by half of the
pressure at the pressure port, applied to the cylinder in
regeneration.

A closed center valve circuit like that shown in Fig. 66 can also cause a cylinder to creep out if there
is sufficient valve spool-to-bore clearance to allow flow across the lands, and if the load can be moved
by half the pressure in the system. If fluid leaks across the lands, both cylinder ports are pressurized,
and the cylinder rod will extend due to the regenerative effect.
To solve this problem, both cylinder ports can be ported to drain when the directional control valve
is in the center position. Another method used is to provide notching of the valve spool to prevent pressure build-up between cycles.
Load

Cylinder drifts out

Fig. 66. Closed center circuit that drifts out.

Review: 77.1.
What would cause a cylinder connected to closed
center directional control valve like that shown in
Fig. 66 to creep out and cause the load to move?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Fluid leak at the rod end.


Restricted return line.
Relief valve set too high.
Valve spool leak to reservoir.
Clearance flow in the control valve.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 95

Controls

Outcome 78.

Understands that pilot operated to open check valves in


cylinder circuits must be open to drain when the directional
control valve is in the center position in order to operate
(seat) properly.

A pilot operated to-open check valve is designed to hold a hydraulic cylinder in place when the
three-position directional control valve is in the center position, but the pilot pressure port must be
drained for the poppet to seat.

Fig. 67 illustrates a circuit with both outlet ports blocked in the center position. When the directional
control valve is shifted to extend the cylinder, the pilot check valve at the cap end allows free flow to
the cap end of the cylinder, and at the same time pressure from the cap end is directed to the pilot
pressure port of the pilot check at the rod end to allow return flow from the rod end to the reservoir.
Shifting the directional control valve to the center position blocks both cylinder ports, but also blocks
the pressure port to the pilot piston in the check valve at the rod end of the cylinder. This holds the
poppet open and the cylinder will drift under load.

To correct this problem, the pilot pressure on each check valve must drained when the directional
control valve is in the center position. If pilot checks are installed in both ports, this would require a
float center valve, with A and B ports connected to drain, and the pressure port blocked, assuming a
pressure compensated pump is used (also refer to Outcome 25).
External
Load

Fig. 67. Improper venting of pilot operated toopen checks.

Review: 78.1.
Which valve spool center should be used with a
pilot operated check valve installed at the rod end
of a double acting cylinder?
a. Tandem center.
b. Float center.
c. Closed center.
d. P to B, A to T.
e. P to B, A to B.
96 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 79.
Outcome 80.

Associates slippage in a hydrostatic transmission with


a worn pump or motor cartridge.
Associates no movement in a hydrostatic transmission
with the loss of flow.

Fig. 68. Mobile hydrostatic transmission circuit.

The hydrostatic transmission shown


in Fig. 68 consists of a variable displacement pump,
fixed displacement motor, charge pump, charge
pump relief valve, and replenishing check valves. It
does not contain a main pressure relief valve, or
cross-over relief valves, which indicates it is probably
a mobile unit for application on a piece of equipment
like a grass mower, where wheel slippage is used to
prevent the system from over pressure or stalling.
Pressure in the charge circuit is relieved at 150 psi
by the relief valve, while main circuit pressure might
approach 2000 psi before slipping the wheels or
stalling the prime mover.

Typical problems associated with hydrostatic transmissions of this type are internal wear of the
pump and motor units, failure of the replenishing check valves to seat, and a stuck open charge pump
circuit pressure relief valve. Caution should be exercised not to confuse the symptom of a charge
pump pressure relief valve stuck open with low fluid level or clogged inlet filter, since the symptom will
be the same.
If the transmission seems to slip more as it warms up, this is a sign of internal wear. Units that
consist of a variable displacement swash plate piston pump and a fixed displacement swash plate
piston motor will wear between the pistons and bores and, over time, the unit will have more and more
slippage. For example, on a lawn mower, the unit will slow down under load mowing up hill, and speed
up as the load becomes lighter mowing down hill. On a unit that does not have excessive wear, the
speed will be relatively constant. The governor on the engine will open when mowing up hill, and close
mowing down hill, causing the transmission to brake.
If a check fails to seat, the unit will rotate and deliver power in one direction, but not in the other.
On a mower, for example, the unit would operate in the forward or reverse direction, but not in both
directions. What happens is that fluid from the pump flows through the replenishing check valve which
is stuck open and over the charge pump relief valve to drain. The unit would also drift in one direction
if an external load causes the motor to overrun.
If the pressure relief valve sticks open, the unit will not receive adequate fluid to keep the circuit full.
This could show up as spongy operation, lack of power, and general sluggishness. The same symptoms
will occur if the unit becomes low on oil, or if the inlet filter becomes clogged, starving the charge pump.
These items should be checked before working on the unit.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 97

Controls
Review: 79.1.
The hydrostatic transmission circuit shown in Fig.
68 powers the drive wheels on a lawn mower.
Which of the following will occur if the mower
meets an immovable object, such as a tree, under
full power?
a. The wheels will slip.
b. The cross-over relief valves will open.
c. The replenishing valves will open.
d. The pressure relief valve will open.
e. The pump will shift to neutral.

98 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Controls

Outcome 81.

Analyzes hydraulic systems.

Problems can be associated with causes by analyzing the system. Analysis means to find the
source of the problem by determining what type of problem it is, identifying possible causes, and then
testing various solutions to confirm which one has caused the system to malfunction.
The five general types of problems are:
1. Pressure.
2. Flow.
3. Leakage.
4. Heat.
5. Noise and vibration.
The five types of problems can occur individually, or in combination within a particular circuit. For
example, a common problem in hydraulic systems is loss of pressure. The cause for loss of pressure
could be a worn pump. However, high pressure can also cause a heat problem. For example, if fluid
is diverted over a relief valve, unwanted heat is also generated. Each problem is analyzed within a
particular circuit. Symptoms are analyzed from the circuit drawing, causes are identified, and then
tests are carried out to verify which causes contribute to the problem.
The circuit shown in Fig. 69 can be used to demonstrate a pressure problem. The cylinder shown
will support a load on the pressurized fluid in the cap end of the cylinder as long as the piston seal
does not leak. The pressure equals the load divided by the cross-sectional area of the bore. If the
piston bypasses fluid, the pressure equalizes on both sides of the piston. The pressure will also intensify because the load is now supported by the cross-section area of the cylinder rod. With the piston
bypassing fluid, the pressure on the cylinder shown supporting a 50 ton load would be:
pressure = (50 tons x 2000 pounds/ton)/ 9.6212 sq-in = 10,394 psi
This could be enough pressure to rupture the rod end seal.
The circuit in Fig. 70 (page 100) can be used
to demonstrate both flow and pressure problems. A
8
Load through center spool unloads the fixed displacement
bore
pump when the directional control valve is in the center
position. Shifting the control valve to extend the cylinder
directs flow to the cap end of the cylinder, through the
pilot operated check valve in the free-flow direction,
while pilot operating the counterbalance valve to allow
fluid to return to the reservoir from the rod end of the
cylinder. Shifting the control valve to retract the cylinder
Fig. 69. Pressure problem circuit.
directs flow to the rod end of the cylinder through the
bypass check valve in the free-flow direction while pilot operating the pilot to-open check valve to allow
fluid to return to the reservoir from the cap end of the cylinder.
3.5 dia. rod

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 99

Controls
The circuit has four check valves. Flow, pressure, and heat problems can be demonstrated if any
of these check valves were to be installed backward, that is, reversed in the circuit. Check valve A is
the bypass for the inline pressure filter. If the filter were to be installed backward, the bypass check
valve would slow the system when the filter becomes loaded. Of course, this would require that the
pressure relief valve be open to divert flow from the fixed displacement pump, and that the filter element would have to be strong enough not to collapse, rupture, or migrate downstream. Check valve B is
the pressure line load check to prevent reverse flow
when the directional control valve is shifted before the
pump comes to pressure, or when the pump is not
operating. If this check valve were installed backD
wards, or if the directional control valve were installed
C
backwards, which would reverse the action of the
check valve, the system would be inoperative. In the
neutral position, flow through the center passage
E would be directed to the reservoir, but when the valve
were shifted to either extend or retract the cylinder,
flow would be blocked and be diverted over the presB
sure relief valve. The circuit would also not hold a
loaded cylinder in position when the control valve were
shifted to raise the load. Check valve C is the pilot
check that allows free reverse flow to extend the cylinA
der. Reversing check valve C would allow the cylinder to retract once, but not to extend, because flow
directed to the cap end of the cylinder would be
blocked by the check, and there would be no pilot
pressure to open check valve C from the rod end of
the cylinder. Check valve D allows reverse flow
around the counterbalance valve when the cylinder
retracts. Reversing check valve D would allow the
cylinder rod to extend once, but not to retract,
because flow directed to the rod end of the cylinder
Fig. 70. Flow problem circuit.
would be blocked by the check, and there is no pilot
pressure to open check valve D from the cap end of the cylinder. Finally, check valve E is a spring
loaded check in the return line to provide the system with pilot pressure when the control valve is in the
center position unloading the fixed displacement pump. Reversing check valve E would cause flow from
the pump to be directed to reservoir over the pressure relief valve when the directional control valve were in
the center position, rather than through the low pressure check in the free-flow direction. The circuit would
not extend or retract either because check valve E blocks the flow of fluid to the reservoir.

Review: 81.1.
After assembly, the hydraulic circuit shown in Fig.
70 extends and retracts, but slower than at rated
velocity. Which check valve could be installed
backward (reversed)?
100 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

A
B
C
D
E
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

References
American National Standard for Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Aerial Devices. (1990). New York: American National
Standards Institute. Outcome 20
Analyzing Hydraulic Systems (Bulletin 0222-B1). (1087). Cleveland, Ohio: Parker-Hannifin Corporation. (5-12 to 5-13).
Outcome 75, 77
Design Engineers Handbook(Bulletin 0224-B1). (1980). Cleveland, Ohio: Parker-Hannifin Corporation. (b-38). Outcome 76, 77
Electro-Pneumatics Workbook. (1988). Hauppauge, New York: Festo Corporation. 14-31. Outcome 38
Fluid Power Data Book. (1991). Dallas, Texas: Womack Educational Publications. 12. Outcome 16
Fluid Power Systems and Components - Graphic Symbols. (1977). ISO 1219 International Organization for Standards.
Outcome 1, 6
Frankenfield T. C. (1984). Using Industrial Hydraulics. Cleveland, Ohio: Penton Publishing Company. 3-7, 3-34.
Outcome 7, 8, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 65, 66, 72, 78
Fundamentals of Service: Hydraulics. (1967). Moline, Illinois: Deere and Company. Chapter 3. Outcome 33
Hedges, Charles S. (1987). Electrical Control of Fluid Power (3rd edition). Dallas, Texas: Womack Machine Supply Company.
Outcome 43
Hoelzle, J., Amryhyn, O. C., McAlexander, G. A. (1991). Utility Vehicle Design Handbook (2 ed.). Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Society
of Automotive Engineers, Inc. Outcome 20
Hydraulics & Electronics Systems and Components. (1990). Cat. 400A-A90N. Troy, Michigan: Vickers Incorporated. G-15.
Outcome 8, 31
Hydraulics Workbook (1987). Hauppauge, New York: Festo Didactic, 76-94. Outcome 25
Industrial Hydraulics Manual. (1989). Troy, Michigan: Vickers Incorporated. 10-17. Outcome 19, 70, 73, 76
Lightning Reference Handbook (8th edition). (1993). Tusla, Oklahoma: Berendsen Fluid Power, Inc.. 82-83.
Mobile Hydraulics Manual (M-2990-A). (1985). Troy, Michigan: Vickers Incorporated. Outcome 33
Pippenger, J. J. (1990). Hydraulic Cartridge Valve Technology. Jenks, Oklahoma: Amalgam Publishing Company. 196-214.
Outcome 25
Service Manual for Series 6H Articulated-Boom Aerial Devices. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Hi-Ranger Corporation. Group A-6.
Outcome 20
Stage, R. (1992). The New ANSI Standards for Aerial Devices. Utility Fleet Management 12, 24-26. Outcome 20
Sullivan, James A. (1989). Fluid Power: Theory and Applications 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 114.
Outcome 70
Sun Hydraulics. (1991). Hydraulic Components for Industrial and Mobile Applications (Catalog). Sarasota, Florida: Sun Hydraulics
Corporation. Motor Controls. Outcome 55
Sunstrand Service Manual. (Bulletin 9646, 15 Series Hydrostatic Transmissions). Ames, Iowa: Sunstrand Corporation.
Outcome 79, 80
Twitchell, S. (1988). Electro-Pneumatics Workbook. Hauppauge, New York: Festo Corporation. Outcome 35

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Study Guide 101

IHT - Answer Manual

Industrial Hydraulic Technician


Certification Answer Manual

102 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Answer Manual

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Answer Manual


Solutions to Review Questions and Problems
1.1. a.

13.1: e.

2.1. c.

Solving Eq. 3 for the pressure below the piston


on the right side of Fig. 14,

3.1. c.
F=PxA

(Eq. 3)

4.1. c.
Pressure = 4000 lb / 3.1416 sq-in = 1273.24
psig.

4.2. d.
Notice that the P-port is blocked because a pressure
compensated pump is used, and that flow control
orifices are built into the A and B passages to
limit the maximum rate of cylinder travel.

Solving for the downward force transmitted by


the cylinder on the left side that results from a
pressure of 1273.24 psi,
Force = 1273.24 psi x (7.0686 sq-in 1.767
sq-in) = 6750 lb.

5.1. c.
6.1. a.

Finally, solving for the gauge pressure on the


blank side of the piston on the left.

7.1. c.
Pressure = 6750 lb / 7.0686 sq-in = 955 psi.
8.1. a.
9.1. c.

14.1:c.

10.1:b.

Solving Eq. 3 for the pressure at the rod end of


the cylinder,

Solving Eq. 1 for gauge pressure,

F=PxA

PSIG = PHft x SG x 0.433

(Eq. 1)

(Eq. 3)

Pressure = (2 tons x 2000 lb/ton) / (7.0686 sq-in


1.7672 sq-in)

Pressure = 4 x 0.85 x 0.433 = 1.47 psi


Pressure = 754 psi.

11.1:a.

15.1.e.

Solving Eq. 2 for in-Hg,

16.1.c.

in-Hg = NHin x SG x 0.0736


(Eq. 2)
in-Hg = 24 in x 0.90 x 0.0736 = 1.59 inches
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Answer Manual 103

IHT - Answer Manual


17.1:b.

22.1.a.

The area at the rod end to retract the ram with a


force of 2500 lb,

23.1.e.
23.2.d.

Area = Force / Pressure = 2500 lbs / 2000 psi =


1.25 sq-in.
Subtracting this area from the area of the bore to
arrive at the area of the ram,

24.1.c.
25.1.c.
26.1.e.

Ram Area = 7.0785 sq-in =


1.25 sq-in = 5.8285 sq-in.
Finally, solving for the maximum diameter of the
ram,

27.1.c.
28.1.b.
29.1.a.

Ram dia. = [(4 x 5.8285) / (3.1416)]1/2 = 2.72 in.


30.1:b.
18.1:b.
Solving Eq. 6 for absolute pressure,
Solving for the effective flow rate using Eq. 5,
Qcyl = RV x A x 026

(Eq. 5)

PSIA = 14.7 + (NH x -0.4912)


(Eq. 6)

gpm = (12/6 ips x 3.1416 sq-in) / 3.85 = 1.632


gpm.

Absolute Pressure = (14.7) + (7 in-Hg x -0.4912


= 11.26 psia.

Since the cylinder is receiving 1.75 gpm, the


amount of fluid by-passing the piston is

30.2:d.

Leakage = 1.75 1.632 = 0.118 gpm.


19.1.a.
19.2.c.

First locate the pump pressure (2000 psig)


across the bottom of the graph. Now move up
the 2000 psi line until it crosses the input horsepower curve. Read the minimum input horsepower (120 hp) at the left side of the graph.

19.3.b.
31.1.b.
19.4.c.
32.1.c.
19.5.e.
33.1.b.
20.1.d.
21.1.a.
104 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Answer Manual

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Answer Manual


34.1:d.

42.1.b.

(Eq. 8) Va = Q x 231 x (t / 60)

43.1.c.

= 5 gpm x 231 x (30 / 60)

44.1.b.

= 5 gpm x 231 x 0.5 = 577.50 cu-in

47.1.e.

34.2:c.

49.1:d.

(Eq. 8) Rewritten to solve for Q:

Solving Eq. 9 for resistance


E=IxR

Q = Va / [231 x (t / 60)]
Knowing there are 639 cu-in in 3 gallons (231
cu-in / gal x 3 gal):

(Eq. 9)

R = E/I
R = 32/3.5 = 9.14 ohms

Q = 63 / [231 x (25 / 60)]


51.1.b.

Q = 7.20 gal

52.1.d.
34.3:c.
53.1.c.
Solve Eq. 7 for V2 the volume of the charge gas
at 2500 psi. Note that the Perfect Gas Law
requires the use of pressure in the absolute values (psia).
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

(Eq. 7)

(1500 psig + 14.7)(2 gal x 231) = (2500 psig +


14.7) x V2
V2 = 278 cu-in
Subtracting the charge gas from the volume of
the accumulator to arrive at the oil volume,
Oil volume = (2 gal x 231) V2 =
184 cubic inches
35.1.a.
39.1.c.

55.1.a.
56.1.b.
58.1.c.
60.1.c.
62.1.d.
63.1.a.
64.1.a
66.1.d.
68.1.e.
70.1.b.
71.1.a.

40.1.e.
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Answer Manual 105

IHT - Answer Manual


77.1.e.
72.1:d.
78.1.b.
Solving Eq. 10 for decompression oil volume
percentage
A = D2 x 0.7854 = (20)2 x 0.7854 = 314.16 sq-in
(Eq. 10)
Volume = Area x Stroke
V=AxS=
314.16 sq-in x 30 stroke = 9424.80 cu-in
DV = % C x V =
0.02 x 9424.80 cu-in = 188.50 cu-in

79.1.a.
81.1.a.

Decompression = 0.02 x [(3.1416) x (20)2]/4 x


(30) = 188.5 cu-in
72.2.d.
Changing one half of one percent (1/2% = 0.50%)
to a decimal value results in a factor of 0.005.
The area of a 30 inch bore ram is 708.86 sq-in.
Therefore, when it is extended, the volume of the
ram is 17,671.50 cu-in. Substituting these values
into the equation:
DC = {0.005 x 17671.50
x (3000 psi / 1000 psi)} = 265.07 cu-in
73.1.c.
74.1.d.
75.1.b.
75.2.c.
The two pumps operating together will flow 25
gpm at up to 500 psi. This will require 8.2 hp.
Then the power requirement o fthe 24 gpm
pump drops off. The system will require 7.0 hp
when the 4 gpm pump reaches 3000 psi.
Therefore, the minimum motor size required is
10 hp.
76.1.e.
106 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Answer Manual

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Certification Pre-Test

Industrial Hydraulic Technician


Certification Pre-Test

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 107

IHT - Certification Pre-Test

individual study or attendance at an RTS to further


evaluate test readiness. In some instances, it may
Pre-tests are used to evaluate candidate be desirable to take all three pre-tests at
preparedness for certification tests. Pre-tests different times during the study process to better
may be either taken individually or in a group access preparedness and effectiveness of study.
setting such as during a Review Training Session
(RTS). As a part of an RTS, Pre-tests are used to
The answer sheets provided have been
allow the instructor to tailor the subject matter developed such that each question is referenced
coverage to the needs of the audience. When a to a particular subject matter area of the study
candidate is studying individually or in a small manual and of the test. This will eliminate any bias
group, pre-tests provide insight into which areas that may occur by having the appropriate outcome
require further study and whether the candidate statement appear with the answers and more
should consider other study options, such as an closely mimics actual test conditions. After checkRTS.
ing the answers, the answer sheet may be opened
to reveal the areas where further study is needed.
Included in this manual are three separate This should enable directed study in the areas
pre-tests for the Industrial Hydraulic Technician where a deficiency exists.
certification test. Each pre-test has its own separate
answer sheet which appears at the end of the
Candidates should be advised that each
pre-tests. Individual pre-tests are numbered pre-test covers only a representative sample of
IHT-1, IHT-2, and IHT-3. The answer key for all the types of questions found on the test. Due to
three pre-tests appears at the end of the manual. the need to keep the pre-test brief, not all subject
matter is covered on every pre-test. Thorough
Candidates are encouraged to take a pre-test preparation for the certification test is strongly
early in the study process. Pre-tests should be encouraged.
taken under timed conditions. A maximum of
forty-five minutes should be allotted for each
The experience of taking pre-tests under
pre-test. This should be sufficient time to answer timed conditions should reduce test anxiety
all twenty-five questions on the pre-test. The associated with the actual certification test. If
results of the pre-test will guide the candidate to necessary, candidates may wish to retake the
one of four possible courses of action regarding pre-tests after some period of time has elapsed to
tests preparation.
recheck their knowledge.

Introduction

1. Take the test: Preparation is sufficient.


2. Study the material using the Study
Manual.
3. Attend a Review Training Session (RTS):
Preparation is good, but not sufficient to
pass the test.
4. Participate in a formal (general) course: A
Review Training Session would not provide
adequate preparation to pass the test.

Suggestions or comments for improvements


of these pretests and other certification materials
should be sent to:
Fluid Power Society Education Institute
c/o FPS
3245 Freemansburg Avenue
Palmer, PA 18045-7118
610-923-0386

Additional pre-tests should be taken after

108 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Certification Pre-Test Form IHT-1


Industrial Hydraulic Technician
CERTIFICATION TEST
PRE-TEST
FORM IHT-1

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 109

IHT - Certification Pre-Test Form IHT-1


1. Which one of the following is the generalized
symbol for a pressure source?
a.

b.

5. Assuming no friction, what is the approximate


static pressure reading on the gauge in the
figure? (Both cylinders are full of oil.)

d.

e.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

187
212
295
557
955

psi.
psi.
psi.
psi.
psi.

4000
lb

Static
Load

1 Rod

1.5 Rod

c.
Pres ?

2. In the center position, a four port, three


position, normally non-passing (closed
center) hydraulic valve has:
a.
b.
c.
d.

P and T ports blocked.


P and A ports blocked.
P, A, B, and T ports blocked.
P to B ports blocked, and A and T ports
connected.
e. P blocked, and A, B, and T ports connected.
3. Which line in the simplified symbol shown
indicates that the flow control valve has an
adjustable output?
a. Arrow at
an angle.
b. Reservoir
Variable Outlet
symbol.
Relief Port
c. Arrow on the flow line.
d. Two arcs that form a narrow passage.
e. Arrow on line that connects to flow line.
4. Which symbol part indicates that a hydraulic
pump in the figure shown is bi-directional?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Case drain.
One solid triangle.
Two solid triangles.
45 degree line with arrow.
The rotation arrow on the shaft.

110 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

6. What size Schedule 40 pipe would flow 6


gpm and still keep the velocity below
4 ft/sec?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

1/4 inch.
3/8 inch.
1/2 inch.
3/4 inch.
1 inch.

7. Which one of the following valves uses both


internal and external pilots to operate the
valve spool?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Brake.
Crossport relief.
Pressure relief.
Sequence.
Pressure reducing.

8. What condition determines if a pressure


control valve has an external pilot drain?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Pilot pressure.
Inlet pressure.
Downstream backpressure.
System pressure.
Relief valve pressure.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Certification Pre-Test Form IHT-1

10.

11.

Fast response.
Holds pump prime.
Low pressure override.
Low power loss at full flow.
Pump flow diverted at high pressure.

half.
double.
quadruple.
reduce slightly.
remain the same.

Which one of the following is true for the


pilot operated (to open) check valve
shown?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

200

Volumetric Efficiency

90

180

Overall Efficiency

80
70
60
50
40
30

Pilot X
Port
Inlet B Port

Y Drain

The best place to install a flow control


valve to smooth out the operation of a pilot
operated check valve as it lowers a load
is?
a. Before the cylinder inlet port.
b. Between the cylinder and the PO check
valve.
c. At the PO check valve drain port.
d. At the PO check valve pilot port.
e. Between the PO check valve
and the DCV valve.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

8000

160
140
120
100

Delivery - GPM

ue
orq
ut T
Inp

HP
ut
Inp

6000

4000

80
60

20

40

10

20

2000

0 200 500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

Outlet Pressure - PSIg

14.

Which one of the following valves would be


used to direct flow to the power steering
and loader functions of a front end loader?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Pilot
Piston

A Port
Outlet

90 hp.
100 hp.
110 hp.
120 hp.
140 hp.

100

Fluid can flow only in one direction.


Poppet piston is larger than pilot piston.
Fluid is checked at the B-Port.
Pilot check valves have two ports.
Pilot pressure equals system pressure.
Poppet
Piston

12.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

If the load pressure on a pressure compensated flow control valve doubles, the
pressure drop across the orifice will:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Approximately what minimum size motor


would the pump described by the
performance curves require to operate at
2000 psi?

Flow GPM & Horsepower

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

13.

Torque In. Lbs.

Which one of the following is an advantage


of a hydraulic direct acting pressure relief
valve?

Efficiency - Percent

9.

15.

By-pass flow regulator.


Priority flow divider.
Proportional flow divider.
Restrictor flow control.
By-pass pressure relief.

A 2 gallon accumulator is precharged to


1500 psi. How much oil does the
accumulator hold when the system is at
2500 psi?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

92 cu-in.
128 cu-in.
184 cu-in.
278 cu-in.
462 cu-in.

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 111

IHT - Certification Pre-Test Form IHT-1


16. Which of the following ladder diagram
elements would consume the least current?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Solenoid.
Relay coil.
Signal lamp.
Electric motor.
Pressure switch.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

17. Which electrical component protects a switch


against arcing?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Coil.
Capacitor.
Relay contact.
Pressure switch.
Circuit breaker.

P1
P2
P3
P1

+
+
+
=

P2
P3
P1
P2

=
=
=
=

Load 1

Load 2

Load 3

P1

Cylinder 1

Cylinder 2

Cylinder 3

How the load is controlled.


Purpose of the check valve.
How the accumulator is relieved.
Placement of the pressure relief valve.
Force exerted by the cylinder actuator.

22. Which type of circuit is used to synchronize


the cylinders in the figure?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

P3

P2

Brake.
Sequence.
Pilot operated check.
Unloading.
Pressure reducing.

21. How do accumulator circuits that maintain


system pressure differ from accumulator
circuits that cushion loads?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

P3
P1
P2
P3

Sequence.
Relief.
Brake.
Pressure Reducing.
None of the above.

20. Which of the following circuits provides a


leak-free seal to hold a cylinder actuator in
position?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

18. In a series hydraulic circuit like that in the


figure shown, with equal bore and rod
diameter double-end-rod cylinders holding
equal loads at mid-stroke, which of the
following is true?
a.
b.
c.
d.

19. Which of the following valves must be


externally drained?

Metered flow.
Replenishing.
Flow divider.
Equal loading.
Series circuit.

Cyl 1

Cyl 2

Retract

112 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

Extend

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Certification Pre-Test Form IHT-1


23.

A press cylinder with a 20 inch bore


releases oil at the end of a 30 inch stroke
through a decompression valve. If the oil is
compressed 2%, how much oil could
flow to return when the pressure is
released?
a. 18 cu-in.
b. 94 cu-in.
c. 125 cu-in.
d. 188 cu-in.
e. 250 cu-in.

25.

Which valve spool center should be used


with a pilot operated check valve
installed at the rod end of a double-acting
cylinder?
a. Tandem center.
b. Float center.
c. Closed center.
d. P to B, A to T.
e. P to T, A to B.

24.

Jog starting a two-pump high-low pressure


system after assembly causes the electric
motor to stall. A circuit for the correct
installation is shown. Which of the following could be at fault?
a. Wrong electric motor rotation.
b. The check valve is installed backward.
c. The pump to motor coupling is mis
aligned.
d. The unloading valve return line is
disconnected.
e. The vent connection open on relief
valve.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 113

IHT-1 Pre-Test Answer Sheet


HT-1 Pre-Test Answer Sheet
Hydraulic Symbols
Outcome:
Page
1 Identifies pressure source graphic symbols.
11
4 Associates hydraulic directional control valve center position with
actuator control.
15
6 Associates simplified flow control valve symbols with component function. 18
9 Identifies symbols for hydraulic pumps and motors.
21
Statics
13 Uses cylinder bores and rod diameters to figure static pressures.
Components
16 Determines hydraulic flow capacity from conductor sizes.
19 Distinguishes between operation of a pressure relief, pressure reducing,
unloading, sequence, counterbalance, and brake valve.
19 Distinguishes between operation of a pressure relief, pressure reducing,
unloading, sequence, counterbalance, and brake valve.
21 Understands the characteristics of hydraulic pressure relief valve and
unloading relief valve circuits.
23 Understands that hydraulic pressure compensated flow control valves
maintain constant pressure across a variable orifice.
25 Understands functions, porting, and purpose of differential areas in
pilot operated hydraulic check valves.
28 Distinguished between the operation of a counterbalance valve and pilot
operated to-open check valve.
30 Interprets hydraulic pump specifications from performance curves.
33 Understands the purpose and operation of priority flow divider valves,
bypass flow regulators, and flow divider valves.
34 Calculates fill times, oil capacities, and charge pressures for
hydro-pneumatic accumulators.

Answer
1 A B C D E
2 A B C D E
3 A B C D E
4 A B C D E

25 5 A B C D E

30 6 A B C D E
36 7 A B C D E
36 8 A B C D E
39 9 A B C D E
42 10 A B C D E
45 11 A B C D E
48 12 A B C D E
50 13 A B C D E
55 14 A B C D E
57 15 A B C D E

Controls
40 Distinguishes between ladder diagram elements: Electrical contacts
(push button switches, sensors, and relay contacts), and output elements
(resistance loads, such as relay, solenoids, lamps, and, motors).
63 16 A B C D E
44 Identifies function of electrical components in a circuit.
66 17 A B C D E
Basic Circuit
51 Understands that system pressure in a series hydraulic circuit results
from the combined load on all actuators.
55 Identifies purpose for hydraulic meter-in, meter-out, bleed-off, brake,
sequence, and counterbalance circuits.
58 Identifies circuits that match applications.
63 Distinguishes hydraulic accumulator circuit purposes from a circuit drawing.
68 Identifies circuits that allow two or more cylinders to operate in unison.
72 Computes the expansion volume to be controlled when oil decompresses.
114 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

71 18 A B C D E
75
79
82
85
90

19
20
21
22
23

A
A
A
A
A

B
B
B
B
B

C
C
C
C
C

D
D
D
D
D

E
E
E
E
E

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT-1 Pre-Test Answer Sheet


Troubleshooting
75 Understands the operation of the unloading valve in a two-pump,
high-low, pressure system.
78 Understands that pilot operated to-open check valves in cylinder circuits
must be open to drain when the control valve is in the center position
to operate properly.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

93 24 A B C D E

96 25 A B C D E

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 115

IHT - Certification Pre-Test IHT-2

Industrial Hydraulic Technician


CERTIFICATION TEST
PRE-TEST
FORM IHT-2

116 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Certification Pre-Test IHT-2


1.

How can a rotating shaft symbol be


distinguished from a swivel connection?
a. A swivel connection symbol has a closed
arc.
b. A rotary connection has one straight
line.
c. A shaft connection symbol has two
arrows.
d. A swivel connection symbol has one
arrow.
e. A shaft connection symbol has a closed
arc.

2.

Which hydraulic three-position directional


control valve center position would provide
the safest operation for a pressure
compensated pump system that controls an
aerial truck boom? A counter balance valve
adjusted to control the load is manifold
mounted to the cylinder.
A B
A B
a.

d.
P T
A B

b.

e.
P T
A B

c.

3.

P T
A B
P T

4.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

a. Load.
b. Throttling orifice.
c. Compensator bias
spring force.
d. Upstream pressure.
e. Downstream pressure.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

0.12
1.47
2.04
3.86
4.71

psi.
psi.
psi.
psi.
psi.

5.

A 3 inch bore horizontally mounted


hydraulic cylinder with a 1-1/2 inch
diameter rod supports a tractive force of 2
tons at mid-stroke. What is the pressure in
the rod end of the cylinder?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

377 psi.
565 psi.
754 psi.
923 psi.
1131 psi.

6.

A hydraulic ram with a 3 inch bore operates


at a relief valve pressure of 2000 psi. If
the ram must exert a retraction force of 2500
lb, what is the maximum diameter of the
rod?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

P T

What determines the pressure drop across


the throttling orifice in the detailed symbol
shown?

What is the gauge pressure at the inlet of


a pump mounted 4 feet below the surface
of a hydraulic fluid that has a specific
gravity of 0.85?

7.

1.75
2.72
2.83
3.42
4.00

Which one of the following circuit conditions


would require using an external pilot to
operate a counterbalance valve?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Constant load.
Over center load.
Maximum tonnage.
Reverse flow capability.
Load holding capability.

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 117

IHT - Certification Pre-Test IHT-2


Which one of the following valves is
pilot operated from the outlet port and
externally pilot drained?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
9.

12.

The pressure holding a pilot operated


to-open check valve with a 4:1 ratio in the
closed position is 2400 psi. What
minimum pilot pressure would open the
valve? (Ignore friction and return spring
force.)

Braking.
Unloading.
Counterbalance.
Pressure relief.
Pressure reducing.

The best place to install a flow control


valve to smooth out the operation of a pilot
operated check valve as it lowers a load
is?

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
13.

Which valve spool from the graph shown


would provide a flow rate of 10 gpm and
still keep the pressure drop in the 50 psi
to 60 psi range?

a. Before the cylinder inlet port.


b. Between the cylinder and the
PO check valve.
c. At the PO check valve drain port.
d. At the PO check valve pilot port.
e. Between the PO check valve and
the DCV valve.
Which one of the flow control valves will
control the flow most accurately for all system
conditions?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
11.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Manual.
Pressure compensated.
Temperature compensated.
Pressure and temperature compensated.
None of the above.

Which valve spool center is required for a


cylinder circuit with a pilot operated check
valve when used in combination with a
fixed-displacement pump and accumulator
in the system?

Valve spool 1.
Valve spool 2.
Valve spool 3.
Valve spool 4.
None of the above.
Flow - GPM

9 10 11 12 13
140
4

130
120

8
3

Pressure Drop - bar

10.

600 psi.
1200 psi.
1800 psi.
2400 psi.
4800 psi.

110
100

7
2

90
80
70

60
50
40

Pressure Drop - PSI

8.

30
2

20
10

0
0

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Closed center.
Open center.
Tandem center
Through center.
Float center.

118 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

Flow - L/min.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Certification Pre-Test IHT-2


14.

A pre-charged empty accumulator receiving


5 gpm fills in 30 seconds. What is the
approximate usable volume available from
the accumulator?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

15.

18.

Which of the following could not occur in


the operation of the circuit shown?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

19 cu-in
39 cu-in
347 cu-in
578 cu-in
1155 cu-in

The normal position for a hydraulic cylinder


is "retracted". Which limit switch shown
would energize the DC solenoid to retract
the cylinder?
Normally Open
a.

Load
Load
Load
Load
Load

1, 2, and 3 lowered.
1, 2, and 3 raised.
1 raised, load 2 and 3 lowered.
2 raised, load 1 and 3 lowered.
1 and 2 raised, load 3 lowered.

Load 1

Load 2

Load 3

Cylinder 1

Cylinder 2

Cylinder 3

b.

Normally Closed

c.

Normally Open, Held Closed

d.
16.

Which meter reads the voltage drop in the


ladder diagram shown?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

17.

Normally Closed, Held Open

A
B
C
D
None. (All the
meters read
the same.)

19.

Which component forces the circuit


shown to regenerate flow?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Pump.
Cylinder.
Check valve V1.
Check valve V2.
Control valve V3.

V1
A

V2

C
V3

AC directional control valve solenoid hum


is controlled by:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

reducing solenoid inrush current.


lowering solenoid line voltage.
reducing solenoid shifting rate.
reducing solenoid return spring force.
installing a solenoid with a shading coil.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 119

IHT - Certification Pre-Test IHT-2


20.

Which aerial truck hydraulic application


generates the most heat?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

21.

24.

Tree trimming.
Line stringing.
Line maintenance.
Insulator cleaning.
Street light maintenance.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Which one of the following is the most


common location for a hydraulic filter?
25.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

22.

Which of the following will cause a


sequence valve to fail to open.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

23.

Off-line.
Return line.
Pressure line.
Inlet suction line.
Unloading relief valve line.

Open pilot drain line.


Weak bias spring.
Plugged drain line.
High inlet port pressure.
High outlet port pressure.

Which of the following types of cylinders


would most likely drift out under no load, if
the open center valve were under back
pressure?
One to one cylinder.
Two to one cylinder.
Three to one cylinder.
Four to one cylinder.
Five to one cylinder.

The hydrostatic transmission circuit shown


powers the drive wheels on a lawn mower.
Which of the following will occur if the
mower meets an immovable object, such
as a tree, under full power?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

The
The
The
The
The

wheels will slip.


cross-over relief valves will open.
replenishing valves will open.
pressure relief valve will open.
pump will shift to neutral.

What is the minimum size motor needed to


power a hi-low pump system that has a 24
gpm high volume low-pressure pump set
to unload at 500 psi, and a 4 gpm low-volume
high-pressure pump if the main system
relief is set at 3000 psi?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

5 hp
7.5 hp
10 hp
15 hp
20 hp

120 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT-2 Pre-Test Answer Sheet


HT-2 Pre Test Answer Sheet
Hydraulic Symbols
Outcome
Page
2 Identifies hydraulic graphic symbols that describe flow lines
and connections.
12
4 Associates hydraulic directional control valve center position with
actuator control.
15
7 Identifies hydraulic flow control valves from both simplified and
detailed symbols.
19
Statics
10 Understands the relationship between height of a liquid and the gauge
pressure reading in psig.
22
14 Relates resistive and tractive (overrunning) loads to static pressures
in hydraulic cylinders.
27
Components
17 Calculates speeds and forces associated with single-end rod
hydraulic rams.
31
19 Distinguishes between operation of a pressure relief, pressure reducing,
unloading sequence, counterbalance, and brake valve.
36
19 Distinguishes between operation of a pressure relief, pressure reducing,
unloading sequence, counterbalance, and brake valve.
36
28 Distinguishes between the operation of a counterbablance valve and a
pilot operated check valve.
48
23 Understands that hydraulic pressure compensated flow control valves
maintain constant pressure across a variable orifice.
42
26 Understands that load holding, pilot operated to-open, check valves
require an open center or float center directional control valve.
46
29 Determines the pressure to shift a pilot operated check valve.
49
31 Predicts hydraulic directional control valve operation from
performance curves.
53
34 Calculates fill times, oil capacities, and charge pressures for
hydro-pneumatic accumulators.
57
Controls
35 Identifies limit switch positions.
59
42 Understands that in a ladder diagram, the voltage drops across the
switch if it is open or across the load if it is closed.
64
47 Knows that shading coil in AC directional control valve solenoids
minimizes hum by providing an induced current that lags the
applied current.
67
Basic circuits
52 Understands that pressure in a parallel hydraulic circuit results from
the load on the actuator with least resistance.
72
60 Understands that regenerative hydraulic circuits require adding the rod
end return flow to the cap end flow on the extension stroke.
80
64 Understands that hydraulic system heat generation in aerial trucks is
caused by boom actuation and portable hydraulic tool usage.
83
70 Identifies filter location from circuit drawings.
87
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Answers
1 A B C D E
2 A B C D E
3 A B C D E

4 A B C D E
5 A B C D E

6 A B C D E
7 A B C D E
8 A B C D E
9 A B C D E
10 A B C D E
11 A B C D E
12 A B C D E
13 A B C D E
14 A B C D E
15 A B C D E
16 A B C D E

17 A B C D E

18 A B C D E
19 A B C D E
20 A B C D E
21 A B C D E

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 121

IHT-2 Pre-Test Answer Sheet


Troubleshooting
73 Understands the functions of the drain on a sequence valve.
75 Understands the operation of the unloading valve in a two-pump, hi-low
pressure system, and how to calculate the system horsepower.
76 Understands that a large ratio between cap end areas can cause a
hydraulic ram to extend at low pressure.
79 Associates slippage in a hydrostatic transmission with worn, pump or
motor or motor cartridge.

122 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

91 22 A B C D E
91 23 A B C D E
94 24 A B C D E
97 25 A B C D E

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Certification Pre-Test IHT-3


Industrial Hydraulic Technician
CERTIFICATION EXAMINATION
PRE-TEST
FORM IHT-3

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 123

IHT - Certification Pre-Test IHT-3


1. How many ports does the directional
control valve shown have?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Two.
Three.
Four.
Five.
Six.

2. A compound, balanced piston (or spool)


pressure relief valve is balanced by:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

5. If the cylinder shown was extended 10


inches, and then only the piston seal were to
leak towards the rod end, theoretically the
cylinder rod would:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

extend completely.
drift in.
retract completely.
leak fluid.
retract slightly.

flow.
stroke.
pressure.
spring force.
spool size.

5000 lb
1.5 Rod

3. What is adjusted to regulate flow in the


pressure compensated, variable output, bypass type, flow control valve illustrated by the
symbols shown?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Flow orifice.
Relief to drain.
Compensator bias spring.
Pilot pressure to compensator.
Vent pressure to compensator.

Variable Output By-Pass Type

4. A pump inlet is located 24 inches above the


surface of a hydraulic fluid with a specific
gravity of 0.90. How many in-Hg
would be required to lift the fluid to the inlet?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

1.59 in-Hg.
1.76 in-Hg.
1.96 in-Hg.
2.59 in-Hg.
3.01 in-Hg.

124 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

3.5
Bore

6. A 2 inch bore single end rod hydraulic


cylinder that receives hydraulic fluid at 1.75
gpm extends 12 inches in 6 seconds. How
much fluid is by-passing the piston?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

0.05 gpm.
0.12 gpm.
0.95 gpm.
1.15 gpm.
1.63 gpm.

7. Which one of the following valves uses a


check to isolate part of the circuit?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Brake.
Unloading.
Counterbalance.
Pressure relief.
Pressure reducing.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Certification Pre-Test IHT-3


8. Which load holding valve is used to lock a
cylinder in place so it will hold position
without drift?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Brake.
Sequence.
Unloading.
Pilot operated check.
Reducing.

9. A pressure compensated flow control valve


delivers 8 gpm with a pressure drop across
the main metering orifice of 75 psi. If the
downstream pressure changes from 1500 to
1800 psi, what will be the pressure drop
across the main metering orifice?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

75 psi.
90 psi.
105 psi.
150 psi.
300 psi.

10. In a flow control valve, what is the


difference between a bi-metallic temperature
compensator and a sharp edged orifice
temperature compensator?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Bi-metallic element is more accurate.


Sharp-edged orifice has more friction.
Viscosity changes affect orifices less.
Bi-metallic element heats the fluid.
Sharp edged orifice has less turbulence.

12. A pump draws a vacuum of 7 in-Hg.


What is the equivalent of this pressure in
psia?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

7.9 psia.
11.3 psia.
14.7 psia.
18.7 psia.
26.5 psia.

13. A separate pilot drain line should be used


on an open center directional control valve
when there is:
a. a bypass spring in the return line.
b. low back pressure in the return line.
c. a pressure check valve in the return
line.
d. more than one directional valve in the
system.
e. no drain connection available in the
return line.
14. An accumulator that holds 3 gallons of
usable oil discharges in 25 seconds. What is
the average flow rate?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

2.5 gpm
3.6 gpm.
7.2 gpm.
8.6 gpm.
9.8 gpm.

15. A limit switch is used to:


11. Which of the following would most likely
cause thermal lock in a double-acting cylinder
held at mid-stroke?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Closed center control valve spool.


Counterbalance valves in each line.
Pilot operated checks in each line.
Sequence valves in each line.
P to T, and A to B center spool.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

a. start the control circuit.


b. close the relay contacts.
c. signal the beginning or end
of an event.
d. move the solenoid armature.
e. indicate when the circuit is energized.

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 125

IHT - Certification Pre-Test IHT-3


16. Which electrical element in the ladder
diagram shown begins the sequence to
retract the cylinder rod?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

19. Compared to meter-in and meter-out circuits,


bleed-off circuits will have:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Push button switch.


Control relay 2.
Limit switch 2.
Solenoid 1.
Solenoid 2.

PB

LS2
1
CR

LS 2

2
CR

Sol 1

1 CR
2 CR

1 CR

Sol 2

Sol 1

Sol 2

the best pump utilization for branch circuits.


have the highest system efficiency.
more piston seal leakage.
resistance to overrunning loads.
the best accuracy.

20. In the circuit shown, a hydraulic cylinder


with a 2-1/2 inch diameter bore and 1-3/4
inch rod extends under regeneration at a
pressure of 1500 psi. What is the maximum
clamping force?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

664 lbs.
3608 lbs.
3750 lbs.
7363 lbs.
9847 lbs.

17. What is the resistance of a 32 volt DC


solenoid that has a holding current of 3.5
amperes?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

0.11 ohms.
2.61 ohms.
3.50 ohms.
9.14 ohms.
94.81 ohms.

18. Which of the following valves is used to


protect a fixed displacement pump?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Brake.
Sequence.
Pressure relief.
Pressure reducing.
Flow control.

126 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

21. In general, which one of the following


circuits is the most power efficient?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Fixed displacement, relief valve.


Variable displacement, relief valve.
Fixed displacement, load sensing.
Variable displacement, load sensing.
Variable displacement, pressure
compensated.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT - Certification Pre-Test IHT-3


22. The purpose of the pressure reducing valve
in the circuit shown is to:
a.
b.
c.
d.

limit the force of the clamp cylinder.


eliminate reverse flow check valves.
limit the force of the work cylinder.
assure minimum pressure on the clamp
cylinder.
e. eliminate three position directional control
valves.
Clamp
Cylinder

24. What would cause a cylinder connected to a


closed center directional control valve like
that shown to creep out and cause the load
to move?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Fluid leak at the rod end.


Restricted return line.
Relief valve set too high.
Valve spool leak to reservoir.
Clearance flow in the control valve.
Load

Work
Cylinder
Cylinder drifts out

25. After assembly, the hydraulic circuit shown


extends and retracts, but slower than at rated
velocity. Which check valve could be
installed backward (reversed)?
23. A shorted directional control valve solenoid
coil:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

has a broken wire.


has a pinched wire.
has a high resistance.
has an electrical leak.
has an electrical lead missing.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

A
B
C
D
E

D
C
E

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 127

IHT-3 Pre-Test Answer Sheet


HT-3 Pre Test Answer Sheet
Hydraulic Symbols
Outcome:
3 Identifies directional control valve symbols.
5 Identifies hydraulic pressure control valves from detailed symbols.
8 Associates detailed flow control symbols with component function.
Statics
11 Understands the relationship between height of a liquid and gauge
pressure reading in inches of mercury (in-Hg).
15 Understands that cylinder movement is caused by sufficient pressure
against a movable area
Components
18 Understands how hydraulic flow rate and cylinder rod velocity are
used to determine volumetric efficiency.
19 Distinguishes between operation of a pressure relief, pressure reducing,
unloading, sequence, counterbalance, and brake valves.
20 Understands that load holding valves are required on truck mounted
aerial lift cylinders.
22 Understands that hydraulic pressure compensated flow control valves
maintain constant actuator speed regardless of load.
24 Understands that flow through a sharp edge orifice is less affected
by change in fluid temperature than other types of restrictions.
27 Understands that thermal expansion of fluid can cause high pressure
and thermal lock in hydraulic cylinders equipped with pilot operated
check valves.
30 Interprets hydraulic pump specification from performance curves.
32 Understands that pilot drains on hydraulic directional control valves
should have separate lines if the system experiences high
return line pressure.
34 Calculates fill times, oil capacities, and charge pressures for
hydro-pneumatic accumulators.
Controls
39 Understands the basics of hydraulic system electrical controls.
43 Understands interaction between ladder diagram and directional
control valve shifting mechanism.
49 Understands the relationship given by Ohms Law.
Basic Circuits
53 Understands that the pressure relief valve diverts unneeded flow to
reservoir when a fixed displacement pump is used.
56 Recognizes the characteristics of meter-in, meter-out, and
bleed-off circuits.
62 Calculates the cylinder rod force, cylinder rod velocity, and flow rate
in various lines in a hydraulic regenerative cylinder circuit.
128 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

Page
14
17
20

1
2
3

Answer
A BCD E
A BCD E
A BCD E

23

A BCD E

28

A BCD E

32

A BCD E

33

A BCD E

38

A BCD E

42

A BCD E

42

10 A B C D E

47
50

11 A B C D E
12 A B C D E

54

13 A B C D E

57

14 A B C D E

62

15 A B C D E

65
69

16 A B C D E
17 A B C D E

73

18 A B C D E

78

19 A B C D E

80

20 A B C D E
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

IHT-3 Pre-Test Answer Sheet


66 Understands that hydraulic load sensing circuits with variable
displacement, pressure compensated, pumps maintain pressure
at approx. load pressure.
71 Identifies circuit components that control (maintain and limit) clamping
cylinder pressure in a sequence pressure reducing circuit.
Troubleshooting
74 Understands the basics of troubleshooting hydraulic system electrical
controls.
77 Understands that a single-end-rod hydraulic cylinder may drift out if
the load can be moved by half the pressure at the pressure port, applied
to the cylinder in regeneration.
81 Analyzes hydraulic systems.

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

84

21 A B C D E

89

22 A B C D E

92

23 A B C D E

95
99

24 A B C D E
25 A B C D E

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 129

IHT - Pre-Test Answer Key


Industrial Hydraulic Technician PRE-TEST ANSWER KEY
HT-1

HT-2

HT-3

1. A

1. A

1. C

2. C

2. D

2. C

3. A

3. C

3. A

4. C

4. B

4. A

5. E

5. C

5. E

6. D

6. B

6. B

7. A

7. C

7. B

8. C

8. E

8. D

9. A

9. B

9. A

10. E

10. D

10. C

11. C

11. E

11. C

12. B

12. A

12. B

13. D

13. B

13. C

14. B

14. D

14. C

15. C

15. A

15. C

16. E

16. B

16. C

17. B

17. E

17. D

18. B

18. D

18. C

19. A

19. C

19. B

20. C

20. A

20. D

21. A

21. B

21. D

22. E

22. C

22. A

23. D

23. C

23. D

24. B

24. E

24. E

25. B

25. A

25. A

130 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Help Improve This Guide


Updates, corrections and revisions to this Manual are requested and encouraged. This Manual
is the second attempt at developing support materials for Certified Fluid Power candidates. It will
undoubtedly require improvement. It is up to CFP candidates and Accredited Instructors to provide
input and suggestions for improvement. The Fluid Power Certification Board, composed of industry volunteers, is responsible for determining what revisions and improvements are made to this Manual. The
Manuals are updated on a regular basis and date stamped on each page.
Please send your suggestions for improvement to the Executive Director who is coordinating
input on behalf of the Fluid Power Certification Board.
Thank you very much for helping us improve these materials for future candidates.
Attn: Executive Director
Fluid Power Society
Mailing: P.O. Box 1420, Cherry Hill, NJ 08034-0054
Shipping: 1930 East Marlton Pike, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003-2142
Phone: 856-424-8998
Fax: 856-424-9248

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 131

F LUID P OWER C ER TIFICATION


Setting competitive standards for Fluid Power Professionals
Fluid Power Certification ...
How Can I Benefit?
Fluid Power Certification is a fastgrowing educational movement in the
industry today - and it's not surprising
why.
Much of the traditional training from
manufacturers, technical schools, and
universities has been of high quality,
but limited in its availability.
Consequently, few of the 350,000 people
working in the industry have been able
to take full advantage of Fluid Power
training. Many of today's fluid power
professionals learned about the
technology on the job and often did not
receive the recognition they deserved
for their educational accomplishments.
If the majority of your professional
training was on-the-job or limited to
short courses and workshops, then
fluid power certification may be just what
you need to stay competitive in today's
marketplace. Fluid power certification
gives you an opportunity to demonstrate
your extraordinary effort to enhance
your professionalism through education,
training, and peer review. It may provide
you with the credential you need to
open the door for career advancement.
For fluid power distributors, manufacturers and end-users, certification
offers a multitude of benefits:
Provides another measure with
which to assess new employees.
Establishes a minimal level of
Fluid Power knowledge and skills.
Educates your customers - so
you don't have to.
Helps satisfy requirements for
employee qualifications.
Demonstrates an individual's
efforts to achieve and maintain
the highest professional
proficiency available in the industry.

What's Involved in Certification?


Fluid power certification consists of
an optional review session, followed by
a three-hour written test and recognition
upon successful completion. For
Mechanics and Technicians certification, an additional three-hour job performance test is also required.

How Many Kinds of Tests Are Offered?


The Fluid Power Certification Board
currently offers nine Certification Tests
at four levels:

132 Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test

Mechanic: fabricates, assembles,


tests, maintains and repairs
systems and components, etc.
Master Mechanic
- Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic
- Industrial Hydraulic Mechanic
- Pneumatic Mechanic
Technician: troubleshoots systems,
tests and modifies systems,
prepares reports, etc.
Master Technician
- Mobile Hydraulic Technician
- Industrial Hydraulic Technician
- Pneumatic Technician
Specialist: analyzes and designs
systems, selects components,
instructs others in operations and
maintenance, etc.
Fluid Power Specialist
- Hydraulic Specialist
- Pneumatic Specialist
Engineer: has a technology or
engineering degree or is a current
Professional Engineer, has eight
years of work experience and has
passed the Hydraulic &
Pneumatic Specialist exams.

What Technologies are Covered


by the Tests?
Fluid power and motion control
technologies include questions on
hydraulics, pneumatics, electronic control,
and vacuum.

Who May Organize


a Review Training Session?
Educational institutions, end-user
companies, fluid power distributors,
fluid power component manufacturers,
for-profit educational organizations and
the Fluid Power Society (local chapters
or the national Headquarters), can
organize review training sessions.

Who Administers the Tests?


Written testing is conducted under
the supervision of local proctors
retained by the Fluid Power Certification
Board. Job performance testing may
only be administered by an FPS
Accredited Instructor. Tests are scheduled throughout the world in over 138
cities throughout the year.

How Will My Accomplishments


be Recognized?
Certified fluid power professionals
are encouraged to include their
certification on their business cards and
letterhead - even on work vehicle signage.
Certification patches are also available
for use on uniforms, as well as other
promotional items. All Certified
Professionals receive a certificate suitable
for framing, wallet card, are recognized
in the Fluid Power Journal, are listed in
the annual Certification Directory, and
on the Fluid Power Societys web site.

Will I Have to Renew My Certification?


Yes - Certifications are valid for five
years. After that time, you must apply
for re-certification based on a point
system. On the re-certification form,
you will be asked to list job responsibilities,
additional educational courses you
have taken or taught, and professional
involvement in Fluid Power or allied
organizations.

What Will This Cost Me?


The Fluid Power Certification Board
has made every effort to keep costs low
and make Certification available to as
many fluid power professionals as
possible. Many manufacturers and
distributors subsidize or even reward
this program because it provides a
great return on investment. A contribution
to the fluid power certification program
helps upgrade the skills of those
professionals committed to the industry
and elevates the level of professionalism
throughout the entire Fluid Power
Industry.

How Can I Receive More Information?


For fee schedules, review sessions,
manuals and other information, please
visit our web site at www.IFPS.org, contact Headquarters at 1-800-303-8520 or
write to:
Fluid Power Certification Board
Mailing: P.O. Box 1420
Cherry Hill, NJ 08034-0054
Shipping: 1930 East Marlton Pike,
Suite A-2, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003-2142
Phone: 800-303-8520, 856-424-8998;
Fax: 856-424-9248
E-mail: askus@ifps.org;
Web: http://www.ifps.org;

IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Fluid Power Certification Board


Certification Coordinator, c/o Fluid Power Society P.O Box 1420, Cherry Hill, NJ 08034-0054 Phone: (856) 424-8998 Fax: (856) 424-9248

CERTIFICATION TEST APPLICATION


There is a three year window from date of application to take the test. After this time, fees are forfeited.

Personal Information:

Company Information:

Name

Job Title

Address

Company Name

Address

City

State

Phone

Fax

Zip/Postal Code

City

State

E-mail Address (home)

Phone

Fax

Social Security Number (Serves as Test ID Number)

E-mail Address (work)

Preferred Mailing Address:


 Home
 Professional Member - Membership #____________  Student Member (Proof of full time included/12 credit minimum)
Membership Status:

Education Information:





Grade School . . . . . . . . . . . .Graduated  Yes  No


High School . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Graduated  Yes  No
Technical Institute . . . . . . . . . .Graduated  Yes  No
College . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Associates  Bachelors
 Masters
 Doctorate/PhD

Which test do you intend to take?

Zip/Postal Code

 Work
 Non-Member

Please Note:
Payment must be received by the test deadline date to:
- Receive study materials.
- Have test available at testing site.
- Avoid incurring additional fees.

(Please note, Job Performance Test must be taken once for Mechanic and Technician Certifications.)

 Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic*


 Industrial Hydraulic Mechanic*
 Mobile Hydraulic Technician*
 Industrial Hydraulic Technician*
 Hydraulic Specialist
 Job Performance Test
*Certification requires the Job Performance Test if it has not already been passed.

Test Date: ________________________________________


 Test Date and Site to Be Determined
Item (Refer to Fee Schedule)

Amount

Written Test Fee


Job Performance Test Fee (if required)
Retake Fee - Written Test
Retake Fee - Job Performance Test
Short Notice Reschedule Fee

 Pneumatic Mechanic*
 Pneumatic Technician
 Pneumatic Specialist

Test Site: __________________________________________


For Office Use Only
Member #
Prior Test:

Fee Received:
Study Manuals Sent:

Total Due

Payment Type:
Payment is required by test deadline date to receive study material and to have test available at location, without incurring additional fees.

Credit Card  MasterCard


Credit Card Number

 Visa

 Check or Money Order Enclosed (in U.S. Funds)


Exp. Date

Signature

All FPS fees must be pre-paid and are non-refundable. Visit www.IFPS.org or call 800-303-8520 for complete Fee Policies.
IHT Manual # 404 - 8/03

Industrial Hydraulic Technician Pre-Test 133