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Definition & some Transformation

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Theory

It is defined as,

() dt

0

F(s) = L[f(t)] =

Note: Here we are using small letters for writing the time domain

quantities while capital letters are used for transformed (frequency

domain quantities) quantities.

Eg. i(t) or v(t) is the current or voltage in time domain and I(s) or

V(s) is the current or voltage in Laplace transform(frequency

domain).

Laplace Transform is also defined as a method of transforming

time domain quantities into frequency domain.

1. Constant Function k:

Here, f(t) = k

L[k] =

() dt

0

=k

L[k] =

dt

k

s

2. Function :

Here, f(t) =

L[ ] =

() dt =

Put st = x, dt =

L[ ] =

dt

0

dx

s

dx

s

1

Laplace Transform

=

L[ ] =

L[ ] =

1

+1

dx

+1

+1

!

for n>0

+1

It is defined as,

u(t) = 1 t>0

= 0 t<0

The Laplace Transform is given as,

L[u(t)] =

L[u(t)] =

1.

It is defined as,

u(t-a) = 1

t>a

=0

t<a

Laplace Transform of u(t-a) is

L[u(t-a)] =

L[u(t-a)] =

1.

5. Unit-Impulse Function:

It is defined as,

(t) = 0

t0

and

(t)dt

=1

t=0

2

Theory

Laplace Transform

L[ (t)] =

t est dt

L[ (t)] = 1

6. Unit-Ramp Function:

It is defined as,

r(t) = t

t>0

=0

t<0

Laplace Transform is given as,

st

te dt

0

L[r(t)] =

L[r(t)] =

1

2

It is defined as,

r(t-a) = t t>a

= 0 t<a

Laplace Transform is given as,

L[r(t-a)] =

L[r(t-a)] =

st

te dt

8. Sine Function:

We know that sint =

1

2

1

L[sint] = L

=

L[sint] =

2

1

1

2

1

+

2 + 2

9. Cosine Function:

We know, cost =

1

2

+

3

Theory

Laplace Transform

Theory

1

L[cost] = L

=

L[cost] =

1

2

1

+

2 + 2

Here, f(t) =

L[ ] =

at st

e e dt

0

( )

=

L[ ] =

(sa)t

e

dt

0

A) Linearity:

The transform of a sum of time functions is the sum of the

transforms of the individual functions, that is

L[a1f1(t) + a2f2(t) ] = a1F1(s) + a2F2(s)

Where a1 and a2 are constants.

Proof:

L[a1f1(t) + a2f2(t) ] =

= a1

a1 f1 t + a2 f2 t dt

() dt

0 1

= a1F1(s) + a2F2(s)

B) Time Scaling:

1

Proof:

Let x = at then dx = a dt

4

+ a2

() dt

0 2

Laplace Transform

L[f(at)] =

=

Theory

(/)

()

dt

=

()

0

0

1

(/)

dx

()

0

If L[f(t)] = F(s) then L () = F(s+a)

Proof:

L () =

. dt =

. (+) dt

= F(s+a)

D) Time Shift Theorem:

If L[f(t)] = F(s) then L[f(t-a)] = e-asF(s)

Proof:

L{f(t)} =

L{f(t-a)} =

. dt

. dt

Put t-a = x, dt = dx

When t=a, x=0

t , x

L{f(t-a)} =

. (+) dx = e-as

= e-as

. dx

. dt

= e-asF(s)

E) Initial value theorem:

The initial value of a function f(t) is the value at t = 0

provided f(t) is continuous at t=0.

If it is discontinuous at t=0, the initial value is the limit as

t 0+. The initial value is obtained using

f(0+) = lim0+ () = lim ()

This is called as initial value theorem.

Proof:

5

Laplace Transform

Theory

L{f(t)} = sF(s) f(0)

sF(s) = L{f(t)} + f(0) =

() + f(0)

lim () = lim

() + f(0)

lim () + f(0)

= 0 + f(0) = f(0)

= lim0 ()

F) Final value Theorem:

It is the value of f(t) as t , given by f() = lim ()

= lim0 (). This is called as Final value theorem.

Proof:

From the time differentiation property

L{f(t)} = sF(s) f(0)

sF(s) = L{f(t)} + f(0) =

() + f(0)

Taking limit as s 0

lim0 0

()

=

()

0

0 0

= ()

0 = f() f(0)

= lim

lim 0 = f(0-)

0

lim sF(s) f(0-) = f() f(0-)

0

0

Laplace Transform

Theory

G) Time-Differentiation Theorem:

It states that,

If L{f(t)} = F(s) then,

L{f(t)} = sF(s) f(0)

L{f(t)} = s2F(s) sf(0) f(0)

In general,

L{f(t)} = sF(s) sn-1f(0) sn-2f(0) sn-3f(0) - f(n-1)(0)

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