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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 8, August - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

Metamaterial Based Fractal Body Worn Antenna A Review

Swagata B Sarkar
Assistant Professor, Sri Sairam Engineering College, Chennai
Metamaterial are only special kind of structures through which a defect can be created either in
ground, substrate or other places of antennas. All metamaterial based antennas are known as left
handed material antenna where permittivity and permeability are negative. With the use of meta
material antenna size can be minimized as well as the radiation direction can be inverted. Meta
material antennas are very much useful for its left handed structure for which it can be used as
Body Worn Antenna, because the radiation instead of absorb by the body will be directed
outwards which can reduce the Specific absorption Rate(SAR).Normally human body parameters
dealing with low frequency signals. At low frequency, antenna size will be high. So, fractal antenna
can be designed to increase the antenna size at low frequency with minimum area. So the
proposed body worn antenna at low frequency can be designed by metamaterial fractal antenna
Key Words: Metamaterial, Fractal Antenna, Body Worn Antenna
In recent days people are concentrating more about metamaterial based antenna design as it has lot of
advantages. In this paper hybrid approach is proposed to improve the performance of antenna for Body
Worn applications. In this paper hybridization is tried as a combination of Fractal Antenna Design,
Metamaterial design and Body worn application.
In Body Worn Antenna low frequency signal handling is required, which is easily achieved by Fractal
Antenna design [6]. The performance of SAR reduction and miniaturization can be done by the
introduction of metamaterial [4] [5]. Finally the substrate property of Body based antenna can be achieved
by the design of Body Worn Antenna.
The three techniques together is combined in this paper to get good result.
The fractal geometry with electromagnetic theory has led to a new and innovative antenna designs.
Fractal antenna engineering research has been primarily focused in two areas: the first deal with the
analysis and design of fractal antenna elements, and the second concerns the application of fractal
concepts to the design of antenna arrays. Fractals have no characteristic size, and are generally composed
of many copies of themselves at different scales. These unique properties of fractals have been exploited
in order to develop a new class of antenna-element designs that are multi-band and/or compact in size.
On the other hand, fractal arrays are a subset of thinned arrays, and have been shown to possess several
highly desirable properties, including multi-band performance, low side lobe levels, and the ability to
develop rapid beam forming algorithms based on the recursive nature of fractals. Fractal elements and
arrays are also ideal candidates for use in reconfigurable systems.
There here has been an ever-growing demand, in both the military as well as the commercial sectors, for
antenna designs that possess the following highly desirable attributes:
1. Compact size
88 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 8, August - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317
2. Low profile
3. Conformal
4. Multi-hand or broadband
Some Useful Geometry for Fractal Antenna Engineering
This section will present a brief overview of some of the more common fractal geometries that have been
found to be useful in developing new and innovative designs for antennas. The first fractals that will he
considered is the popular Sierpinski gasket.

Figure 1. Several stages in the construction of a Sierpinski gasket fractal.

Another popular fractal is known as the Koch snowflake. This fractal also starts out as a solid equilateral
triangle in the plane.

Figure 2. the first few stages of construction of Koch, snowflake

The space-filling properties of the Hilbert curve and related curves make them attractive candidates for
use in the design of fractal antennas. The first four steps in the construction of the Hilbert curve are
shown in Figure4 [2]. The Hilbert curve is an example of a space-filling fractal curve that is self-avoiding
(i.e., has no intersection points).

Figure 3. The first few stages in the construction of a Hilbert curve

89 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 8, August - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317
Metamaterial technology is a method of reducing a microstrip patch antenna size using Defected Ground
Structure (DGS). The DGS exhibits negative permittivity and permeability proved by applying the
Nicolson- Ross-Weir (NRW) method. The performances of the antenna will improve in term of gain,
return loss, bandwidth, and Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) by using metamaterial

Figure 4.Microstrip patch Antenna with Circular Ring DGS

A metamaterial based new microstrip patch antenna design is presented for multiband applications.
Metamaterial provide unique features of obtaining high directional gain and miniaturization. Herein,
square, hexagonal and star shaped patches have been designed over a Complementary Strip Ring
Resonator loaded reactive impedance surface (CSR-RIS).

Figure 5.Top view of CSRR loaded RIS patches antenna. a) Square. b) Hexagonal. c) Star. d) Side
view of three structures.
Microstrip patch antenna filled with split ring resonator array with a S-Shape patch [3].

Figure 6. Metamaterial Micro strip patch antenna design (a) top view (b) front view.

Figure 7. SRR unit cell (i) structure (ii) equivalent electric circuit
90 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 8, August - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317
A planar Meta material antenna using offset fed diamond shaped split rings (DSSR) [1].

Figure 8. Geometrical structure of DSSR with normal cuts

A narrow band microstrip patch antenna with Pentagonal Rings shaped metamaterial cover is
proposed and analyzed at a height of 3.2mm from the ground plane [2].

Figure 9. Microstrip inset feed patch antenna and metamaterial structure with pentagonal ring
Support of ever increasing applications for wireless data and communications on a body-centric platform
requires novel antenna systems that can be integrated with the body-worn environment, while
maintaining free-range of movement and minimal mass impact. E-textile antennas show great promise
due to their ease of integration with other textile materials, and they are inherently low-mass and flexible
relative to conventional antenna materials. For body-centric applications [7], the low-mass, flexibility,
and integration simplicity of e-textile antennas can enable multiple-antenna systems, which otherwise
would be precluded by the rigidity and mass of conventional antenna materials.

Based on the above review, we are going to propose a fractal body worn antenna with Meta material
substrate for biomedical application. Requirement for Hybrid antenna design:

1. Metamaterial will provide miniaturization of the antenna with desired frequency along with SAR
reduction [4] [5].
2. Body worn antenna will provide the desired flexibility [7].
3. Fractal antenna will give optimum antenna design with low frequency. Since Biomedical signals are
dealing with low frequency, so fractal array antenna will give good result [6]

91 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 8, August - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

Figure 10. Proposed antenna structure with ground plane [2] [6]

antenna can
solution for
design with
structure due
to its layout

Table 1. Comparison of all antenna types

Metamaterial Antenna
Body Worn
Proposed Antenna
the Body
worn Our proposed antenna can
can give best solution for
1.Improvement of gain
give flexibility
biomedical application with
2. improvement of efficiency
lower frequency, reduced
structure, flexibility, higher
4.Reduced return loss
higher bandwidth, reduced
return loss and specific
Absorption Rate
absorption rate.

In proposed antenna model we are going to combine Koch, snowflake construction antenna array with
Pentagonal Rings Shaped Metamaterial ground. The full structure can be printed on flexible substrate to
meet the target of Bio Medical application .
After reviewing all the paper, it is obvious that body worn with low SAR antenna can be best designed by
fractal model with metamaterial ground or substrate. So based on antenna parameter improvement like
VSWR, gain, Return loss etc, metamaterial position can be changed. SAR level also can be changed by
changing the position of antenna in the body.

Offset Fed Diamond Shaped Split Ring (DSSR) Planar Metamaterial Antenna J.G.Joshi, S.S.Pattnaik,
S. Devi, M.R. Lohokare and Chintakindi Vidyasagar Department of ETV and ECE National Institute
of Technical Teachers Training and Research, Chandigarh-160019, INDIA


Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna with Pentagonal Rings Shaped Metamaterial Cover Bimal
Garg, Nitin Agrawal, Vijay Sharma, Ankita Tomar, Prashant Dubey Department of Electronics
Engineering, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior-474005, India 2012
International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies


S-Shape Meandered Microstrip Patch AntennaDesign using MetamaterialShobhit K. Patel

Charotar University of Science & TechnologyChanga-388421, Gujarat, India. Y.P.Kosta Marwadi
Education Foundations Group of Institutions Rajkot-360001, Gujarat, India

92 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 8, August - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853, Impact Factor 1.317

Miniaturization of Microstrip Patch Antenna Through Metamaterial Approach N. Ripin, W. M. A.

W. Saidy, A. A. Sulaiman, N. E. A. Rashid, M. F. Hussin 2013 IEEE Student Conference on Research
and Development (SCOReD), 16 -17 December 2013, Putrajaya, Malaysia


Multiband Microstrip Patch Antenna Design Using Metamaterial for Airborne SAR system Galaba
Sai Rajesh, Venkata Kishore K, Vijay Kumar VIT University, Vellore, Tamil nadu.


An Overview' of Fractal Antenna Engineering Research Douglas H. Werner' and Suman Ganguly
'Communications and Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering The
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA 'Center For Remote Sensing, Inc.
11350 Random Hills Rd., Suite 710, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA ieee transactions on antennas and
propagation, vol. 57, no. 4, april 2009


Body-Worn E-Textile Antennas: The Good, the Low-Mass, and the Conformal Timothy F. Kennedy,
Member, IEEE, Patrick W. Fink, Member, IEEE, Andrew W. Chu, Member, IEEE, Nathan J.
Champagne, II, Senior Member, IEEE, Gregory Y. Lin, and Michael A. Khayat, Member, IEEE

93 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved