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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853

A Review Of BFOA Application To WSN

Annu , Jyoti Chaudhary scholar ,Assistant Professor ,
Dept. Of Computer Engineering
T.I.T & S, Bhiwani.
Sensor network consists of very small sensors with general purpose computing elements to
cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as humidity, pressure, noise
level etc. They have a great potential for long term applications and also have the ability to
transform human lives in various aspects. However, there have been resources constraints such
as memory, power consumption of nodes in WSNs. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is an
interconnection of a large number of nodes deployed for monitoring the system by means of
measurement of its parameters. Energy efficiency is required as the whole WSN is dependent on
the power of batteries and the object tracking is required for checking the varying speed of target,
target precision and missing target recovery. BFOA works for providing the energy efficient
clusters and cluster head selection.
Index Terms: WSN, BFOA, Cluster, Cluster head, Energy efficient.



BFOA stands for Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA). It is proposed by Kevin Passino. It is
a new comer to the family of nature inspired optimization algorithms. The key idea of this algorithm is
based on the E.coil. E.coil (Escherichia coil) is a rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is
commonly found in the lower intestine of warm blooded organism. Mostly the e.coil are harmless but
some type can cause health problem. Bacteria search for nutrients is a manner to maximize energy
obtained per unit time. Individual bacterium also communicates with others by sending signals. A
bacterium takes foraging decisions after considering two previous factors. The process, in which a
bacterium moves by taking small steps while searching for nutrients, is called chemotaxis. The key idea of
BFOA is mimicking chemotactic movement of virtual bacteria in the problem search space. Foraging
theory is based on the assumption that animals search for and obtain nutrients in a way that maximizes
their energy per unit time. As the whole WSN is also dependent on the batteries. So for maximum
utilization of energy we use BFOA in WSN. Wireless sensor network is group of sensor nodes which are
small in size, movable and predictable that is associated by a wireless medium to form a sensor field. The
sensor are used to sense the environmental condition such as pressure temperature ,humidity, pulsation,
wind direction, sound intensity, speed, etc. Without any wires, WSN can be deployed in areas where
regular sensor networks cannot operate.Also the self-shaping feature of WSN, along with the freedom of
6 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853
the wireless sensors movement makes it an ideal tool for the situations where the sensors are mobile.
Having these features, WSN is used in medical applications, military purposes, disaster area monitoring
etc A sensor node, also known as a 'mote', is a node in a wireless sensor network that is capable of
performing some processing, gathering sensory information and communicating with other connected
nodes in the network.


External memory

Sensor 1


Sensor 2

Figure 1: Architecture of sensor node

The main apparatus of a sensor node as seen from the figure are power source, microcontroller, external
memory, transceiver and one or more sensors. In a tracking application, the sensor node sense the data
at an exacting time kept in active mode and the remaining nodes are kept in sleep mode to save energy
until it reach the target node.
Bacterial Foraging Optimization is a population-based numerical optimization algorithm. In recent
years,bacterial foraging behaviour has provided a no. of solution in many engineering applications .It has
been applied for solving practical engineering problems like optimal control , harmonic estimation
channel equalization etc. In this paper, BFO has been used for cluster head selection to provide improved
energy efficiency in a network.The process of selection of cluster head is based on the bacteria. As least
healthy bacteria eventually die and healthier bacteria split into two bacteria, which are then placed in
the same location. The control system of these bacteria that dictates how foraging should proceed can be
subdivided into four sections, namely, chemotaxis, swarming, reproduction, and elimination and

A. Chemotaxis

This process simulates the movement of an E.coli cell .The ecoli cell mainly move in two different way
swimming and tumbling via flagella. Biologically an. It can swim for a period of time in the same direction
or it may tumble and alternate between these two modes of operation for the entire lifetime. Suppose i (
j, k, l) represents ith bacterium at jth chemotactic, kth reproductive and lth elimination-dispersal step.

7 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853
C(i) is the size of the step taken in the random direction specified by the tumble. Then in computational
chemotaxis the movement of the bacterium may be represented by

B. Swarming

An interesting group behavior has been observed for several motile species of bacteria including E.coli
and S. Typhimurium, where intricate and stable spatio-temporal patterns (swarms) are formed in
semisolid nutrient medium. A group of E.coli cells arrange themselves in a traveling ring by moving up
the nutrient gradient when placed amidst a semisolid matrix with a single nutrient chemo-effecter. The
cells when stimulated by a high level of succinate, release an attractant aspertate, which helps them to
aggregate into groups and thus move as concentric patterns of swarms with high bacterial density.

C. Reproduction

In the reproduction step the least healthy bacteria eventually die and healthier bacteria (which yielding
lower value of the objective function) split into two bacteria, which are then placed in the same location.
This keeps the swarm size constant. For having the same number of bacteria the reproduction step is

D. Elimination and Dispersal

Gradual or sudden changes in the local environment where a bacterium population lives may occur due
to various reasons. Events can occur such that all the bacteria in a region are killed or a group is
dispersed into a new part of the environment. For example, a significant local rise of temperature may kill
a group of bacteria that are currently in a region with a high concentration of nutrient gradients. Events
can take place in such a fashion that all the bacteria in a region are killed or a group is dispersed into a
new location.
Over long periods of time, such events had spread various types of bacteria into every part of our
environment from our intestines to hot springs and underground environments. To simulate this
phenomenon in BFOA some bacteria are liquidated at random with a very small probability while the
new replacements are randomly initialized over the search space. Elimination and dispersal events have
the effect of possibly destroying chemotactic progress, but they also have the effect of assisting in
chemotaxis, since dispersal may place the bacteria near good food sources.From a broad perspective,
elimination and dispersal are parts of the population-level long-distance motile behavior.

8 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853




Initiate chemotaxis


End of


End of Rep.



End of Eli.

Figure2 : Flowchart of Bacterial Foraging

9 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853

In 2002, Passino [1] proposed Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA) for distributed
optimization and control. BFA is based on the foraging behavior of Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) bacteria
present in the human intestine and already been in use to many engineering problems including multiple
robot co-ordination. According to paper, BFA is better than Particle Swarm Optimization in terms of
convergence, robustness and precision.May Cho Aye and Aye Moe Aung[2] has propose an energy
efficient multipath routing protocol for choosing energy efficient path. The proposed algorithm considers
transmission power of nodes and residual energy to extend the network lifetime and reduce the energy
consumption of mobile nodes. This system is provided to reduce energy consumption and end to end
delay to improve the network lifetime and throughput.K.N.Kavipriya1, P.Prabaharan2, B.Anitha [3] define
various object tracking algorithms. Based on there study and analysis lagarangaen relaxation object
tracking and continuous detection methods are suitable for the application which requires high speed
object tracking. Probability based prediction and sleep scheduling and optimized power aware target
tracking are suitable for the application which requires energy efficient target tracking. Tree based object
tracking and Dynamic clustering is used to minimize the missing rate level.Guang-yao Jin, Xiao-yi Lu, and
Myong-Soon Park define[4] object tracking is an important feature of the ubiquitous society and also a
killer application of wireless sensor networks. Nowadays, there are many researches on object tracking
in wireless sensor networks under practice, however most of them cannot effectively deal with the tradeoff between miss ingrate and energy efficiency. In this paper, we propose a dynamic clustering
mechanism for object tracking in wireless sensor networks. With forming the cluster dynamically
according to the route of moving, the proposed method can not only decrease the missing-rate but can
also decrease the energy consumption by reducing the number of nodes that participate in tracking and
minimizing the communication cost, thus can enhance the lifetime of the whole sensor networks. The
simulation result shows that our proposed method achieves lower energy consumption and lower
In this paper we discuss the BFOA algorithm which we can use with WSN for selecting the cluster head in
between the various node. We can use the BFOA for energy optimization, for reducing computational
complexity, for enhancing the network life time etc.

K. M. Passino, "Biomimicry of bacterial foraging for distributed optimization and control," Control
System Magazine,IEEE, vol. 22, pp. 52-67, June 2002.

10 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853
[2 ]

HOC NETWORKS International Journal of Information Technology, Modeling and Computing,
10.5121/ijitmc.2014.2302 2014


K.N.Kavipriya1, P.Prabaharan2, B.Anitha A Survey on Energy Efficient Target Tracking in

Wireless Sensor Networks International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT)
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KM Bakwad1, SS Pattnaik1, Bacterial Foraging Optimization Technique Cascaded with Adaptive

Filter to Enhance Peak Signal to Noise Ratio from Single Image in the Department of ETV and
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I. Banerjee, H. Rahaman, B. Sikdar, "UDDN: Unidirectional Data Dissemination via

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11 | 2015, IJAFRC All Rights Reserved

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 2, Issue 5, May - 2015. ISSN 2348 4853

Kelvin. M. Passino Biomimicry of bacterial foraging for distributed and optimization control.
IEEE control system magazine, 2002.


Liu Yueyang, Ji Hong, Yue Guangxin, An Energy- Efficient PEGASIS-BasedEnhanced Algorithm in

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