Assignment 1

DISASTER MANAGEMENT
(5584) MBA Executive

ZAHID NAZIR
Roll # AB523655 Semester: Autumn 2009

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

QUESTION 1
Distinguish between Disaster Management and Emergency Response. Also explain the principles of disaster mitigation and emergency response ? (20)

2

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

DISASTER MANAGEMENT
DISASTER
A disaster (from Middle French desastre, from Old Italian

disastro, from the Greek pejorative prefix dis- c badd + aster c stard ) is the impact of a natural or man-made hazards that negatively affects society or environment. The word disaster's root is from astrology: this implies that when the stars are in a bad position, a bad event will happen. Disasters occur when hazards strike in vulnerable areas. Hazards that occur in areas with low vulnerability do not result in a disaster; as is the case in uninhabited regions. It is often argued that all disasters are man-made, because human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent it developing into a disaster. Hazards are routinely divided into natural or man-made, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are more common in developing countries. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster that increases the impact. A classic example is an earthquake that causes a tsunami, resulting in coastal flooding.
3

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Disast r is a sudd n, calamitous

v nt bringing gr at damag , and prop rty.f

loss, d struction and d vastation to lif Th th damag

caus d by disast rs is imm asurabl and th

and vari s with of th arth

g ographical location, climat

typ

surfac /d gr

of vuln rability. This influ nc s th of th

m ntal, socio-

conomic, political and cultural stat

aff ct d ar a.

G n rally, disast r has th ar as:

following

ff cts in th

conc rn d

y It completely disrupts the normal day to day life. y It negatively influences the emergency systems. y Normal needs and processes like food, shelter, health, etc. are affected and deteriorate depending on the intensity and severity of the disaster.

It may also be termed as "a serious disruption of the functioning of society, causing widespread human, material or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources." Thus, a disaster may have the following main features: Unpredictability  Unfamiliarity  Speed
4

 

    

  

                                

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

                   

 

   

 

DISASTER MANAGEMENT 

Urgency  Uncertainty  Threat Thus, in simple terms we can define disaster as a hazard causing heavy loss to life, property and livelihood. E.g. a cyclone killing 10,000 lives and a crop loss of one crore can be termed as disaster.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Disaster management is a process or strategy that is

implemented when any type of catastrophic event takes place. Sometimes referred to as disaster recovery management, the process may be initiated when anything threatens to disrupt normal operations or puts the lives of human beings at risk. Governments on all levels as well as many businesses create some sort of disaster plan that make it possible to overcome the catastrophe and return to normal function as quickly as possible. Disaster Management is the discipline that 

Deals

with and avoid risks and impact of a disaster. in preparing for disaster before it happens.
5 

Involves

DISASTER MANAGEMENT 

Responds  Deals

immediately to the outcome prior to and following

a disaster. with the process of supporting and rebuilding society

after a disaster. 

Involves

individuals, groups and community to manage hazards

in the situation of an emergency.

EMERGENCY RESPONSE

Emergency response is a term for a series of appropriate actions and precautions in the event of a disaster. No matter the type of catastrophe, proper emergency response can protect family members and even save lives. By having a full knowledge of the surroundings, keeping a supply of rescue goods, and having a detailed plan with household members, emergency response can allow peace of mind and better chance of safety in any situation.

6

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

One

primary

key

to

proper

emergency

response

is

being

acquainted with the potential for natural and man-made disasters in the surrounding area. Check weather patterns and history to determine if the area is subject to wildfires, floods, mudslides, tidal waves or severe storms, tornadoes, and hurricanes. Be aware of the potential for earthquakes nearby, and if they are likely, nurture a basic understanding of where the fault lines run. Also be aware of any potential sources of man-made disasters in the local area. Chemical or nuclear plants can both cause

problems in the event of leaks or spills. Having determined the likely sources of a disaster, a good emergency repair plan can now be made. Take pains to ensure that residences are equipped with any necessary outbuildings that can provide protection during a disaster, such as tornado

shelters. Make every person in the household aware of what to do during and immediately after an emergency occurs. Many disasters may cause cell phones to fail, so choose a meeting spot that is easily accessible and can be used as a check-in point for missing family members. A first-aid kit is a vital part of any emergency response package. Bandages, antiseptic formula, sterile gauze, and basic pain medication should all be included. When possible, have back-

7

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

up bottles of any chronically needed medications in the first aid kit. Be sure to replace these back-ups well before they expire. Blankets, warm clothing, and a spare pair of shoes can also be useful additions to a first-aid kit. Emergency response allows people to act quickly and without panicking should an emergency occur. Knowing that plans have been made and supplies arranged can help take considerable worry and fear out of the process. By following emergency response procedures and listening carefully for any contact or orders from emergency personnel, you can ensure a better chance of safety and survival in any situation.

TYPES OF DISASTER
Hazards are identified by cause: y Natural Hazards  Geological earth quacks, landslides, sand & dust storms Tornados, ice storms, drought hurricanes, tsunamis flooding wildfire, insect infestation, epidemics 

Meteorological  Oceanographic  Hydrological  Biological

y Technological Hazards
8

DISASTER MANAGEMENT 

Hazardous materials and processes  Dangerous processes  Devices and machines  Installations and plants structure failure explosives, trains, aircraft dams, mines, power plants

y Social or Person-Induced Hazards  Terrorisms  Crowds bombings, hostage, shootings riots, demonstrations

PRINICIPLES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
In order to understand the principles of disaster mitigation it is important to clearly understand the disaster management cycle i.e. mitigation, preparedness and management.

Fig: Disaster Management Cycle

Phase 1 : The Prevention Phase

9

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

The prevention phase work commences on reducing the probability of likely disasters and emergencies occurring or reducing or limiting their consequences.

‡ Making

viable

disaster

plan

to

respond

rapidly

and

effectively

‡ Assembling adequate resources ‡ Collecting stocks of consumable items ‡ Training of personnel
Prevention essentially involves four basic actions:  Preventing hazards from occurring (only possible in personinduced or biological hazards)  Reducing risk  Reducing impacts or consequences  Distributing risks

Phase 2 : The Preparation Stage Preparedness means minimizing the adverse effects of a hazard through precautionary actions and measures. It entails a series of actions to ensure speedy, effective and efficient organization and delivery of relief and related responses following the onset of sudden disaster. Preparedness involves:
10

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

‡ Community awareness and education ‡ Preparation of disasters management plans for

community/school/individual ‡ Mock drill, training and practice ‡ Inventory resources ‡ Proper warning system ‡ Mutual arrangement ‡ Identifying the vulnerable groups of resources both material and human skill

Phase 3: Response Phase Response involves ‡ Measures taken immediately prior to and following disaster ‡ Proper and timely warning using media, roving loudspeakers etc. ‡ Deployment of skilled persons ‡ Rescue work ‡ Medical care ‡ Drinking water supply ‡ Restore all sorts of communication

Phase 4: The Recovery Phase

11

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

The aim of the recovery phase is to temporarily provide tolerable living conditions for people in distress and to commence work on rebuilding society up to a level where it can function again. ‡ Awaring community on health and safety measures. ‡ Restoring essential service-roads, communication links ‡ Providing financial support, employment opportunities ‡ Reconstructing buildings

The principles of disaster management would mean undertaking all activities at different times so as to: ‡ Reduce risk to potential hazards before disasters occur, by developing long term and short term policies and strategies. ‡ Assure prompt and appropriate assistance to communities, during and immediately after the disasters. ‡ Achieve rapid and sustained recovery and rehabilitation

after the occurrence of disasters.

References:

www.Wisegeek.com/disaster Disaster Management - AIOU

12

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

###################

QUESTION 2

13

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Write

a

detail

note

on

Risk

Communication, Warning Dissemination and Alert Systems. (20)

RISK COMMUNICATION
An int ractiv proc ss of xchang

among individuals, groups, and institutions; oft n involv s multipl m ssag s about th opinions, or natur to of risk or

xpr ssing conc rns, or to l gal and

r actions

risk

m ssag s

institutional arrang m nts for risk manag m nt.

Disast r manag m nt planning and disast r r cov ry planning is not just about s tting up

vacuation sh lt rs and providing
14

¡

¡

¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ ¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡ ¡

¡

¡ ¡¡ ¡¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡ ¡ ¡

¡

of information and opinion

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

emergency supplies. Without rapid, coordinated communications, even the best disaster management plan or disaster recovery plan is virtually ineffective.

EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Information is power and it is a catalyst to sustainable

development. Disaster reduction takes many forms. It may involve advising people about the dod s and dond ts of building and maintaining infrastructure. However, most disaster prevention and mitigation involves assuring effective, reliable communication.

Reaching the widest possible audience with the most up-to-date, credible information can save lives and property, reduce public fears and anxiety, and maintain the publicd s trust in the integrity of Government officials. Citizen preparedness is key and

increased preparation is informed by effective communication. Individual action is key to implementing prevention strategies as well as for survival in disaster times. How can we help

individuals? Timely, accurate and sensitive communications in the face of natural disasters are demonstrated, cost-effective means of saving lives, reducing property damage, and increasing public understanding. Communications is essential for educating, warning, informing and empowering people to take practical steps to protect themselves from natural disasters.

15

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

To be forewarned is to be forearmed and especially in times of disaster warnings are well appreciated. For example, when

Hurricane Gilbert hit Jamaica in September of 1988, it was a scary time to say the least. However accurate tracking of the storm and the timely and accurate dissemination of disaster warnings ensured that Jamaicans new which areas were at greater risk, knew how to protect themselves and were able to put measures in place to ensure their personal safety. The death toll was much lower than a similar hurricane, which hit them in 1951.

WARNING DISSEMINATION Successful disaster prevention and preparedness requires the use of telecommunications, including broadcast services, for early warnings. Technical agencies must therefore continuously strive for improved risk assessment, and broader warnings monitoring placing and higher

communication of

forecasts

and

priority on the compilation and exchange of information on natural disaster reduction. This is particularly important at regional and sub regional levels.

Technical communications systems, such as satellites, remote sensing devices, and computer networks, and other technology-

16

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

based

communication

systems

research,

predict,

track,

and

provide early warning of natural hazards. Simulated information is translated into common understandable language for dissemination the communities through communication channels such as electronic media, broadcasting, internet,

newspapers, wireless messages and radio. This is the most important stage of prediction, as this information has to be very precise, understandable and timely. Communication must be

carefully presented to avoid causing panic, but at the same time should be sufficient for quick action. Sufficient lead time is necessary so that actions can be taken to save lives and property. The critical information must be

understandable, in the language of the people who may be affected by the hazard. For example, if a fishing community is warned about a cyclone, the language must be in the local dialect, not in a language or with a vocabulary they never use or hear.

ISSUING A WARNING & ALERT First one receives warning; then they put out an alert. The warning and alert phase bridges the gap between uncertainty and reality. A warning can be subtle as ominous black clouds, putting people on alert for a tornado; or it can be as direct as a phone

17

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

call announcing that fire fighters are on their way to evacuate everyone.

Some

disasters

give

little The

warning; longer the

others

give

warning the

sufficiently

in advance.

warning

period,

greater the opportunity for reducing the consequences. For example, it is difficult to predict exactly when or where an earthquake will strike because they give little or no warning. However high snow packs and warming weather trends can warn emergency planners of a possible flood weeks in advance of the event. Emergency planners must have enough information to receive and understand a warning. Then they must communicate the warning to the correct people. Finally, the people who receive the alert must believe the information and know what to do.

An alert can be communicated by various means including sirens, radio, television, public address systems, telephones and bullhorns. The information communicated and means of communication may depend on the; immediacy of the threat, characteristics of the target population and the means of the communication sources available.

18

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

For example, when alert information comes by telephone, it is often unclear from the call what the situation is and what the subsequent impact will be. So the first task on the receiving end of the call is to determine what exactly is taking place (or is about to take place). The second task is to determine what needs to be done in response.

An alert system should never be dependent on just one system of communication. If the usual method of communicating information is by telephone, ensure there is an alternative method to use if the phone system is not working. When there is a threat with a long

warning period, there is much more flexibility and ability to communicate the content of the alert. Newspapers, magazines and ad campaigns can all be used along with the electronic media. The warning and alert phase is first in any disaster preparedness effort. Therefore, a thorough understanding of detecting,

evaluating, responding and implementing decisions is crucial for saving lives and critical assets.

References:

Disaster Management AIOU

19

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Communicating Effectively in a Disaster Situation by Regenie Fraser

###################

20

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

QUESTION 3
Explain the mitigation measures with special reference to flood, Earth Quack, Land Sliding and Drought. (20)

EARTHQUACK

21

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Earthquake is one of the most destructive natural hazard. They may occur at any time of the year, day or night, with sudden impact and little in warning. seconds, They killing can or destroy injuring buildings and

infrastructure

the

inhabitants.

Earthquakes not only destroy the entire habitation but may destabilize the government, economy and social structure of the country. e It is the sudden shaking of the earth crust. The impact of an earthquake is sudden and there is hardly any warning, making it impossible to predict.f

CAUSE OF EARTHQUACK
Th

rom a

kilom t rs un consists o w hun r

t ctonics

mantl , an

m chanisms, p rhaps th rmal conv ction curr nts. Wh n th s plat s contact ach oth r, str ss aris s in th crust.

¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¢ £¢ £ ¢ £ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢£ ¢ ¢ ¢ £ £ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¢ ¢¢ ¤ £ ¢ ££ ¢ ¤ ¢ ¤¢ £¢ £ ¤ ¢¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢£ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢£ ¢ ¢ ¤ ¢£ ¤ ¢ ¤ ¢ £ ¢¢
arth s crust is a rocky lay r o varying thickn ss ranging r th s a to 65 pi c pth o about 10 kilom t rs un contin nts. Th r th crust is not on but portions call c plat s which vary in siz rom a plat to thousan s o kilom t rs. Th c th ory o mor hol s that th plat s ri up on th mobil ar riv n by som y t uncon irm
22

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

These stresses can be classified according to the type of movement along the plated s boundaries:

a) pulling away from each other, b) pushing against one another and c) sliding sideways relative to each other. All these movements are associated with earthquakes.

Different types of plate movement i). Divergent - where new crust is generated as the plates pull away from each other.

ii). Convergent - where crust is destroyed as one plate dives under another.

iii). Transformational - where crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other.
23

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

General characteristics Earthquake vibrations occur in a variety of frequencies and velocities. The actual rupture process may last for a few seconds to as long as one minute for a major earthquake. The ground shaking is caused by c body wavesd waved . Body waves (P and S waves) penetrate the body of the earth, vibrating fast. c Pd waves travel about 6 kilometers per hour and c surface

and c Sd waves travel with a speed of 4 kilometers per hour. Surface waves vibrate the ground horizontally and vertically. These long period waves cause swaying of tall buildings and slight waves motion in bodies of water even at great distances from the epicenter. Earthquakes can be of three types based on the focal depth: y Deep:- 300 to 700 kms from the earth surface y Medium:- 60 to 300 kms y Shallow: less than 60 kms The deep focus earthquakes are rarely destructive because by the time the waves reach the surface the impact reduces. Shallow focus earthquakes are more common and are extremely damaging because of their proximity to the surface.
24

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Measuring Earthquakes
Earthquakes can be described by the use of two distinctively different scales of measurement demonstrating magnitude and intensity. Earthquake magnitude or amount of energy released is determined by the use of a seismographd that continuously records ground which is an instrument The scale was

vibration.

developed by a seismologist named Charles Richter. An earthquake with a magnitude 7.5 on the Richter scale releases 30 times the energy than one with 6.5 magnitudes. An earthquake of magnitude 3 is the smallest normally felt by humans. The largest earthquake that has been recorded with this system is 9.25 (Alaska, 1969 and Chile, 1960). The second type of scale, the earthquake intensity scale

measures the effects of an earthquake where it occurs. The most widely used scale of this type was developed in 1902 by Mercalli an Italian seismologist. The scale was extended and modified to suit the modern times. It is called the Modified Mercalli Scale, which expresses the intensity of earthquake

effect on people, structure and the earthd s surface in values from I to XII. With an intensity of VI and below most of the people can feel the shake and there are cracks on the walls, but

25

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

with an intensity of XII there is general panic with buildings collapsing totally and there is a total disruption in normal life. Predictability: Although some scientists claim ability to predict earthquakes, the methods are controversial. Accurate and exact predictions of such sudden incidents are still not possible.

MITIGATION MEASURES
Community preparedness: Community preparedness is vital for mitigating earthquake impact. The most effective way to save you even in a slightest shaking is 'DROP, COVER and HOLD'. Planning: The Bureau of Indian Standards has published building codes and guidelines for safe construction of buildings against earthquakes. Before the buildings are constructed the building plans have to be checked by the Municipality, according to the laid down bylaws. Many existing lifeline buildings such as hospitals, schools and fire stations may not be built with earthquake safety measures. Their earthquake safety needs to be upgraded by retrofitting techniques.

Public

education

is

educating

the

public

on

causes

and

characteristics of an earthquake and preparedness measures. It can be created through sensitization and training programme for
26

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

community,

architects,

engineers,

builders,

masons,

teachers,

government functionaries teachers and students.

Engineered

structures:

Buildings

need

to

be

designed

and

constructed as per the building by laws to withstand ground shaking. Architectural and engineering inputs need to be put together to improve building design and construction practices. The soil type needs to be analyzed before construction. Building structures on soft soil should be avoided. Buildings on soft soil are more likely to get damaged even if the magnitude of the earthquake is not Strong. Similar problems persist in the buildings constructed on the river banks which have alluvial soil.

FLOOD
________________________________________ __________________________ Flood is a state of high water level along a river channel or on the coast that leads to inundation of land, which is not usually submerged. Floods may happen gradually and also may take hours or even happen suddenly without any warning due to breach in the embankment, spill over, heavy rains etc.

27

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

There are different types of floods namely: flash flood, riverine flood, urban flood, etc. Flash floods can be defined as floods which occur within six hours of the beginning of heavy rainfall, and are usually associated with cloud bursts, storms and cyclones requiring rapid localized warnings and immediate response to reduce damage. Wireless network and telephone connections are used to monitor flood conditions. In case of flash floods, warnings for timely evacuation may not always be possible.

Causes:
There are several causes of floods and differ from region to region. The causes may vary from a rural area to an urban area. Some of the major causes are: a) Heavy rainfall b) Heavy siltation of the river bed reduces the water carrying capacity of rivers/stream. c) Blockage in the drains lead to flooding of the area. d) Landslides blocking the flow of the stream. e) Construction of dams and reservoirs f) In areas prone to cyclone, strong winds accompanied by heavy down pour along with storm surge leads to flooding.

Warning:

28

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Flood forecasting and warning has been highly developed in the past two decades. With the advancement of technology such as satellite and remote-sensing equipments flood waves can be tracked as the water level rises. Except for flash floods there is usually a reasonable warning period. Heavy precipitation will give sufficient warning of the coming river flood. High tides with high winds may indicate flooding in the coastal areas. Evacuation is possible with suitable monitoring and warning. Warning is issued by the Central Water Commission (CWC), Irrigation & Flood Control Department, and Water Resources Department. CWC maintains close liaison with the administrative and state engineering

agencies, local civil authorities to communicate advance warning for appropriate mitigation and preparedness measures.

Mitigation Measures
Mapping of the flood prone areas is a primary step involved in reducing the risk of the region. Historical records give the indication of the flood inundation areas and the period of

occurrence and the extent of the coverage. Warning can be issued looking into the earlier marked heights of the water levels in case of potential threat. In the coastal areas the tide levels and the land characteristics will determine the submergence

29

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

areas. Flood hazard mapping will give the proper indication of water flow during floods.

Land use control will reduce danger of life and property when waters inundate the floodplains and the coastal areas. The number of casualties is related to the population in the area at risk. In areas where people already have built their settlements, measures should be taken to relocate to better sites so as to reduce vulnerability. No major development should be permitted in the areas which are subjected to high flooding. Important

facilities like hospitals, schools should be built in safe areas. In urban areas, water holding areas can be created like ponds, lakes or low-lying areas.

Construction of engineered structures in the flood plains and strengthening of structures to withstand flood forces and

seepage. The buildings should be constructed on an elevated area. If necessary build on stilts or platform.

Flood Control aims to reduce flood damage. This can be done by decreasing the amount of runoff with the help of reforestation (to increase absorption could be a mitigation strategy in certain areas), protection of vegetation, clearing of debris from streams

30

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

and other water holding areas, conservation of ponds and lakes etc. Flood Diversion include levees, embankments, dams and

channel improvement. Dams can store water and can release water at a manageable rate. But failure of dams in earthquakes and operation of releasing the water can cause floods in the lower areas. Flood Proofing reduces the risk of damage.

Measures include use of sand bags to keep flood water away, blocking or sealing of doors and windows of houses etc. Houses may be elevated by building on raised land. Buildings should be constructed away from water bodies.

Flood

Management

In

India,

systematic

planning

for

flood

management commenced with the Five Year Plans, particularly with the launching of National Programme of Flood Management in 1954. During the last 48 years, different methods of flood protection structural as well as nonstructural have been adopted in different states depending upon the nature of the problem and local conditions. Structural measures include storage reservoirs, flood embankments, drainage channels, antierosion works, channel improvement works, detention basins etc. and non-structural measures include flood forecasting, flood plain zoning, flood

31

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

proofing,

disaster

preparedness

etc.

The

flood

management

measures undertaken so far have provided reasonable degree of protection to an area of 15.81 million hectares through out the country.

LANDSLIDE
The termd landslided includes all varieties of mass movements of hill slopes and can be defined as the downward and outward movement of slope forming materials composed of rocks, soils, artificial fills or combination of all these materials along surfaces of separation by falling, sliding and flowing, either slowly or quickly from one place to another. Although the landslides are primarily associated with mountainous terrains, these can also occur in areas where an activity such as surface excavations for highways, buildings and open pit mines takes place. They often take place in conjunction with earthquakes, floods and volcanoes. At times, prolonged rainfall causing landslide may block the flow of river for quite some time. The formation of river blocks can cause havoc to the settlements downstream on its bursting.

Causes of Landslide

32

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

There are several causes of landslide. Some of the major causes are as follows: Geological Weak material: Weakness in the composition and

structure of rock or soil may also cause landslides.

Erosion: Erosion of slope toe due to cutting down of vegetation, construction of roads might increase the vulnerability of the terrain to slide down.

Intense rainfall: Storms that produce intense rainfall for periods as short as several hours or have a more moderate intensity lasting several days have triggered abundant landslides. Heavy melting of snow in the hilly terrains also results in landslide.

Human Excavation of slope and its toe, loading of slope/toe, draw down in reservoir, mining, deforestation, irrigation,

vibration/blast, Water leakage from services.

Earthquake shaking has triggered landslides in many different topographic and geologic settings. Rock falls, soil slides and rockslides

33

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

from

steep

slopes

involving

relatively

thin

or

shallow

dis-

aggregated soils or rock, or both have been the most abundant types of landslides triggered by historical earthquakes. Volcanic eruption Deposition of loose volcanic ash on hillsides commonly is followed by accelerated erosion and frequent mud or debris flows triggered by intense rainfall.

Mitigation Measures
Hazard mapping locates areas prone to slope failures. This will help to avoid building settlements in such areas. These maps will also serve as a tool for mitigation planning. Land use practices such as: Areas covered by degraded natural vegetation in upper slopes are to be afforested with suitable species. Existing patches of natural vegetation (forest and natural grass land) in good condition, should be preserved Any developmental activity initiated in the area should be taken up only after a detailed study of the region has been carried out. In construction of roads, irrigation canals etc. proper care is to be taken to avoid blockage of natural drainage

34

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Total avoidance of settlement in the risk zone should be made mandatory. Relocate settlements and infrastructure that fall in the possible path of the landslide No construction of buildings in areas beyond a certain degree of slope

Retaining Walls can be built to stop land from slipping (these walls are commonly seen along roads in hill stations). These are constructed to prevent smaller sized and secondary landslides that often occur along the toe portion of the larger landslides.

Surface Drainage Control Works The surface drainage control works are implemented to control the movement of landslides accompanied by infiltration of rain water and spring flows.

Engineered structures with strong foundations can withstand or take the ground movement forces. Underground installations

(pipes, cables, etc.) should be made flexible to move in order to withstand forces caused by the landslide

35

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Increasing vegetation cover is the cheapest and most effective way of arresting landslides. This helps to bind the top layer of the soil with layers below, while preventing excessive run-off and soil erosion.

Insurance will assist individuals whose homes are likely to be damaged by landslides or by any other natural hazards.

DROUGHT
Drought is either absence or deficiency of rainfall from its normal pattern in a region for an extended period of time leading to general suffering in the society. It is interplay between demand that people place on natural supply of water and natural event that provides the water in a given geographical region. The more

36

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

the imbalance in supply the higher is the drought. The following will help explaining this general definition of the drought further. It is a slow on-set disaster and it is difficult to demarcate the time of its onset and the end. Any unusual dry period which results in a shortage of useful water. Drought is a normal, recurrent feature of climate. Climate is expected to show some aberrations and drought is just a part of it. Drought can occur by improper distribution of rain in time and space, and not just by its amount. Drought is negative balance between precipitation and water use (through evaporation, transpiration by plants, domestic and industrial uses etc) in a geographical region. The effects of drought accumulate slowly over a considerable period of time.

Mitigation Measures
There are various mitigation strategies to cope up with drought. 1. Public Awareness and education: If the community is aware of the dod s and dond ts, then half of the problem is solved. This

37

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

includes awareness on the availability of safe drinking water, water conservation techniques, agricultural drought management strategies like crop contingency plans, construction of rain water harvesting structure. Awareness can be generated by the print, electronic and folk media. 2. Drought Monitoring: It is continuous observation of the rainfall situation, availability of water in the reservoirs, lakes, rivers etc and comparing with the existing water needs in various sectors of the society.

3. Water supply augmentation and conservation through rainwater harvesting in houses and farmersd of water available. Water harvesting by either allowing the runoff water from all the fields to a common point (e.g. Farm ponds, see the picture) or allowing it to infiltrate into the soil where it has fallen (in situ) (e.g. contour bunds, contour cultivation, raised bed planting etc) helps increase water availability for sustained fields increases the content

agricultural production.

4.

Expansion

of

irrigation

facilities

reduces

the

drought

vulnerability. Land use based on its capability helps in optimum use

38

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

of land and water and can avoid the undue demand created due to their misuse.

5. Livelihood planning identifies those livelihoods which are least affected by the drought. Some of such livelihoods include

increased off-farm employment opportunities, collection of nontimber forest produce from the community forests, raising goats, carpentry etc.

6. Drought planning: the basic goal of drought planning is to improve the effectiveness of preparedness and response efforts by enhancing monitoring, mitigation and response measures.

References: http://dmc.kar.nic.in/default.htm www.drought.unl. Edu http://www.fema.gov www.imd.ernet.in

39

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

###################

QUESTION 4
Many natural and manmade hazards can be predicted before their onset. In most cases, Technology now has made it possible to act before disaster strikes. Predicting different
40

hazards

requires

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

different

methods,

technologies,

and (20)

equipment, explain!

PRIDICTION
There are three stages involved in the prediction of hazards: 1. Collecting Data 2. Analyzing data o assess the hazard 3. Translating data into a warning and disseminating it to the general public and the disaster task force. Many natural and manmade hazards can be predicted before their onset. In most cases, technology now makes it possible to act before disaster strikes. Predicting different hazards requires different methods, technologies and equipment.

Each country has different organizations that poses equipment and monitoring systems for different types of hazards. Prediction
41

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

is based on the scientific data and information collected from different sources, which is simulated through various models and finally analyzed to determine the impacts that an identified hazard can have.

In fact, prediction is a means for hazard assessment, warning and alert systems. Most natural hazards are linked to atmospheric and climate changes, which are predictable. Within industrial and settings many technological hazards can also be

commercial

predicted using different alarm systems. For example, it is possible to predict the onset of major storms or torrential rains and floods with fair accuracy, often a few days in advance.

Some

well

known

international

sources

of

prediction

and

forecasts of natural hazards are:

The World Weather Watch (mainly for tropical storms) Seismological facilities in various countries (for monitoring of earth movements providing geographical co-ordinates of the movements and intensities) The Tsunamis Center at the Pacific Warning Center in Honolulu (for Tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean)

42

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

National sources for prediction may include:

National Meteorological Services National Seismological Services and Volcanological Services Sectoral Ministries and Departments Disaster Management focal points

For example, forecasting weather helps in predicting hazards related to high winds, storms, sea surges, tsunamis, high rainfall, flooding and ice storms. Prediction of wind hazards (tropical cyclones, hurricanes, Data is typhoons) normally is based is on technology wind and flow

persistence.

collected

upper

patterns at different heights. Surface isobaric patterns, satellite cloud imageries, and radar and radio observations are the main tools used for weather forecasting. Based on the guidelines of the World Meteorological Organization the following observations are made.

Surface Observations: Wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, air temperature, clouds visibility, rainfall,

radiations, dew point temperature and ground temperature. Sea Observations: Sea surface temperature, wave speed,

direction, period and swell.

43

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Upper

Air

Observations:

Temperature

and

humidity

at

different heights and pressure levels.

The source of the majority of these observations is normally the meteorological stations on land. Some observations at sea can be made by the merchant ships and research vessels.

EQUIPMENT USED FOR DATA COLLECTION

SATELLITE IMAGES Accuracy of weather forecasts depends upon the availability of high resolution satellite pictures. These systems can also be used for identifying fishing grounds, detecting forest fires and

monitoring crop conditions.

WATHER RADARS Storm warming weather radars are often used for tracking cyclonic disturbances, severe thunderstorms and bad weather phenomenon up to a range of 400km. The video integrator processor of radar can display limited levels of precipitation intensities.

44

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Similarly, flood forecasting or prediction requires information on climatic factors like rainfall in the headwater catchments.

Whenever there is a heavy rainfall in the upstream area, time taken for the water to accumulate downstream is the lead-time for the flood forecasting. Any calibrated rainfall-runoff model for local conditions- is a tool to provide information on expected water levels along a river in advance. Basic information required for flood forecasting are antecedent rainfall, evaporation rates and water levels coupled with the topographical features of the river systems.

SEISMOMETER A seismograph is a device for measuring the movement of the earth, and consists of a ground motion detection sensor, called a seismometer, coupled with a recording system. A simple

seismometer that is sensitive to up-down motions of the earth can be understood by visualizing a weight hanging on a spring. The spring and weight are suspended from a frame that moves along with the earthd s surface. As the earth moves, the relative motion between the weight and the earth provides a measure of the vertical ground motion. If a recording system is installed, such as a rotating drum attached to the frame, and a pen attached to the mass, this relative motion between the weight and earth can

45

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

be recorded to produce a history of ground motion, called a seismogram.

INFORMATION FOR HAZARD ASSESSMENT
The following table lists common information needed for timely prediction or forecasting of some natural hazards.

Disaster Cyclone

Information Needed
y y y y y y Cyclone track and intensity Time and location of landfall prediction Dissemination of warnings Damage assessment Implementation of relief plans Area affected Rainfall in catchments areas

Floods

y

46

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

y y y y y

Water levels (stream/storage areas) Run-off predictions Terrain relief and slopes Extent of affected areas Damage assessment Rainfall anomalies and vegetable indices Area affected Estimate the damage assessment Monitoring scan accumulation Seismological networks Areas affected by earthquakes Estimation of damage Modeling landslide process Slope and soil stability information Monitoring rainfall Extent of areas affected Damage assessment

Drought

y y y

Earthquake

y y y y

Landslides

y y y y y

References:

Disaster Management AIOU www.iris.edu

47

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

###################

QUESTION 5
Elaborate your concept about Community Organization and Formation of (20)
48

Community Groups.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

COMMUNITY
Community is a contributor of r sourc s and alli s and provid r of pitfalls and oppon nts.f

Community is a plac , wh r 1. Th Th

n

d for chang , 2.Th to chang

ffort to mak

that chang

and 3.

r sistanc

co- xists.

Thr

ways to p rc iv

a community

P rc iving Community as a community Compon nts of community i. . sub communiti s Groups drawn to th Community
49

ar na of action

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥

¥ ¥

¥

¥

¥ ¥ ¥¥ ¥ ¥¥ ¥ ¥

¥¥ ¥

¥

¥ ¥¥ ¥ ¥ ¥

¥ ¥¥ ¥ ¥

¥

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Geographic area, defined boundaries Shared interest and activities Purposeful grouping of individuals in to a common whole A fundamental capacity of our humanness A state of being Manner of people relating to one another

Types of Communities
Interest community: Communities we need to know/ the people who are involved in our particular action. Need or benefit community: Consists of people who currently experience the problem or could benefit from its resolution. Action community: Consists of people who recognize or could easily recognize that a problem exists and are willing to work to resolve it.(change agent) Target or response community: Consists of people whose policies, actions or inactiond s somehow perpetuate the problem. Peripheral community: The wider community

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION
Some definition of Community Organization are:
50

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

and groups, who ar w lfar volum

s rvic s or obj ctiv s, for th

purpos

of influ ncing th

of such s rvic s, improving th

quality or distribution or

furth ring th

attainm nt of such obj ctiv sf

Community organization is a t chniqu

for obtaining a cons nsus most important for th

conc rning both th common w lfar

valu s that ar

and th

b st m ans of obtaining th m.f

Community

organization

is

achi v d

wh n v r

a

group n

of d

citiz ns r cognizing a n is m t.f

d, band tog th r to s

that th

bringing about and maintaining a progr ssiv ly mor adjustm nt b tw n n social w lfar

Community organizing is a long-t rm approach wh r aff ct d by an issu ar

taking action to achi v h or sh

¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦¦¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦

Community organization has b

n d fin d as th

proc ss of ff ctiv

r sourc s and social w lfar

ds within a g ographic ar a or functional fi ld.f

th

p opl

support d in id ntifying probl ms and organiz r chall ng s thos

solutions. Th th

works with to chang

way things ar , it is a m ans

51

¦ ¦

¦ ¦ ¦

¦

¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦
Community organization is th or may b com

proc ss of d aling with individuals conc rn d with social

¦

¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦ ¦¦ ¦ ¦

¦

¦ ¦

¦ ¦¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

¦

¦ ¦ ¦

¦ ¦

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

of achieving social change through collective action by changing the balance of power. The tactics and strategies employed by the organizer are similar to the processes of leadership including timing the issue, deliberate planning, getting the attention of the populace, framing the issue in terms of the desired solution, and shaping the terms of the decision-making process. Why use community organizing? Community organizing helps to bring out many voices to add collective power and strength to an issue. Community organizing is a key part of an overall strategy to make changes in a community that are widely felt, and that reflect the wishes of the people who are directly affected by alcohol-related

community problems. This requires the organizer to not only listen and be responsive to the community, but also to help community residents develop the skills necessary to address their own issues in an ongoing way. At the heart of community organizing are inclusion, ownership, relationship building and leadership development. Community organizing looks at collective solutions large numbers of people who engage in solutions that impact even more people. These people usually live in the same neighborhood, town or block. Many traditional agency responses look at individual

52

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

solutions. Agencies tend to focus on the individual as a means to solve public health problems.

METHODS OF COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION
Meaning of Group: Two or more people who interact with and influence each other towards a common purpose. (Who interact with one another; psychologically aware of one another; who perceive themselves in a group).

Groups in the context of Community Organization
The work of the organizations is largely the work of the groups. Most of the stuff of community organization planning, and decision discussing,

making and camaraderie occurs in groups.

Building a successful organization demands an understanding of the functioning of successful groups. Community organizers see group methods of ensuring authentic participation as a means towards transformation. Groups are seen as preparing ground for

participation. Trust and dialogues are pre requisite for group process.

Understanding the Groups Stages in the development of a group
The following stages are identified in the life cycle of a group.

53

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

1. Forming Stage Members are unsure of themselves and the group. They try to figure out where they fit in with these new relationships. 2. Storming Stage It is characterized by rebellion individuality and resist authority. 3. Norming Stage. Members establish procedure and a sense of how they should act in the group. 4. Performing Stage The group concentrates on the tasks to be achieved. 5. Adjourning Stage When the group completes its work, which results in a change in the relationship among its members. as members assert their

ROLE OF COMMUNITY IN DISASTER PLANNING
No amount of disaster planning can be successful unless

communities likely to be affected participate in the process. Any disaster mitigation plan is bound to fail without the involvement of the community at every stage of its preparation as well as implementation. Community may comprise of:
54

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

A family A neighborhood / settlement A school An office A city A village Why is Community Participation Essential in Disaster Mitigation Planning? When a disaster strikes, the communities are the first to respond and react. In the first few moments before the designated management team gets into operation, maximum loss can occur when communities panic or do not know how to react. Communities are more familiar with the available

resources/facilities, social groups and the surroundings. Communities with experience of past disasters have

historical evidence and information of the effects and the response needed. They have enough lessons learnt in the past to be able to support mitigation planning. Communities are familiar with the vulnerabilities of the areas and the people in their vicinity. They may also know as to what could work to best up and the capabilities actions within the for

community mitigation.

take

various

required

55

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Communities also have the information of the demographics and topographies to be able to provide sufficient

information for developing hazards maps, risk assessment and mitigation plans. They would also be able to priorities their issues based on their sufferings. Communities can generate political will and can form community pressure groups to be able to bring in change. Communities have a two way link to the

governments/authorities as well as NGO

s rea y to help.

References:

Disaster Management AIOU www.scrib .com en.wikipe ia.org/wiki/Community_organizing

###################

56

§

§

§ §

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful