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Sandeep Arya

Saleem Khan

Parveen Lehana

University of Jammu, Jammu

University of Jammu, Jammu

University of Jammu, Jammu

Email:

pklehanajournals@gmail.com

piezoelectric based micro-cantilever for operation in enclosed

environmental conditions. The successful design of cantileve r is

based on the interdependence of various mechanical and

electrical parameters and further their dependence on the

selected material and chosen geometry. Thus the end result

depends on the mechanical and electrical sensitivities of the

cantilever. The cantilever design is based on the material

selection as well as determination of geometrical dimensions. In

this proposed design, an aluminium material is selected for

cantilever design on the silicon substrate. S ystematic steps

toward optimization of geometrical dimensions include initial

analytical estimates of geometrical dimensions, followed by

finite-element modelling and analysis of such cantilevers under

the applied electric field. The observed design have shown

variation in free end of micro-cantilever beam for different

gases. Thus, this proposed cantilever can be a fine gas sensor.

I.

involves the transpiration of mechanical energy that arises

due to deformations of the micro-machined components.

The measured output is due to the change in cantilever

deflection [1]. The piezoelectric material observes a change

in strain due to the cantilever bending and responds with a

change in electric field [2-5]. Higher mechanical sensitivity

leads to larger surface-stress induced bending of the

cantilever which results in higher sensor performance and

sensitivity. Several researchers have been reported the

development of some successful piezoelectric microcantilevers as detectors and sensors [6-11]. They all depend

on two different principles of actuation, the static and the

dynamic modes. The static mode measures the deflection of

the beam due to the adsorption of molecules on one side of

the cantilever. This adsorption produces a differential

surface stress and the consequent bending of the beam. The

dynamic mode measures the resonance of the cantilever.

Since the adsorbate is not uniformly distributed over the

cantilever, hence the position of the adsorbate affects the

dynamic response in different ways depending on the mass

position with respect to the cantilever [12-14]. In this paper,

a finite element model (FEM) was designed and optimized

for its geometrical dimensions to analyze the response of

piezoelectric micro-cantilever as gas sensor. A small and

thin layer of Barium Titanate was integrated and sandwiched

between a rectangular Silicon substrate and an active

978-1-4673-5250-5/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE

vibrate. COMSOL, a commercial finite element analysis tool

was used to develop and design a finite element model of the

micro-cantilever.

II.

transform a continuum system into its equivalent discretized

system. Piezoelectricity is the interaction between linear

elasticity equations with electrostatic charge equations by

means of electric constants [15] [16]. Let us consider a

cantilever beam having length L, then the stress-charge form

of the equations is given by

S E d t E

D d E

E

elasticity matrix, is the stress vector, d is the

d t is the transpose

of the piezoelectric coupling coefficient matrix, E is the

electric field vector, D is the electric displacement vector,

piezoelectric coupling coefficient matrix,

and is the electric permittivity matrix [17]. The stresscharge equation is significant for finite element analysis due

to its involvement in conversion of mechanical strain into

electrical power. Inspite of coupling matrix, piezoelectric

model also depend on the elasticity matrix and relative

permittivity equations. Elasticity matrix is required to

evaluate the elastic constants to transform the <100> axes of

the material into the axes of the substrate orientation.

Elasticity is the relationship between stress and strain.

Hooke's law describes the relationship between stress ( )

and strain ( ) and is given by

C

S

where C is the mechanical stiffness and S is the

compliance. The mechanical stiffness can be designated as a

single value of Youngs Modulus E . Hence Hookes law

can also be written as

ICETACS 2013

The elasticity matrix for isotropic materials can be expressed

as

0

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

E

SE

0

0 1 2

0

0

(1 )(1 2 ) 0

0

0

0

0 1 2

0

0

0

0

0 1 2

0

can be estimated by the relation

end of the micro-cantilever beam deflects due to

vibrational amplitude that produces when the device is

externally driven by a piezoelectric mterial. The vibration

amplitude is a function of the frequency that reaches

maximum at the resonant frequency. The resonant

frequency of a micro-cantilever beam is calculated as

f0

FL3

3EI

where F is the load applied to the free end of beam, L

is the length of the beam, I is the second moment of the

beams crossectional area, and E is the Youngs modulus of

elasticity of the beam material [19]. I can be calculated as

IV.

domain solver. The dimension of the selected materials

for micro-cantilever design is shown in table 1 while the

material properties selected for the design is shown in

table 2.

T ABLE 1. MATERIALS AND DIMENSIONS

wt

12

is the thickness. The stiffness (k) of a cantilever beam is

given as

2t

E

2

2 L 12

where

micro-cantilever beam due to stress is given by

1 2

R L2

poissons ratio [18]. Relative permittivity, also known as

dielectric constant, is the ratio of the permittivity of a

specific material to that of free s pace or vacuum.

Permittivity is the property of a medium that affects the

magnitude of force between two point charges.

III.

and

3EI

L3

difference in stress of the top and bottom surfaces. This

difference can be calculated with the help of Stoneys

equation and is given as

1

1

6 2 ( 1 2 )

R

Et

where R is the radius of curvature of micro-cantilever

beam due to stress on top and bottom surfaces, v is the

Poissons ratio of the material, t is the thickness of the beam,

-179-

Piezoelectric

Material

Lithium

Niobate

Parameters

Substrate

Material

Silicon

Length

50

Width

10

10

Height

Density

(kg/m 3 )

2330

Be am

mate rial

Aluminium

50

10

1

4700

2700

Coefficients

Silicon

Aluminium

170 x 10 9

70 x 10 9

Poissons Ratio

0.28

0.35

Electrical

Conductivity (S/m)

1 x 10 12

35.5 x 10 6

T hermal Conductivity

(W/(m*K))

130

237

ICETACS 2013

factors that are equally responsible for successful design

of a micro-cantilever. These factors are elasticity matrix

( S E ) , coupling matrix (d ) and relative permittivity ( ) .

The piezoelectric constants used in the design are as-

0

0

S11 S12 S13 S14

0

S12 S11 S13 S14 0

S

S

S

0

0

0

13

33

S E 13

0

0

S14 S14 0 S44

0

0

0 S44

S14

0

0

0

S14 ( S11 S12 ) / 2

0

stimulate the piezoelectric material. The electric potential of

+10 volts was applied to the side boundary of a piezoelectric

material and ground condition was applied to the lower

boundary of the substrate. The micro-cantilever is then

enclosed in the sphere to know the effect of different gases

present in the sphere. The spherical atmosphere was chosen

one by one to know the effect of different gases with respect

to change in displacement at the free end of micro-cantilever

beam. The gases selected alternatively for this experiment

were air, humid air, helium and oxygen. The different

parameters used for these gases are represented in table 4.

T ABLE 4. MATERIAL P ARAMETERS FOR DIFFERENT GASES

Gases

matrices can be written as

0

11 0

0 11 0

0

0 33

d d 22

d

31

The

d15

d 22

d15

d31

d33

coefficients

d 22

0

0

[18]. Table 3 shows the list of material constants for Lithium

Niobate.

T ABLE 3. MATERIAL CONSTANTS FOR BARIUM T ITANATE

Mate rial Constants

S11

Values

20.310 Nm-2

10

S12

5.310 10 Nm-2

S13

7.510 10 Nm-2

S14

0.910 10 Nm-2

S33

24.51010 Nm -2

S 44

6.010 10 Nm-2

11

44

33

29

d15

3.7 Cm -2

d 22

2.5 Cm -2

d 31

0.2 Cm -2

d 33

1.3 Cm -2

Parameters

Air

CO 2

Helium

Nitroge n

Dynamic

Viscosity

(kg/ms)

1.87

x10 -5

1.50

x10 -5

2.00 x10 -5

1.80 x10-5

Electrical

Conductivity

(W/mK)

0.026

0.01

7

0.15094

0.026184

Density

(kg/m 3 )

1.165

1.75

0

0.16124

1.1265

T hermal

Conductivity

(k -W/(mK))

0.025

0.01

63

0.142

0.024

Speed of

Sound (m/s)

349

267

1007

349

V.

Fig. 1 shows the meshing design of a microcantilever model. Normal meshing is conducted on the on

the whole enclosed micro-cantilever structure. The

maximum element size selected is 8. The design was

simulated on the computational machine having 3.2 GHz

processor speed. The virtual memory used while simulation

was 2.9 GB. Normal meshing is selected to reduce the

computational load.

-180-

ICETACS 2013

dc voltage is shown in Fig. 2. This graph indicates that

there is change in displacement of the free end of the

micro-cantilever beam and hence has its effect on its

vibrations due to various gases.

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

supply.

[6]

shown in Fig. 3. The graph clearly indicates the same trend

as is shown for the displacement. Both, the change in

displacement and the stress on the surface of the cantilever

beam vary with the variation in the dynamic viscosity of the

gas.

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

VI.

CONCLUSION

[15]

piezoelectric micro-cantilever are analyzed using finite

element analysis technique to obtain optimal performance as

gas sensor. The piezoelectric micro-cantilever yields the

highest displacement and surface stress for helium and the

dynamic viscosity for this gas are greater than the others.

The result shows variation in the displacement and surface

stress in accordance with the variation in the dynamic

viscosity for the gases. Thus the micro-cantilever is sensitive

to the dynamic viscosity of the gases.

[16]

[17]

[18]

[19]

[20]

-181-

A silicon cantilever beam structure for the evaluation of d31,

d33 and e31 piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films, in

Proc. 16th IEEE Int. Symp. Appl. Ferroelectr., pp. 725727,

May 2007.

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with piezoresistive readout and a highly symmetrical

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83, pp. 4753, 2000.

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sensors for Scanning probe microscopy, Ultramicroscopy, vol.

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T hundat, R. T . Lareau, T . Sulchek, L. Manning, B. Rogers, M.

Jones, J. D. Adams, A microsensor for trinitrotoluene vapor,

Nature, vol. 425, pp. 474, 2003.

P. Grabiec, T . Gotszalk, J. Radojewski, K. Edinger, N. Abedinov

and Rangelow, SNOM/AFM microprobe integrated with

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analysis, Microelectron. Eng., vol. 6162, pp. 9816, 2002.

J. R Barnes, R. J. Stephenson, C. N. Woodburn, A femtojoule

calorimeter using micromechanical sensors, Rev. Sci. Instrum .,

vol. 65, pp. 3793-3798, 1994.

E. A. Wachter, T . T hundat, P. I. Oden, Remote optical

detection using microcantilevers, Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 67, pp.

3434-3439, 1996.

H. P. Lang, R. Berger, F. Battiston, A chemical sensor based on

a micromechanical cantilever array for the identification of gases

and vapours, Appl. Phys. A, vol. 66, pp. S61-S64, 1998.

A. C. Stephan, T . Gaulden, A. D. Brown, Microcantilever

charged-particle flux detector, Rev. Sci. Instrum ., vol. 73, pp.

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of acoustic waves, Rev. Sci. Instrum., vol. 74, pp. 1031-1035,

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B. Ilic, Y. Yang, H. G. Craighead, Virus detection using

nanoelectromechanical devices, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, pp.

2604-2606, 2004.

S. Dohn, R. Sandberg, W. Svendsen, A. Boisen, Enhanced

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modes, Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 86, pp. 233501, 2005.

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