You are on page 1of 19

chromosomes (XX), while human males have one X and one Y (X Yi.

Chromosomes Other than sex chromosomes are called autosomes.


KEYNOTE
Diploid eukarvooc cells have a double set of chromosomes, one ser coming from
each parenta members of a pair of chromosomes, one from each parent, are called
homologous chromosomes. Haploid eukarvotic cells have oniy one set of chromoUnder the microscope we see that chromosomes dtffer in their size and
morphology withm and between species. Each chromosome has a specialized
region somewhere alonqits 'length that IS often seen as a constncnon under the
microscope. Th:s constriction, called a centromere (or kinetochore),- isimportant in
the actrvtries of the chromosomes duringz cellular diviston and "-an be located in
one of four general positions in the chromosom. A metacentric chromosome the
centromere in approximately the center of the chromosome so that it appears to
have two approanatelv eaual arms. Submetacentric chromosomes-haveine arm
longer than the Othcr, acroccntric chromoornes have one arm plus a stalk and
Asatellim and chromosomcs have only one arm, since the is at the end
Chromosomes of mice, for example, are I similar in length, whereas those of
humans show a ide ranee of relauve lengths.
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Eukaryotes can reproduce by asexual or sexual reproducdom In asexual
reproducnon a new individual devclops from elther a single cell or from. a group
cells (vegetative reproducnon) in the absence of any sexual process. Asexal
reproduction is found in both unicellular and mulacellular eukaryores. Sing)e-celied
eukaryotes
(such
as
yeast)
grow,
doubie
their
genetic
material, and generare two progeny celis, each of which contains an exact copy of
the genetic material found in the parental cell. This process repeats as long as
there are sufficrent nurrients in the growth mediurn. In multi cellular organisms
asexual reproducnon somerimes referred to vegetative reproduction Mulacellular
fungi, for example example, can be propagated vegetanvely 'by
taking a small piece of the growch mass and transferring it to new medium. Many
higher plants, such as roses and fruit trees are commercially maintained by
grafng,
which
is
an
asexual
means
of
propagation.
Sexual reproduction is the fusion of two haploid gametes (sex cells ) to produce a
single diploid zygote a new multicellular individual develops by mitotic division
under programmed control from genetic material. Sexual reproduction insolves the
alternation of diploid and haploid phases, he main biological significance of sexual
reproduction that it achieves genetic recombination; that is, it
enerates
gene
combinations
in
the
offspring
are
Istinct from those in the parents. With the exception of self-fertilizing organisms
(such as many plants), the wo gametes are from different parents, and it is during
he production of the gametes that genetic recombination takes place. Shows the
cycle of growth and sexual reproduction in a higher eukaryote and also shows how

the number of chromosomes charactenstic of an organism is kept constant from


generation to generation.
Sexually reproducing animals have two sorts of cells: somatic (body) cells and
germ (sex) cells. Somantic cells are haploid or diploid, depending on the
eukaryote; lower eukaryotes such as yeast are often haploid,
while
all
higher
eukaryotes
are
diploid.
Somatic
cells
reproduce
by
a
process
called
mitosis.
(or
gametes),
which
are
always
haploid,
are
produced
by
a
process called meiosis.
Mitosis: Nuclear Division
In both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, cellular reproduction is a cyclical
process of growth, mitosis (nuclear division or karyokinesis) and (usually) cell
division
(cytokinesis).
This
process
is
called
the
cell
cycle. In proliferating somatic cells the cell cycle consists of two phases the mitotic
(or
dividing)
phase
and
an
interphase
between
divisions.
Interphase consists of three stages, Gl (gap 1), S, and G2 (gap 2). During
(presynthesis stage), the cell prepares for DNA and chromosome replication, which
take place in the S stage, during which DNA is replicated. ln Gz (the postsynthesis
stage), the cell prepares for cell division, or the M phase. Most of the cell cycle is
spent
in
the
G1
stage,
although
the
relative
time
spent
in
each
of
the
four
stages
varies
greatly
among
cell
types.
During
interphase
of
the
cell
division
cycle,
the
individual
chromosomes
are
extended
and
are
difficult
to
see
under
the
light
microscope.
The
DNA
of
each
chromosome replicates, and the DNA of the centromere also replicates, although
only one centromere structure seen under the microscope. The product of
chromosome
duplication
is
two
exact
copies,
called
Sister chromatid, which are held together by the replicated but unseparated
centromere. More precisely, a chromatid is one of the two visibly distinct,
longitudinal subunits of all replicated chromosomes, which become
visible between early prophase and metaphase of mitosis (and between prophase I
and the second metaphase of meiosis, discussed later). After mitotic anaphase,
they become known as daughter chromosomes.
Cell division in eukaryotic cells involves two processes that may or may not occurtogether: mitosis (division of the nucleus karyokinesis), which follows
the
precise
replication
of
chromosomes
and
results
in
the distribution of a complete chromosome set to each progeny nucleus; and
cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm to form two cells.

Mitosis
occurs
in
both
haploid
and
diploid
cells.
It
a
continuous
process,
but
for
purposes
of
discussion
it is usually divided into four cytologically distinguish table stages called prophase,
metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. In photographs show the
typical
chromosome
morphology
in
interphase
and
in
the four stages of mitosis in plant (onion root tip) and
animal
(newt
lung
epithelium)
cells.
Shows
the
four
stages
in
simplified
diagrams.
PROPHASE. At the beginning of prophase, the chromatids are very elongated
and cannot be seen under the Iight microscope. In preparation for mitosis they
begin to coil tightly so that they appear shorter and fatter under the microscope. By
late
prophase
each
chromosome,
which
was
duplicated
during the preceding S phase, is seen to consist of two
Sister chromatids.
During prophase, the mitotic spindle (spindle apparatus) assembles outside the
nucleus. Each of the spindle fibers in the bipolar mitotic spindle is approximately 25
mm diameter and consists of microtubules made of special proteins called tubulins.
In most animal cells, the foci for spindle assembly are the centrioles.
Prior to the S phase, the cell's pair of centrioles have replicated and each neu
centriole pair becomes focus for a radial array of microtubules called the aster.
Early
in
prophase
the
two
asters
are
adjacent
to
one
close
to
the
nuclear
membrane.
By
late
prophase
the
two
asters
are
far
apart
along
the
oufside
of
nucleus
and are spanned by the microtubular spindle fibers.
Near
the
end
of
prophase
the
nuclear
membrane
breaks down and the nucleolus or nucleoli disappear, allowing the spindle to area.
Specialized structures called kinetochores form on either face of the centromere of
each chromosome and become attached to special microtubules called
kinetochore microtubule. These microtubules radiate in opposite directions from
each side of each cromosome and interact with the spindle microtubules.
METAPHASE. Metaphase begins when the nuclear membrane has completely
disappeared.
During metaphase become arranged so that their centromeres become
aligned in one plane halfway between the two spindle poles and with the long axes
the chromosomes at 90 degrees to the spindle axis. The kinetochore microtubules
are
responsible
for
this
chromosome
alignment
event.
Thee plane where in chromosomes become aligned is called the metaphase plate.
Shows electron micrographs of human chromosomes at this stage of the cell cycle.
Note the highly condensed state of the Sister chromatids. The electron micrograph
(EM) in Figure 1.22c shows a human chromosome from which much of the protein
has been removed. In the center is a dense framework of protein called a scaffold,

which retains the form of the chromosome. The scaffold is surrounded by a halo of
DNA
filaments
that
have
uncoiled
and
spread
outward.
ANAPHASE. Anaphase is initiated when sister chromatids break apart ar the
centromere,
splitting
the
chromosome.
Once
the
paired
kinetochores
on
each
chromosome
separate,
the
Sister
chromatid
pairs
undergo
disjunction
(separation),
and
the
daughter
chromosomes
(as
each
sister
chromatid
is
now
called)
move
toward
the
poles.
In
anaphase
the
two
of
the
daughter
chromosomes
migrate
toward the opposite poles of the cell. Now the chromosomes assume the
characteristic shapes related to the location of the along the chromosome's
length.
For
example,
a
metacentric
chromosome
Will
appear as a V as the
two
roughly equal-length
chromosome
arms
trail
the
centromere
in
its
migration
toward
the
pole.
Similarly,
a
submetacentric
chromosome
Will
appear
as
a
J.
gives
an
interpretation
of
the
mitotic
apparatus
in
anaphase
in
an
animal
cell.
TELOPHASE.- During telophase the migration of daughter chromosomes to the
two poles is completed. The two sets of progeny chromosomes are assembled into
two groups ac, opposite ends of the cell. The chromosomes begin to uncoil and
assume the extended state characteristic of interphase.
A nuclear membrane forms around each chromosome group, the spindle
microtubules disappear, and the nucleolus or nucleoli re-form. At this point, the cell
has
nuclei.
CYTOKINESIS.- Cytokinesis refers to division of the cytoplasm. In most cases the
telophase stage of mitosis is accompanied by cytokinesis. Cytokinesis
compartmentalizes the two new nuclei into separare dauchter cells, completing the
mitotic cell division process.
GENETIC SIGNIFICANCE OF MITOSIS. Mitosis maintains the genetic cotent of a
cell from generation to generation. Mitosis occurs in haploid or diploid cells after
DNA and chromosome duplication has taken place. It is a highly ordered process in
which a duplicated chromosome set partitioned equally into the two daughter cells.
Thus, for haploid (N) cell, chromosome duplication produces a cell with two sers of
chromosomes. The ensuing mitosis result in two progeny haploid cell, each which
one sec of chromosomes.
For a diploid cell, which has two sets of chromosomes, chromosome duplication
produces a cell in which each chromosome set has doubled its content- The
ensuing mitosis results in two progeny diploid cells, each with two sets of
chromosomes.

KEYNOTE.- Mitosis is the process of nuclear division in eukaryotes. It is one part


of the cell cycle (i.e., G1, S, G2, and M) and results in the production of daughter
and
are
genetically
identical
to
one
another
and
to
the
parent
nucleus
from
which
they
arose.
Prior
to
mitosis,
DNA
synthesis
occurs
to
double
the
amount
Of
DNA
concomitant
with
chromosome
duplication.
Mitosis is usually followed by cytokinesis. Both haploid and diploid cells can
undergo
mitosis.
MEIOSIS.- Meiosis is the term applied to the two successive divisions of a diploid
nucleus following only one DNA replication cycle. That results in the formation of
haploid gametes (gametogenesis) or of meiospores (in sporogenesis). During
meiosis, homologous chromosome set replicate, then pair, then undergo two
divisions.
As a consequence, each of the four cells resulting from the two meiotic divisions
receives one chromosome of each chromosome set. The two nuclear divisions of a
normal meiosis are called meiosis I and meiosis II. The first meiotic division results
in reduction in the number of chromosomes from diploid to haploid (reductional
division), and the second division results in separation of the chromatids
(equational division). In most cases the divisions are accompanied by cytokinesis,
so the result of the meioss of a single diploid cell is four haploid cells.
MEIOSIS I: THE FIRST MEIOTIC DIVISION.
Meiosis I, in which the chromosome number is reduced from diploid to haploid,
consists of four cytologically distinguishable stages: prophase I, anaphaseI, and
telophase I; presents photographs and diagrams of the meiosis I stages.
PROPHASE I .- In brief, in prophase I the chromosomes become shorter and
thicker, crossing-over occurs, the and nucleolus/nucleoli disappear. Prophase I is
divided into a number of stages. As it begins, the chromosomes have already
replicated. In leptonema (early prophase; the stage) the chromosomes have begun
to coil and are now visible. The threadlike chromosomes seen Sister
chromatids held together at the centromere- The number of chromosomes present
at this stage is the same as the number in the diploid cell. Once a cell enters
leptonema, it's committed to meiotic process.
In zygonema homologous chromosomes begin to par In la highly specific way (like
a zipper) This chromosome pairing is called synapsis. Because of the replication
that occurred earlier, each synapsed set of homologous chromosomes consists of
four chromatids and is referred to as a bivalent or tetrad.
Followin zygonema is pachynema. At this stage the chromosomes become much
shorter and thicker and are now visible as four-strand structures. They are also
more intimately synapsed. During pachynema a most significant event takes place:

crossing-over, the reciprocal exchange of chromosome at corresponding positions


along
pairs
of
homologous
chromosomes.
If
there
are
genetic
differences
between
the
homologs,
crossingover
can
produce
new
gene
combinations
in
a
chromatid.
There is usually no loss or addition of genetic material to either chromosome, since
crossing-over involves reciprocal exchanges.
The process of crossing-over is facilitated by the tight synapse (alignment side by
side) of the four chromatids and involves the formation of a zipperlike structure
along the length of the chromarids called the synaptinemal complex. Although we
know that the structure consists mainly of protein with some RNA attached, we
do not know its role in crossing-over. In some organisms, such as male mosophila,
the synaptinemal complex is not formed and no crossing-over occurs In that case.
A chromosome that emerges from meiosis with a combination of genes that- differs
from the combination with which it started is called a recombinant chromosome.
Therefore crossing-over is a mechanism chat can give rise to genetic
recombination, a concept we Will examine more fully in later chapters.
The next stage in prophase I is diplonema (mid/late prophase; the diplotene stage).
Here the chromosomes begin to move apart. The process of crossingover
becomes visible during diplonema as a cross- shaped structure called a chiasma.
Since all four chromatids may be involved in crossing-over events along the length
of the homologs, the chiasma pattern at this stage may be very Complex.
Diplonema is followed rapidly in most organisms by the remaining stages of
meiosis. However, in many animals the oocytes (egg cells) can remain in
diplonema for very long- periods. For example, in the human female, oocytes go
through meiosis up to diplonema by the month of fetal development and then
remain arrested in this stage for many years. At the onset of puberty and until
menopause, one oocyte per menstrual cycle matures into a haploid ovum (egg)
and
is
released
from
the
ovary.
Diakinesis (late prophase) follows diplonema. During the four chromatids of each
bivalent (tetrad) are even more condensed, and the chiasmata
often terminalize; that is, they move down the chromatids to the ends. As a result,
the chromatids to the ends. As a result, the chromatids at this stage appear to be
attached near the tips.
That is, the chromosomes are sliding past each Other so that, in a sense, the
chiasmata delay the separation of the chromatids. In addition, the nucleoli
disappear, and the nuclear membrane begins to break down. The chromosomes
can be most easily counted at this stage of meiosis.

METAPHASE I.- By the beginning of metaphase I, the nuclear membrane has


completely broken down, and the bivalents (tetrads) become aliegned on the
equatorial plane of the cell. The spindle apparatus is completely formed now, and
the microtubules are attached to the centromeres of the homologs.
Note particularity that it is the synapsed pairs of homologs (the bivalents) that are
found at the metaphase plate. In contrast, in mitosis of most (but not all)
organisms, replicated homologous chromosomes (Sister chromatid pairs) align
independently at the metaphase plate. In Other words, a key difference between
mitosis
and
meiosis,
is
that
sister
centromeres
in
meiosis I, whereas in mitosis they separate.
ANAPHASE I .- In anaphase I, the chromosomes In each tetrad separate, so
homologous pairs (the bivalents) disjoin and migrate toward opposite poles, the
areas in which new nuclei Will form. (At this stage, each pair is called a dyad.) This
migration gives rise to two things: (I) Maternally-derived and paternally-derived
homologues are segregated randomly at each pole (except for the parts of
chromosomes exchanged during the crossing-over process); At each pole there is
a haploid complement of replicated chromosomes. It is important to remember that
at this time the segregated sister chromatid pairs remain attached at their
respective centromeres.
TELOPHASE I .- The length of telophase varies considerably among species.
Nonetheless, in telophase I the dyads complete their migration to opposite poles of
the cell, and (in most cases) new nuclear membranes form around each haploid
grouping. In most species, cytokinesis follows, producing two haploid cells. Thus
meiosis I, which begins with a diploid cell that contains one maternally- derived and
one paternallyderived and one paternally- derived set of chromosomes, ends with
two nuclei, each of which contains one mixed parental set of replicated
chromosomes, all still joined at the centromeres. After cytokinesis, each of the two
progeny cells has a nucleus with a haploid set replicated chromosomes.
MEIOSIS ll: THE SECOND MEIOTIC DIVISION. The second meiotic division is
very similar to a mitotic division. Presents photographs and diagrams of
prophase ll, metaphase II, anaphase II, and telophase II of meiosis ll. Prophase II
is a stage of chromosome contraction. In metaphase ll each of the two daughter
cells organizes a spindle apparatus that to the now- divided centromeres- The
centromeres
line
up
on
the
equator
of
the
second-division
spindles.
During anaphase II, the centromeres (and therefore the chromatids) are pulled to
the opposite poles of the spindle: One Sister chromatid of
each pair goes to one pole, while the other goes to the opposite pole of the spindle.
The separated chromatids are now referred to as chromosomes own right.
In the last stage, telophase, a nuclear membrane forms araund each set of
chromosomes, and cytokinesis takes place. After telophase chromosomes become

more

extended

and

again

are

invisible

under

the

light

microscope.

Since there is no chromosome duplication between meiosis I and meiosis II the


end products of the two meiotic divisions are four haploid cells from one original
diploid cell. Each of the four progeny cells has one chromosome from each
homologous pair of chromosome. Remember, however, that these chromosome
are not exact copies of the original chromosomes because of the crossing-over
that occurs between chromosomes during pachynema of meiosis compares
mitosis and meiosis.
Genetic Significance of Meiosis
Meiosis has three significant results:
l. Meiosis generates cells with half the number of chromosomes found the diploid
cell that entered the process because two division cycles follow only one cycle of
DNA replication (S period) Fusion of the haploid nuclei (called fertilization, or
syngamy) restores the diploid number- Therefore through a cycle of meiosis and
fertilization, the chromosome number is maintained in sexually reproducing
organisms.
2- In metaphase I of meiosis, each maternally derived and paternally derived
chromosome has an equal chance of aligning on one or the other side of the
equatorial metaphase plate. As a result, each nucleus generated by meiosis Will
have a combination of maternal and paternal and chromosomes.
The number of possible chromosome combinations is large, especially when the
number of chromosomes in an organism is large. Consider a hypothetical organism
with two pairs of chromosomes in a diploid CCII entering meiosis, shows the two
possible combinations of maternal and paternal that can occur at the metaphase
plate.
The general formula states that the number of possible chromosome arrangements
is 2" where n is the number of chromosome pairs. . In
Drosophila, which has four pairs of chromosomes, the number of possible
arranguments is 23, or 8; in humans, which have 23 chromosome pairs, over 4
million metaphase arrangements are possible. Therefore since there are many
gene
differences
bety
the
maternally
derived
and
paternally.
Derivate chromosomes, the nuclei produced by meiosis Will be genetically quite
different
from
the
parental
cell
and
from
each
other.
The
crossing-over
between
maternal
and
paternal
chromatid pairs during meiosis I results in still more variation in the final
combinations. Crossing-over occurs during every meiosis, and because the sites of
crossing-over vary from one meiosis, to another, the number of different kinds of

progeny nuclei produced by the process is extremely large. Given the genetic
features of meiosis, this process is of critical importance for understanding the
behavior of genes, as Will be seen in the following chapters.
KYYNOTE
Meiosis occurs In all sexually reproducing, cukaryotes. It is a process by which a
diploid (ZN) cell or cell nucleus transformed, through one round of
chromosome
replication
and
two
rounds
of
nuclear
division, into four haploid (N) cells or nuclei. In the first of two divisions, pairing
synapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs. The meiotic process results in
conservation of the number of chromosomes are combined in the progeny nuclei
and by crossing- over( the physical exchange of genes between maternally or
paternally derived homologs)
ates

gci-to

which

tbrough

and

combincd
(the

in

paternal
ihc

physical

the

hromosomes

progeny

exchange

variotif

nuclei
of

gcnes

and

by
bctwecn

ways
arc
crossing-ovcr
matcrnally

or paternally dcrivcd homologs).


Duplicated
individually
on

spindle

Homoiogous
pairs

of

dupiicated
chromosomes
(tetrads)

line

up
1:-

on
VIRLSES.-

omparison
Mitosis

CELLS,

spindie
AND

CELLULAR

FKGRE
of

mitosis

REPRODUCTION
1.28

and

meiosis

in

diploid

ceil-

interphase
Meiosis
o
tnterphase
DNA
DNA
replication
(dupiication
not

yet

visible)
-f

Pairing

of

Prophase
Metaphase
Metaphase

Duplication
becomes
visible
homotogous
ch

romosomes

Middie

Prophase

Late

Prophase

FIGURE
Two

1.29

possible

chromosomes
division.

arrangements
on

Paternal

the

of

metaphase

chromosomes

two

pairs

piare
are

shown

of
the
in

homoiozous
first
veliow

me10tic
and

green;

maternal

wo

chromosomes
pairs.of
of

Possible

pairing
of

ME/osIS
are

diploid

animals
produce

ca(lv

to

gametes

produce
are

Gaieres
male

the

cess

calied

egg,

In

only

produced

male

tozoa)

primordial

sperm,

the

produced
germ

the

cells

goniae

Spermatogonia

dnnsion,

cells
testes.

of

in

mitotl-

The

garnete

called

pro-

is

the
and
28).

sperma-

contain

secondarv

which

the

(p.

spemzatogonia),

into

cvcle.

In

through

testes

the

life

cells.

1.30

the

Thus

the

(also

produce

each

fuse

Spermatogenesis
Figure

transform

(merocytes),

of

female

(primary

dary
sis

in

such
which

organism-

produced

The

In

divides

specialized

sperm

by

mitonc

then

oogenesis.

illustrated

through

matocyctes

the

animals

cycle.

nuclei

stages

in

Cycle

gametes,

diploid

haploid

by

ammals

are

new

formed
is

life

cheir

zygote

spermatogenesis.

are

their
haploid

The

only

gamete

oogenesis

of

Life

multicellular

when

the

the

are

Most

zygote

process-

chromosomes

the

produces

diploid

Lertilization

in

most

meiosis

zan-

arranaements

ANIMALS.
through

and

separation

Meiosis

IN

purple

homoiogous

Direction

-?ions

In

which,
spermato-

przmary
undergoes

spermeio-

spemzatocytes.
I

and

gives

nse

ro

Each spermatocyte undergoes meiosis Il. As a result of

rwo

the

secon

FEGURE

1.28

continucd

Anaphase
Singlechrornatid
ch

romosomes

EUKARYOiES

27

Celi
division
Tefophase
Celt

division

ll

Telophase

ji

Twin-chromatid
chromosomes
Cell

division

Anaphase

Metaphase

ll

thcsc

two

which

four

eventually

edifferentiat

gametes,
In

animals

germ

givc

Trise

into

Primary

oogcncsisincicsis

spermatids
into

-the

female

dial

haploid

to

T
and

ovary

cells

uncqual

contains

(primary

secondary

he

manire

male

spermacozoa

the

oocytcs,

the

arisc,

oogonia.

which

diploid,

primary

cytok-tnesls

by
These

grow

until
oocycc

to

thc

givc

primormitosis,

cells
thc
gocs
two

transform
end

of

through
cclls:

largc

onc

calicd

the

onc

calicd

thc

first

division

the

cciis.

One

polar

body;

tnto

thc

may

or

gamctc

polar

sccondary

is

the

is

cgg

ceil,

nor

CThus

in

(thc

body.

small

Othcr

may

In

the

the

sccond

CCII

Oniy.

produccd

Thc

animal
by

Ineiotic

sccond

rapidly

matures

firsr

ovum

polar
is

only

Sinall

haploid

callcd

that

the

very

two

is

ovum.

femate

is

and

large
or

and

produces

cell

divide.

ovum)

oocytc

oocyte

very

Inaturc

gatncte.

sccondary

viable

one

tueiosis

bodv

of

mature
a

diploid

sexually

repro-

cell.
hffEIOSiS

IN

ducillg

PLANTS.

The

typically

has

plants

life
two

Anaphase
phyte

haploid

or

are

structurc

Figure

1.31
both

mcns

pbascs,

aiid

thc
in

(p.
male
ptstils,

singlc

in

which

thc

diploid

ganactcs

stage

produccd

angiospenns,

thc

ing

stage

sporophytc

spores
In

of

gamcro

II

or

and"the

cycle

by

flowcring
which

in

Shows

and

female

reproductivc
Each

which

haploid

thc

Ilowcr

rcproduction

28)

respectiveiy.

produccd,

tmeiosis-

plants,

sexual

arc

gencratizcd

sta;ncn

stalk,

occurs.

flowcr

org:ujs,

containthc

cons:sts

thc

fiianlcnr,
the
01)

top

of

wh;ch

is

aa

sta01

anthcr.

Front

contains
of

the

the

pollen;

111c
female

stigma,
the

grows;

aniher

style,

and

are

gametophy.tes
sticky

surface

thin

at

sralk

thc

the

pollcn

grains,

and

typica*ly

specialized

to

rcccive

thc

poltcn

tubc

down

basc

chc

which
of

consists

thc

structure,

ovary,

within

which

femalc

gamctophyte

egg

cclf

Meiosis
male
the

rclcased

arc

is

ffower

ovules.

with

fcrtilizcd,

occurs
parts

the

of

in
the

occurs

thc

singlc
ovuic

spccific
flowcr.
as

Each
egg

Mciokis

in

cncloscs

Whcn

thc

CCII.

dcvclops

ways

follows.

ovule

thc

into

sccd.

fcnralc

and

in

rhc

fc:nale

Wirhin

thc

ovary

parr
of

of
the

flowcr, cach ovulc i$ a singlc largc 2N callcd the


29
SUMMAR.,.
FIGURE

1.32

Megasporogcncsis: Meiosis in thc fcmalc part o the flowcr and the production of
thc
crnbryo

sac.

Ovule
(includes
megaspore
mother
cett)
Embryo
O.

sac
Cytcpiasmic

division
Endosperm
mother

ceti

Megaspore
mother

ceil

(diploid)
Megagametophyte
Mitosis
ee
Meiosis

Meiosis
4

haploid

daughter

cells

Megaspore
Mitosis
3

disintegrate

Mitosis
loid

cclls

haploid,

and

diploid

and

the

cells:

The

sporopbytc

gametophyte
cclis

arc

cells

arc

diploide

SUMMARY
In

this

tures

of

duction

chapter

wc

viruses

and

in

eukaryotes,

nutosis
As

rcvicwcd
cells,
with

and
the

simplest

and

basic

organizational

discussed
particular

cellu(ar
cmphasis

fearcproon

meiosis.
cellular

organisms,

prokaryotes

lack

membrane-bound

fission.

The

genetic

material

less,

localized

within

Oid

region-

Prokarvotic

single,

circular

fcw

DNA

distributed

Ants

have

ernation

two

Of

gesh

Chc

sporcs

nts

the

tcly

bccome

Ediploid

spores,
e

f
of

reproductive
(Figure

and

also

alternation

meiosis

in

ovulc.

generation.

turn,
the

of
plants

the

Meiosis
these

gcneration

bcgins

In

flowering
that

Fertilization

ultiinitiates

diploid

sporocells

gametophytes.

alternate
relationship

generations

of

called
31).

produce

the

singlc-

haploid

the

are

bc

between

The

second

indrcates

'vvith

chrornosomcs.

cells

specialized

consists

p:

the

of

ntcmbranc-bound

meiosis.

are

in
is

1.35;

nucle-

is

phases,

gametophyte

produces
which,

linear

by

the

consists

transition

produced

SPOCOphytc

1.35

the

distinct

pollen

sporophyte

-Igure

sevcral

noncthc-

called

cukaryotcs

among

equivalents

gencration

of

binary

is,

tnay

havc

the

by

tbat

orgapisms

haploid

arc

arca

matcrial

matcrial

COnstitute

an

molecule

generations

fertilizati0n

in

and

gcnctic

divide

prokaryotcs

gcnct:c

multiccllular

Thc

and

of

cell

Eukaryotic

or

nucieus.

the

DNA

proteins-

ccllcd

nucleus

generation.
of

each

to

meiosis.

The

spores.

The

spores

vand
mosses,

thc

cclls

in

gymnosperms

(cone-

ants)

and

3-Ytcs,

and

fcmalc
us

angiospcrms
the

cells

in

gamctophytc
in

all

that
the

ovules

arc

grecn

produce
of

all

plants

thc

malc
flowers

produccd
alternation

that
by

of

gen-

volves an altcrnation bctween stages of hap


i-35
Alternanon

gansctopayre

and

grccn

sporophvte

gencrar:ons

planrs.

Gametophyte

generation

Male

(N)

gametophyte

(microgametophyte

potlen)

Sperm

(N)

Femaie

gametophyte

(megagametophyte)
31
PROi'.i.F.M.S
h:

(hcsc

chrotneso;ucsvpicallv,

chc

DNA

is

cukarvot;c

co:nplcxcd

ce!ls

with

contain

protc:n.s.
c;thcr

one

or

haploid

cclls

division

in

mitosis-

Mitosis

foliowcd

by

tWO

sets

and
borli

the
haploid

invoive.s
onc

of
(attcr
and
011c
round

chrotnoso:ncs:
are

diploid

diploid
round
of

thc

cciis-

cclls
of

fornicr

DNA

nuclear

Nuctcar

occurs

by

celi

by

rephcatjon
division,

oftcn
accompanicd

arc

dvtston-

-r-hus,

rcsults

the

production

chromosomc
to

onc

of

daughtcr

numbcrs

anothcr

in
nuclci

and

and

that

to

the

that
arc

contain

idcntical

gcncrically

parcnt

nuclcns

identical

frotn

which

cheysarose.
In

all

occurs

sexuaMy

at

thc_proccss
or

bv

CCII

tron
haploid
uets

particular
which

nuclcus

and

two
ccits

of

ter0(tuCing
stage
a

or

meiosis

of

are

ccil

onc

In
the

lifc

round

Mciosts
haploid

01

division

many

mmosts

cyclc-

(ncvcr

nuclear

nuclci-

gencrates

thc

diploid

undcrgoes

rounds

in

organisnt.s,

1)INA
to

gamctcs-

genct:c

CCII)
replica-

producc

cukaryotcs

is

(he

four
prod-

Unllke-mitosis,

luciosis

variability

two
mant
(1)

wnys:
through

paternal
and
dcrivcd

various

chromosomes
(2)
and

recombtnant
some

the

are

through

Ovule
Anther

in

combined

crossing-ovcr

patcrnally
chromosomes

derived

which
in

:uatcrnal
progcny

bctwcen
htnnologs

with

to

and

genes-

nuclci;

producc

(N)

and

tuatcrnallv

tnatcrnal

patcrnat

Spores
Meiosis

ways

Egg

(N)

Fertilization
Zygote

(ZN)

Embryo
Mature
Sporophyte generation (2N)

plant