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Pneumonia

is an abnormal inflammatory condition of the lung. It is often characterized as


including inflammation of the parenchyma of the lung (that is, the alveoli) and abnormal
alveolar filling with fluid (consolidation and exudation). Acute infection of the lung
varying in severity and causing fluid accumulation.

Etiology:
Causative organism include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Its cause may
also be officially described as idiopathic―that is, unknown―when infectious causes
have been excluded.

Clinical manifestation:
• fever
• chills
• cough
• unusually rapid breathing
• breathing with grunting or wheezing sounds
• labored breathing that makes a child's rib muscles retract (when muscles under the
rib cage or between ribs draw inward with each breath)
• vomiting
• chest pain
• abdominal pain
• decreased activity
• loss of appetite (in older kids) or poor feeding (in infants)
• in extreme cases, bluish or gray color of the lips and fingernails

Prevention:
Smoking cessation is important not only because it helps to limit lung damage, but also
because cigarette smoke interferes with many of the body's natural defenses against
pneumonia. HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination" Vaccination is
important for preventing pneumonia in both children and adults. Vaccinations against
Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the first year of life have
greatly reduced the role these bacteria play in causing pneumonia in children.
Treatment:
Most cases of pneumonia can be treated without hospitalization. Typically, oral
antibiotics, rest, fluids, and home care are sufficient for complete resolution. However,
people with pneumonia who are having trouble breathing, people with other medical
problems, and the elderly may need more advanced treatment. If the symptoms get worse,
the pneumonia does not improve with home treatment, or complications occur, the person
will often have to be hospitalized.
Incubation Period:
The incubation period for pneumonia varies, depending on the type of virus or
bacteria causing the infection (for instance, respiratory syncytial virus, 4 to 6 days;
influenza, 18 to 72 hours).
Diagnosis:
Pneumonia is suspected on the basis of a patient's symptoms and findings from
physical examination, further investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis.
Information from a chest X-ray and blood tests are helpful, and sputum cultures in some
cases. The chest X-ray is typically used for diagnosis in hospitals and some clinics with
X-ray facilities. However, in a community setting (general practice), pneumonia is
usually diagnosed based on symptoms and physical examination alone.[citation needed]
Diagnosing pneumonia can be difficult in some people, especially those who have other
illnesses. Occasionally a chest CT scan or other tests may be needed to distinguish
pneumonia from other illnesses.
Nursing management:
1. Administer antibiotics specific for the organism, as prescribed and confirmed by
culture and sensitivity.
2. Control fever with acetaminophen as ordered.
3. Assess vital signs , monitor respiratory status.
4. Monitor pulse oximetry.
5. Monitor exercise tolerance.
6. Monitor breath sounds note changes in sputum production.
7. Encourage adequate fluid intake.
8. Provide bronchial hygiene.
9. Maintain adequate nutritional status.
10. Perform chestphysiotherapy as indicated.
11. Administer oxygen therapy as ordered.
12. Attempt to prevent pneumonia in susceptible hosts.
Risk factors:
Age

Smoking and alcohol abuse


COPD
exposure to certain chemicals or pollutants
Surgery or traumatic experience
Ethnicity

Pneumonia

Etiology:
Causative organism include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.

Signs/Symptoms:
fever
chills
cough
unusually rapid breathing
breathing with grunting or wheezing sounds
labored breathing that makes a child's rib muscles retract (when muscles under the rib cage or
between ribs draw inward with each breath)
vomiting
chest pain
abdominal pain
decreased activity
loss of appetite (in older kids) or poor feeding (in infants)
in extreme cases, bluish or gray color of the lips and fingernails

Disease process
Organism enter the respiratory tract through inspiration or aspiration of oral secretions;
Staphlylococcus and Gram-negative bacilli may reach the lungs through circulation in the
blood stream.
Normal pulmonary defense mechanisms(cough reflex,mucociliary transport, pulmonary
macrophagus) ussually protect against infections. However in susceptible hosts, these
defenses are either suppressed or overwhelmed by invading organism.
The invading organism multiplies and releases damaging toxins,causing inflammation and
edema of the lung parenchyma;this results in accumulation of cellular debris and exudate.
Lung tissue fills with exudate and fluid, changing from an airless state to consolidate state.
Severity of symptoms depends on the extent of pneumonia present.

Complications:
Acute respiratory distress syndrome
lung abscesses
bacteria in the blood
atelectasis
hemoptysis
death