T-Mobile USA A Strategic Analysis

Report Prepared for MBA MGT 689 Professor: George, Vaghese December 10, 2006

Team Golf Charbonneau, Glenn Koutropoulos, Apostolos

- ii -

TABLE OF CONTENTS T-MOBILE USA.............................................................................................................................................I A STRATEGIC ANALYSIS
I

INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................................1 BACKGROUND / GENERAL ENVIRONMENT.......................................................................................1 COMPANY 1 TECHNOLOGY 1 INDUSTRY 3 COMPETITORS 3 CINGULAR..............................................................................................................................................................3 VERIZON................................................................................................................................................................3 SPRINT-NEXTEL.......................................................................................................................................................4 INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS.................................................................................................4 RESOURCES 4 DEUTSCHE TELEKOM................................................................................................................................................4 TANGIBLE...............................................................................................................................................................4 INTANGIBLE.............................................................................................................................................................5 T-MOBILE.COM, 2006. T-MOBILE ONCE AGAIN ACHIEVES HIGHEST HONORS IN WIRELESS RETAIL SERVICE...................................................................................................................5 CAPABILITIES 5 CORE COMPETENCIES 6 STRONG FOCUS ON CUSTOMER SERVICE......................................................................................................................6 TARGETING THE YOUTH MARKET..............................................................................................................................6 DIVERSIFICATION STRATEGY 7 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS................................................................................................7 POLITICAL & REGULATORY NEW TECHNOLOGY ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT 7 8 8 9

FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS...........................................................................................................................9 INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVE RIVALRY POWER OF SUPPLIERS THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS 9 10 10

- iii -

THREAT OF SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS POWER OF CUSTOMERS

11 12

SWOT ANALYSIS.......................................................................................................................................12 STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES THREATS 12 12 13 13

STRATEGIC FIT.........................................................................................................................................14 PROBLEM STATEMENT..........................................................................................................................14 STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES.................................................................................................................14 ALTERNATIVE 1: SLOW AND STEADY ALTERNATIVE 2: MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS ALTERNATIVE 3: EXPAND WIFI SEGMENT ALTERNATIVE 4: A COMBINATION OF MERGERS AND SEGMENT EXPANSION 14 15 15 16

RECOMMENDATION................................................................................................................................16 ACTION PLAN............................................................................................................................................16 CONCLUSION EXHIBIT 1: WIRELESS VALUE CHAIN 17 18

........................................................................................................................................................................18 ........................................................................................................................................................................19 ........................................................................................................................................................................21 ........................................................................................................................................................................22 EXHIBIT 6: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE - SERVICES...............................................................................23 ........................................................................................................................................................................23 EXHIBIT 7: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE – TECHNOLOGIES..................................................................24 ........................................................................................................................................................................24

- iv -

EXHIBIT 8: T-MOBILE’S 2006 COVERAGE MAP................................................................................25 ........................................................................................................................................................................25 BIBLIOGRAPHY.........................................................................................................................................26 WHITE, B. (2006). APPLES-TO-APPLES COMPARISON OF THE "BIG FOUR" U.S. WIRELESS PROVIDERS' CALLING PLANS. THE WIRELESS REPORT. RETRIEVED NOVEMBER 30, 2006 FROM HTTP://WWW.THEWIRELESSREPORT.COM/2006/02/13/APPLES-TO-APPLES-COMPARISON-OF-THE-BIG-FOUR-U-S-WIRELESSPROV/ 53

INTRODUCTION In recent years, the domestic cellular industry has seen explosive growth in terms of customer base growth and services offered. During this time, the field of national carriers has, through mergers and acquisition, shrunk to four major players: Verizon, Cingular, SprintNextel and T-Mobile. Of the major carriers, T-Mobile is the smallest in terms of number of customers and network coverage. However, the company has been highly successful in targeting specific niche markets and introducing many new and popular services. The cellular industry is in the process of migrating to new third generation (3G) networks. While the other three major carriers have already begun rolling-out their 3G networks, TMobile is still at least 6 months away. BACKGROUND / GENERAL ENVIRONMENT Company T-Mobile USA is the American branch of Deutsche Telekom’s T-Mobile brand. This makes TMobile North America’s only major wireless telecom wholly owned by a foreign entity. T-Mobile USA was created through a $24 billion acquisition of a number of former US telecommunications companies such as VoiceStream, Omnipoint and PowerTel. Despite it’s creation through the consolidation of several large carriers, T-Mobile remains the smallest of the national carriers. T-Mobile’s customer base and network size are dwarfed by Sprint, Verizon and Cingular. Despite its relatively small footprint, T-Mobile provides quality services in all major US metropolitan areas and has obtained access to areas it does not normally serve though roaming agreements. These roaming agreements are with major carriers that share the same technology such as Cingular as well as smaller, regional carriers such as Dobson and Unicel. Despite T-Mobile’s small comparative size, the company is Deutsche Telekom’s second largest market with 22.7 million subscribers. This number is only surpassed by T-Mobil DE, Deutsche Telekom’s home market. Since T-Mobile does not have the extensive network coverage that the other major carriers do, TMobile’s focus is on providing services that are unique to T-Mobile. Examples of these unique services are the T-Mobile Sidekick and services “first seen” on T-Mobile, such as Multimedia Messaging. In addition to providing these services, they have also historically focused on being a value carrier, “get[ting] more”1, by having a lot of minutes for less money compared to other carriers, pioneering Anytime minutes and reducing the cost of unlimited internet on a consumer’s handset2. Finally, T-Mobile has also diversified its wireless offerings by teaming up with hotels, coffee shops and airports to provide WiFi access. This enables their customers to be connected to the Internet while on the road using TMobile’s cellular data service, but then when they are located at a Hotspot you can access the Internet via higher speed WiFi. In mid 2006, T-Mobile participated in the Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) spectrum auction. T-Mobile was able to outbid the other carriers to purchase huge swaths of the newly opened up spectrum. At a purchase price of $4.2 billion, T-Mobile was able to acquire 120 new spectrum licenses that will enable the company to expand its existing network and launch its own 3G network and services. Technology The US wireless market is an amalgam of various technologies ranging from 1G3 (first generation wireless) to 3G with inherent incompatibilities between these competing technologies. The first generation wireless technology is called AMPS4. This is a legacy technology due to shut down in 2008. This is a very hungry technology that requires a lot of spectrum. Most carriers in the industry have moved
1 2 3 4

“get more” was the T-Mobile USA slogan from inception until 2006 Reference to unlimited internet for $20/month with the T-Mobile sidekick See exhibits 7 & 8 for more information on various technologies Advanced Mobile Phone System

-2-

customers away from this technology in an effort to better use their scarce spectrum resources. There are a number of second generation (2G) technologies in play in the US market. Intermediate Standard-95 (IS-95) or commonly known as “CDMA5” is a digital technology that is backward compatible with AMPS. This made it the logical choice for companies to deploy that already own AMPS spectrum. It allowed users to seamlessly hand off between CDMA and AMPS when digital coverage was nonexistent. CDMA is currently revised and it is one of the global competitors for the system of choice for carrier deployment. It is spectrum efficient and it is highly secure. The current standard version for CDMA is IS-856, which is considered a 3G technology Intermediate Standard 136 (IS-136), more commonly known as TDMA6, was developed as an alternate choice for carriers that already had AMPS operations and wanted to start to offer digital service to their customers. Since it is backward compatible to AMPS, it would offer the same benefits as CDMA did to its carriers – namely seamless transition from digital to analog when a user transitioned to an area with no digital coverage. TDMA has been determined to be a technological dead end and carriers who had deployed TDMA have now moved to other technologies such as GSM7 or CDMA. The GSM range of technologies is a European standard that found worldwide acceptance. This range of technologies covers second-generation technologies like GSM, GPRS8 and EDGE9 and thirdgeneration technologies like UMTS10, HSDPA11 and HSUPA.12 The technologies in the GSM group are compatible with one another in the same way that CDMA and TDMA are compatible with AMPS. A subscriber with a proper GSM/UMTS handset can roam locally or globally. This has been the main appeal of this technology. The ubiquitous nature13 of this technology also allows for greater economies of scale, which makes it cheaper for carriers to deploy base stations and handsets for this technology. GSM is not backwards compatible with AMPS, therefore it was a favored technology when new entrants came into the market and they did not have a first generation technology to constrain them with deployments. The last second generation technology is iDEN14. This technology was created by Motorola and is exclusively used by Nextel. iDEN is less of a mobile phone technology and more of an extension to the Push-To-Talk15 (PTT) technology that has existed for many years. iDEN enabled nationwide use of this feature and is a technology favored by many companies that want immediate access to an iDEN subscriber. Finally, we are currently also seeing the birth of a new standard called WiMAX16. WiMAX is a wireless broadband solution that has been embraced by some wireless carriers around the world. Since WiMAX is wireless broadband, it has the capacity to offer not only mobile data, which is a market that many carriers are pursuing. WiMAX also serves as a cheaper voice-over-IP (VoIP) solution to replace current 2G and 3G voice and data technologies. WiMAX is being dubbed as a fourth generation technology.

5 6 7 8 9

Code Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access Global System for Mobile communications General Packet Radio Service Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Universal Mobile Telecommunications System High Speed Downlink Packet Access High Speed Uplink Packet Access Over 2 Billion subscribers using this technology, 82% of the wireless market globally Integrated Digital Enhanced Network This is the “walkie-talkie” feature on Nextel phones Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

-3-

Industry The wireless industry in the United States has been shaped by two driving forces. The first is the rampant mergers and acquisitions that took place in the late 1990s and early 2000s that led to the current 4 national carriers. The other driving force in the industry is the need to be the first to market with new features and end-user hardware. The wireless industry started off in the United States with many small carriers offering regional service. As time elapsed, larger carriers in other areas either bought these smaller carriers as a supplement to their existing coverage, or the smaller carriers merged with other smaller carriers in order to be better able to compete with their larger competitors. This trend had continued until recently. The two most recent examples of this are the buyout of AT&T by Cingular and the merger of Sprint with Nextel. In terms of unique services offered, services that offer companies competitive advantage, it is pretty clear to see that a competitive advantage is not sustained for a very long time. Initially, companies competed on their existing 2G service to offer new services, such as multimedia messaging, which offered users the ability to send pictures, snapped from their phones, to friends and family. T-Mobile was first in the market to offer such a service and to make it easily accessible with their “all messages are created equal” campaign but soon other carriers followed with this offering. These days most carriers not only market certain services, they are also embroiled in a technological arms race to get to 3G and beyond. It has been observed that due to the inherent incompatibility of the various technologies used, certain value added services are not as seamlessly adopted in the US as they are in the European and Asian markets. Sending a multimedia message from one company, T-Mobile for instance, to another, like Verizon, does not guarantee that the picture message will get there. While today some of these incompatibilities have been worked out, as new services roll out, new incompatibilities arise. The incompatibilities between carriers are based on the inherent incompatibilities with the varying network technologies used by different carriers. Competitors Deutsche Telekom operates the T-Mobile brand in 12 counties worldwide. Their major international rivals are companies such as Vodafone, which owns a 44% stake in Verizon Wireless, Orange, O2, TIM and Telefonica. Locally, in the US market, there are three major national competitors: Cingular, Verizon Wireless and Sprint-Nextel. Cingular Cingular Wireless is a non-public company owned by Bell South and (the new) AT&T. Cingular is itself the result of a number of mergers between many other companies, more recently taking over AT&T Wireless. The company, like T-Mobile, operates a GSM network and has recently launched its own 3G version of GSM called HSDPA. The company, unlike T-Mobile, has its roots in first generation AMPS technology and second-generation TDMA technology. As such, Cingular owns and still operates AMPS, TDMA, GSM and HSPDA in the spectrum that it owns. Cingular recently has been somewhat of a pioneer in providing new and innovative services. They were the first to offer iTunes enabled phones allowing the user to access music from their computer instead of having to buy music though their cell phones as is the norm with other providers. More recently Cingular has started to offer phones that also accept music from other content providers such as XM radio and eMusic. In other service offerings, Cingular has been the first company to successfully compete with the iDEN standard to offer PTT solutions to the masses in a similar fashion to Nextel. Verizon Verizon Wireless is a non-public company owned by Verizon Communications and by the Vodafone Group. The company is a merger of the Bell Atlantic NYNEX group and the holding that Vodafone had in the United States. Verizon is a company that has its roots in the first-generation technology, AMPS. It chose to implement CDMA as its platform of choice for second and third-

-4-

generation wireless. Compared to Cingular, their main competitor, Verizon has less complexity to deal with because it has not gone though a merger or acquisition in a number of years and it only focuses on two network technologies, which means that they are efficiently using the resources that they have. Verizon, like other carriers, has started to offer exclusive phones in order to lure in potential customers looking for cutting edge technology. As such, they have started offering music phones, such as the LG Chocolate. They have also played up their international business resources and services by being able to take advantage of Vodafone co-owning them. They are able to offer international cell phone service, with coverage anywhere on the Vodafone network. While all carriers have international roaming these days, having partner networks where the costs of roaming are minimized is a great asset – something that neither Cingular not Sprint can claim. Sprint-Nextel Sprint-Nextel is a public company owned by the Sprint Corporation. Sprint, like T-Mobile, owned no first generation spectrum and were a later entrant to the market. They chose to go with the CDMA family of technologies as their choice of technology for wireless telephony deployment. In the past year, they have merged with the United States’s only iDEN provider, Nextel and they have been in the process of integrating the two companies and the service offerings of each company. One thing that makes Sprint-Nextel stand out is its choice of WiMAX as their choice of technology for 4G wireless. Other carriers have neither announced their plans for 4G, nor have their endorsed any technologies as of this points. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS Resources While T-Mobile is the smallest of the US nation-wide providers, it is a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom, one of the world’s major telecommunications companies. It is therefore necessary to look at the resources of the parent company as well as those of the US division. Deutsche Telekom Deutsche Telekom is one of Europe’s largest telecommunications companies. The company is segmented into Broadband / Fixed Networks, Mobile Communications and Business Customers. Each segment focuses on its own core competencies. For instance, one of the core competencies of the Business Customers segment (T-Systems) is provided cutting-edge information systems to communications companies. The individual segments’ core competencies are provided as a resource to the other segments within Deutsche Telekom. Tangible Within the domestic market, T-Mobile has a number of resources at its disposal. T-Mobile’s GSM network is a resource in terms of the needs of its traveling customers. As was explained in the industry background, there are two primary cellular network types functioning in the United States, GSM and CDMA. While CDMA is more heavily used in United States17, GSM is the predominant international network model. T-Mobile’s hotspot network is another tangible asset. These hotspots can be used by anyone who has a WiFi enabled laptop / handheld computer and does not need to be a T-Mobile cellular subscriber. This WiFi hotspot network serves as both a revenue generator for the company but also serves as a marketing tool since hotspot consumers are exposed to advertising saturated splash screen upon logging on. In November of 2006, the FCC awarded T-Mobile 120 spectrum licenses representing a large portion of the available airwaves for 3G networks18. These licenses will be a significant resource as
17 18

Of the 4 national providers, approximately 108 million are on CDMA networks and 81 million are on GSM networks.

http://www.marketwatch.com/News/Story/Story.aspx?guid=%7b9473BE6A-8FA1-421B-8E05BB21F23CBB94%7d&siteid=yhoo&dist=yhoo

-5-

competition between the major carriers based upon 3G services heats up. One of T-Mobile’s biggest tangible resources is the company’s ability to avail itself to the resources of T-Mobile’s parent company, Deutsche Telekom. In the United States, handset exclusivity is a major force in the industry. Handset exclusivity refers to a contract signed between a handset manufacturer and a cellular services provider that gives the cellular provider the exclusive selling rights to a specific handset. In recent years, T-Mobile has been able to secure a number of exclusive contracts for highly in demand phones such as the Motorola PEBL and the HTC Dash. It is unlikely that T-Mobile would have had the resources, acting on its own, to obtain these highly sought after contracts without the financial and strategic pull of its parent company. Intangible The cellular industry has long been plagued with customer services issues. Common complaints center on the perception that companies go out of their way to get new customers; but once those customers sign contract they are no longer important. Despite this industry perception, T-Mobile has, in the past few years, built up a reputation of providing excellent customer service. T-Mobile was awarded the J.D. Powers award in 2004, 2005 and 2006 for best wireless retail service provider.19 T-Mobile’s strength in customer service, and the company's resulting reputation, is a vital resource to the company in that it provides T-Mobile with a strong customer retention tool. Capabilities Companies integrate their resources into their operations and strategies in order to establish capabilities. Based on its available resources, T-Mobile has built up several capabilities which have served the company well. T-Mobile has been shown to be very effective in its marketing activities. For being the smallest of the 4 major carriers, the company has widespread name recognition within popular culture due to the company’s effective use of highly visible and recognizable spokespeople. Hollywood stars Jamie Lee Curtis and Catherine Zeta Jones have both served as spokespeople in the last decade. The company also has significant name brand recognition within the business world through its Hot-spot WiFi network. Although ‘hot-spots’ can be found a number of location throughout the country, one of the most prominent locations for T-Mobile is Starbucks. T-Mobile’s capabilities in terms of customer service are also of great strategic value to the company. In recent years customer retention has become a significant concern in the cellular industry, especially with the enactment of number portability in 200320. Given its fourth place position within the market, T-Mobile has placed significant strategic importance on strengthening and protecting its customer service capabilities. Another capability the company has fostered is it effective use of ‘internal out-sourcing’. Deutsche Telekom treats its internal divisions as separate companies in-terms of outsourcing. Therefore, T-Mobile has been able to outsource such functions as R&D and billing to its sister company T-Systems. T-Systems is another segment of Deutsche Telekom specializing in b2b software development and R&D. T-Mobile’s ability to outsource high-cost functions such as R&D provides a number of strategic advantages for the company. For one thing, while the outsourcing is a cost for the US T-Mobile division, the resulting profits are recognized by another Deutsche Telekom segment so that the overall company benefits. Furthermore, T-Mobile’s US segment stands to benefit from other national division of Deutsche Telekom’s mobile phone businesses’ outsourced R&D since the all of Deutsche Telekom’s wireless carriers function on the GSM standard.
19
T-Mobile.com, 2006. T-Mobile Once Again Achieves Highest Honors in Wireless Retail Service. http://www.tmobile.com/company/PressReleases_Article.aspx?assetName=Prs_Prs_20060504&title=TMobile%20Once %20Again%20Achieves%20Highest%20Honors%20in%20Wireless%20Retail%20Service 20 Wireless Local Number Portability (WNLP) refers to the ability of a consumer to transfer their telephone number from one carrier to another. Prior to WLNP, if a consumer switched wireless carriers s/he was forced to change phone numbers. WLNP also allows a consumer to transfer a number between a land-line and a wireless service.

-6-

Core Competencies Core competencies are those abilities and capabilities that a company has, that provide some competitive strategic value. In order for a capability to be considered a core competency, it must satisfy four critical objectives. Core competencies must be valuable, rare, costly to imitate and nonsubstitutable. If a capability satisfies these criteria, then it provides some competitive advantage to a company over its rivals. Strong Focus on Customer Service T-Mobile’s commitment to providing high-quality customer service is of great strategic importance to the company. This commitment is a means of distinguishing T-Mobile from its competitors when prices and technology (from a layman’s perspective) are not wildly different within the wireless industry. Value is created by T-Mobile’s ability to distinguish itself from its competitors in an area other than price. T-Mobile’s focus on customer service provides value to the customers (in terms of services received) and value to the company (in terms of customer retention and positive public exposure). J.D. Powers has reported on a general decrease in customer satisfaction levels in recent years. However, through this period, T-Mobile has repeatedly been named as the number one wireless service provider21 in terms of customer service.22 While Verizon periodically scores highly in some categories of customer service, the other two national providers, Sprint and Cingular, regularly score very poorly in all categories. Therefore, T-Mobile’s focus on customer service can be categorized as rare; thus fulfilling the second criteria of a core competency. It is somewhat counterintuitive to say that quality customer service is a core competency. It is logical to assume that being courteous, polite and effective are inexpensive to do. Yet, transitioning to a cultural model that stresses high-quality customer service is incredibly expensive and time consuming. For many firms that have stressed technology as a means to capture new customers, placing more emphasis on the existing customer would require a major sea change in corporate culture. This is something that is not quickly or easily done. The final criterion for core competencies is nonsubstitutability. All four national carriers offer a selection of handsets ranging from economy to cutting-edge, from basic to feature-packed. Furthermore, all the carriers offer the same range of voice and data plans and relatively similar pricing levels and service coverage. Therefore a wireless carrier needs a way to distinguish itself from the competition. In many ways, T-Mobile’s core competency of providing quality customer service serves as the company’s sole method of distinguishing itself from the competition. Given the similarities that exist in many of the other facets of the industry, it would be difficult for T-Mobile or its competitors to substitute some other attribute as a means of differentiation. Targeting the Youth Market T-Mobile has been successful in positioning itself as the carrier of choice for the youth market. TMobile’s use of spokespeople who are highly popular within the youth market along with T-Mobile’s lower than average rates have enabled the company to successfully target the youth and young adult demographic. This market provides significant value to the company for a number of reasons. The youth / young adult target market is much more likely to rapidly upgrade their existing handsets. This target market is also much more likely to adopt new services. Recent examples include the wide-spread adoption of SMS (text messages), ring-back call tones, picture mail and video messaging. All are either existing or new technologies that were adopted by the youth market long before the older market segments. These services are typically packaged as add-ons to standard service contracts and thus are a significant revenue generator for carriers. Furthermore, the youth market is much more likely to use a cell phone as their sole means of telephone service. Greater reliance on cell phones means increased profits
21 22

http://www.jdpower.com/telecom/ratings/wireless/index.asp Verizon has won a number of awards, but T-Mobile consistently wins in all categories that J.D. Powers rates.

-7-

for the cellular companies. Very few other firms have been successful at capturing the youth market. One carrier that is directly competing with T-Mobile for the youth market is Boost Mobile. Boost is a wholly owned subsidiary of Sprint and actively targets the youth market. Boost is a pay-as-you-go provider that operates on Sprint’s iDen network. Although Boost has been successful in capturing market share in the past few years, it is not a full services carrier and is generally significantly more expensive than T-Mobile. The other carriers have not enjoyed the popularity that T-Mobile has with the under-25 demographic. Not only is significant portions of T-Mobile’s marketing aimed at the youth market, many of the company’s handheld units are designed to specifically target the youth market. In order for a competitor to re-position itself to actively target with and the likely accompanying expensive exclusivity contracts, and would most likely face significant refocusing of the existing corporate culture in order to make the firm more youth friendly. While firms choose to target specific demographics all the time, the youth market provides strategic growth opportunities that other demographics do not. As previously noted, the youth market actively brings in revenue streams at levels that other groups do not in terms of add-on services. While the average business customer is likely to spend more than the average under-25 customers, there are drastically more youth customers than there are business accounts. Therefore, T-Mobile’s core competency of successfully targeting the youth market cannot be substituted for some other market and likely be as successful. Diversification Strategy Because US-based T-Mobile is a subsidiary of Deutsche Telekom, it does not necessarily have the autonomy to pursue its own diversification strategies. However, T-Mobile is in a position to take advantage of the parent companies diversification strategy. As has been previously stated, Deutsche Telekom has diversified into providing wireless, wired and internet communications as well as providing software and R&D services at the b2b level. US T-Mobile is able to take advantage of the services and skills offered by its sister companies through Deutsche Telekom’s use of economies of scale. In economies of scale, firms create value by successfully sharing resources and capabilities at an intracorporate level and by transferring core competencies creating in one business unit to another. In Deutsche Telekom’s case, heavy use of Deutsche Telekom’s T-Systems and its software and R&D competencies benefits T-Mobile by allowing the US-based company to focus on its own core competencies. Since these are internal transfers, Deutsche Telekom realizes significant savings over outsourcing these functions to external companies. Since Deutsche Telekom operates wireless carriers in a dozen countries, there is a substantial capability and resource pools that can be shared and utilized by US T-Mobile. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS Political & Regulatory The wireless industry is highly dependent on regulatory oversight from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The FCC regulates the spectrum allocation in the USA and in this capacity decides two important areas in a carrier’s business. The FCC decides what frequencies will be used and for what purpose and, through auctions, the FCC hands out slices of the spectrum pie to carriers who are successful bidders in spectrum auctions. The major things that the FCC decides is what frequencies are going to be used and who gets to use them. This is important. Bandwidth allocation, taken in conjunction with the technology a carrier chooses to use, can make a difference in the price of the equipment used for deploying a wireless network. If the FCC auctions off frequencies that are not already established, a recent example being the 1700 MHz frequencies auction, costs can be very high. Conversely, if the FCC auctions off frequencies that are already a global standard, for instance 2100 MHz range, costs are lower due to economies of scale.

-8-

The Fair Trade Commission (FTC) also regulates the wireless industry. As we saw in the background information, there have been a number of consolidations in the wireless industry. In the last four years two major wireless consolidations have occurred: AT&T and Cingular and Sprint and Nextel have merged. In both instances the FTC needed to approve the merger in order to ensure that they were not breaking anti-trust laws and the FCC then needed to adjust the spectrum allocations that these companies had. When major mergers or acquisitions occur, the FCC requires that spectrum be divested and sold off. Other political and regulatory hurdles for wireless carriers include legislation, such as the Wireless Number Portability Act of 2003 and the recent decision by the copyright office that allows consumers to unlock their cell phones to be able to use them with another carrier23. First, the wireless number portability act allows customers greater ability to take their wireless number with them to another wireless carrier if they are not happy with the service. The recent decision by the copyright office completes that circle by allowing the customer to take the phone with them as well. When taking all facts into consideration, we see that the wireless industry is a highly regulated industry in the United States. It receives oversight from a number of governmental organizations and new laws enacted by congress influence it. Product offerings and business models are highly influenced by how much freedom the government gives the wireless industry. New Technology Technology is at the forefront of the wireless revolution. However, due to the nature of the wireless industry, it takes some time for it to gain momentum and there are technologies that are both disruptive and evolutionary. Currently, there are three mainstream candidates for wireless technology evolution in the USA. The first candidate is UMTS and this is commonly seen as the evolution of GSM. To this effect, UMTS is an evolutionary technology as it is backwards compatible with GSM. To the same effect, there is EV-DO.24 EV-DO is the evolutionary successor to CDMA technology. Finally there is the new 4G technology WiMAX. WiMAX is seen as a disruptive technology as it is not backward compatible with either CDMA, or GSM. Beyond methods for wireless voice and data communication, there are other complimentary technologies that involve radio and television broadcasting that are making their way to mobile telephones. These offer subscribers the ability to listen to the radio or view television on their mobile phones. There are three technologies that are competing in this arena: DVB25, DMB26 and MediaFLO27. DVB is a European standard that has been adopted in Asia, Africa and the Middle East. DMB is a Korean standard. DMB has been adopted by other countries but it is not as popular as DVB. Finally, MediaFLO is a US standard that is developed by Qualcomm and Verizon Wireless. All standards are single direction, meaning that you can tune into the station you want to listen or view but there is no built-in interactivity. Finally, there are also established technologies, such as WiFi. In the last two years phones have been available that take advantage of wireless networks that carriers operate, but they also take advantage of private WiFi networks, such as the ones owned by T-Mobile and public ones, such as the Municipal WiFi networks that exist and are evolving to encompass major cities. Technologies, such as UMA28, bridge the gap between wireless technologies provided by carriers and wireless technologies that exist in people’s homes, work areas and communities. Economic Environment The Economic environment is characterized by slim margins on services offered by the carriers.
23 24 25 26 27 28

http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20061124-8280.html CDMA Evolution Data Optimized Digital Video Broadcasting Digital Multimedia Broadcasting Media Forward Link Only Unlicensed Mobile Access

-9-

All of the carriers are at a disadvantage because they are all competing with one another with services and the motto for the carriers appears to be how low can you go? This intense price war between the carriers is making carrier margins thin. Additionally, carriers also heavily subsidize handsets. This subsidizing is costing the carriers because consumers are expecting increasingly more complex phones with more features to be provided at cheaper prices. At the same time that carriers incur these expenses, they also have expenses regarding spectrum purchases and land purchases or leases in order to erect their cellular towers and infrastructure equipment expenses. While all these expenses are essentially the cost of doing business, they are expenses nonetheless that have to be recouped and the price wars and large handset subsidies that were previously mentioned make it harder for the carriers to recoup costs. Social Environment In terms of the social environment there are three segments that are important in the wireless industry. There is the social segment that is looking for a basic and simple communications. Consumers that are getting free phones that offer basic voice and text communications characterize this segment. There is also a segment that is purely business and characterized by the blackberry toting corporate employees and executives. This segment is generally interested in high availability of services and in mobile data services like mobile email. For many years there has been an in-between linking these two major groups that demanded higher quality handsets and handsets that provided multiple functions. This segment generally looks for phones that also have PDA functionality, phones that also have built-in music players, phones that allow you to have access to Instant Messaging (IM) and phones that have built-in GPS navigation, to name a few. In the past, this segment, what is referred to as a power user, was relatively small. In the last few years, however, there was been an explosion of users that are demanding phones with these capabilities and complimentary services offered by carriers. An example of these phones and related services that has been a great success is the T-Mobile Sidekick. It is a phone that offered unlimited Internet, access to instant messaging, music playback and a built-in camera. Services like these differentiate one carrier from one another and the Sidekick has been a successful differentiator for T-Mobile that has not been easily mimicked by others. FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS Industrial Competitive Rivalry In the US market, competitive rivalry is quite heated in both the post-paid and prepaid market segments. In the prepaid market segments industrial rivals are competing to get customers that generally do not want to have a monthly bill and just use their phone for the occasional voice call or text message. Prepaid customers do not generally care for the value added services that are available on post paid plans. In the post-paid market carriers are not only competing on value, but also on value-added services that they have available. In the prepaid market there are a great number of players and T-Mobile is one of the major competitors in this market. T-Mobile is by far the most recognized prepaid carrier in the US offering their “straight up prepaid29.” Prepaid cellular has always had a stigma in the US, associated usually with people that could not afford cellular service or had a bad credit rating and thus could not get cellular service. Additionally, prepaid service was always a worse deal than post-paid in the US because airtime that is purchased has an expiration. The concept of an expiring gift-card, or losing money you’ve paid for a service but not actually receiving it has been made illegal in many states, but it is still a fact in wireless prepaid. T-Mobile, having a heavy European influence due to its parent company, has adopted more of a European outlook on prepaid services, something which has given them an edge over the competition.
29

Slogan for T-Mobile ToGo prepaid circa 2006

- 10 -

Their expiration times are the longest in the prepaid wireless industry and they offer SIM30 only prepaid packages for consumers to bring phones that they might already own. Additionally, T-Mobile offers affordable mobile Internet packages, on prepaid and offers cutting edge devices, like the Sidekick, on their prepaid services as well. T-Mobile is well ahead of the pack with regards to this market because of the way that they have approached it. In the post-paid market, consumers are looking to “get more” and to this effect carriers are not only competing on the price of voice calls but also on what value added services they will be providing. Carriers are offering a great big sea of reduced rates, unlimited nights and weekends minutes, reduced rates for Anytime minutes, Rollover minutes and many other features to entice consumers to subscribe to their services. This area is a major battleground and it draws parallels to Wal-Mart’s low price displays. Carriers use their low-cost voice rates to get customers to switch. Once they switch their services, valueadded services might not be as cheap as similar offerings by competitors. Value-added services are special services carriers attempt to be unique. A major battleground for carriers in the value-added services arena is mobile data. Cingular, Verizon and Sprint are all in what seems to be an arms race for better and faster data services. Their marketing efforts are generally aimed at one another and they generally tend not to focus too much on T-Mobile. One exception to this is the short lived television ads that compared T-Mobile’s Hotspot WiFi service with Verizon’s EV-DO citywide service. Cingular, Sprint and Verizon also are going after the same markets and they are offering similar phones and services: services such as music downloads, video-on-demand and phones that double up as MP3 players. To this extent, they are by and large ignoring T-Mobile and they are either generalizing their attacks or they focus on attacking one another and leave T-Mobile mostly out of the line of fire. Additionally, industrial rivalry encompasses areas of perception of quality and variety of service. In terms of quality of service, the major competitors are battling in the arenas of customer service and size of their networks. We can see evidence of competitive rivalry in these areas by looking at J.D. Power & Associates annual reports where T-Mobile has been ranked the best in customer service both in-store and telephone support for the last three years and T-Mobile has been very public about the fact that they have received such distinguished awards. On the other hand there are a plethora of commercials by Verizon Wireless touting their nationwide digital network. Power of Suppliers The wireless industry has many suppliers for the many different aspects of their business. The power of suppliers is somewhat limited in terms of infrastructure equipment. The market for infrastructure is an oligopoly. There are several suppliers, Ericsson, Nokia and Nortel being some of them. The analogy that we would draw is the same as a company looking to implement an ERP system. There are only a few suppliers in the market and those have a small degree of control. There is, of course, the handset market. There are many device manufacturers and historically, in the US, carriers did have a lot of control over the handset manufacturers. The carriers, as resellers of the phones, would put the phones though rigorous testing before they sold them in their stores. Additionally, if they did not get a good deal from the phone manufacturers they would threaten to not carry any of their phones in their stores. This Wal-Mart-like way is how the industry still operates today. Carriers have the final say as to what is sold in their stores, however there are indications that the mobile phone makers are fighting back. Recently Nokia and Motorola have opened stores where they showcase and sell phones independently of carriers. This is similar to the AppleStore model that Apple Computers has been so successful in implementing in the last five years. It is conceivable that in the next three to five years more phone-only stores will to challenge the stronghold that carriers have as to what phones are sold on their network. Threat of New Entrants There are only two ways to enter into the wireless carrier market: become a full-fledged carrier
30

Subscriber Information Module

- 11 -

like T-Mobile or Verizon, or become an MVNO31. The threat of new entrants to the market is minimal, almost non-existent. There are two reasons for this: regulatory hurdles and push-back from established players. Regulatory oversight of the wireless industry makes it very difficult to enter any mobile market as a full-fledged operator. A competitor must already be an established company with a lot of working capital to deploy towers, equipment, market their services and establish a network of resellers. This is, of course, assuming that you are able to buy spectrum from the FCC in order to operate to your wireless service. If you do not participate in an auction, similar to the one that occurred in August of 2006, then you will not be able to purchase any spectrum and thus you are not able to provide any service. Another avenue to entering the mobile market is to become an MVNO. As an MVNO, a company leases airtime from established players in the mobile market. An example of such a company is TracFone. The major hurdle here is being able to find a profitable segment to market your services to. If a competitor does not have a concrete plan, they run the risk of going into debt because in they are not just leasing airtime from established players, they are also competing with them for a piece of the wireless pie. Due to the realities that MVNOs face, most target a specific niche market. TracFone, for instance, targets users that do not often use wireless phones by marketing their nationwide prepaid plans and focusing on their long expiration dates and inexpensive handsets. TúYo Mobile markets to the Latino community, while 7-eleven wireless and Circle-K wireless are going after crowds that frequent their stores and therefore find it more convenient to purchase recharge cards for their wireless service there. These are just a few examples of MVNOs. The MVNO market in the USA is saturated with more than 30 national MVNOs. All 4 national carriers offer spectrum for lease by MVNOs. Threat of Substitute Products In the wireless industry there are substitute products for some services, however there does not exist substitute products for all products and services that T-Mobile offers. The services that are substitutable are services that are widely available to all carriers such as voice communications, text and picture messaging. The battleground for these services is price and quality. These services are really commodities for the carriers and, as such, can only compete on these two dimensions. There are, of course, things that are not substitutable, or are substitutable after a period of exclusivity. Two examples of these are the T-Mobile Sidekick and RIM32 exclusives such as the Blackberry Pearl. The T-Mobile Sidekick has been a product that has had no direct substitute and no successful direct competition in the market. It has been a product that T-Mobile international has popularized and has received an exclusive distribution for the USA. This product has a large consumer following and has been an instrument for T-Mobile to capture subscribers from other competitors. Many people have a phone from one carrier for voice communications, but they might also have a T-Mobile account in order to be able to use a Sidekick. As such, this product can also be seen as a gateway for TMobile to get more customers to switch to their service and also an instrument to retain customers that want to use another carrier for voice, but still retain T-Mobile service as well. T-Mobile has also procured the rights to be the first to market with exclusive devices like the Blackberry 7100 and the Pearl. These devices debuted on the T-Mobile network first and T-Mobile has / had exclusive rights to these handsets for some period of time before the same phones were available on other networks. The availability of these phones coupled with the ability to port your existing number can contribute to customers switching carriers in order to get that new phone they want. There are services that can have substitutes, however there are no indications yet as to whether they will have substitutes or not. One such example is UMA. UMA, as previously described, allows a phone that has WiFi to be able to seamlessly go from a cellular network to a WiFi network without dropping a call. This would allow a customer to have unlimited calling when they are using WiFi, so they do not waste their cellular minutes when they have WiFi Access. Technically, it is possible for other
31 32

Mobile Virtual Network Operator Research In Motion – makers of the Blackberry line of handhelds

- 12 -

carriers to imitate this service that T-Mobile is offering. However, there is no indication yet whether competitors are interested in competing with this service. Power of Customers The customers have a quite a substantial amount of power in the wireless industry, however this is not total power over the industry. Due to key legislative actions, such as the wireless number portability act of 2003, consumers now have an easier time changing carriers if they are dissatisfied with the service that they are getting. Prior to 2003 there was a great barrier that needed to be overcome when switching carriers – that was getting a new number. This might not seem like a major problem; however it is a major problem for professionals and businesses that use their cell phone for commercial purposes. In years past, if the company wanted to change phone companies, they also needed to change numbers, which meant that they would have to reprint business cards, change phonebooks and communicate with clients to notify them of the change. Now that customers can take their number with them, the barriers for switching are much lower. The wireless industry is also one that has a fixed number of customers to attract. One carrier’s loss is generally another carrier’s gain. This means that companies will go the extra mile to retain customers and they will go even further to keep major accounts, such as corporate accounts, from jumping ship and going to a competitor. SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths A particularly effective strength of T-Mobile is its commitment to providing quality customer service. This has served the company well in terms of both attracting and retaining customers. T-Mobile has repeatedly garnered awards for the quality of its customer services. This has served to effectively differentiate T-Mobile from its competitors when other features, such as plan pricing and handset availability (in terms of features offered), are fairly uniform across the industry. Deutsche Telekom’s model of internal outsourcing, where the individual national carriers outsource their R&D to Deutsche Telekom’s T-Systems allows the smaller carriers to, in effect, pool their overall R&D budgets. The individual carriers are then able to exclusively, in terms of their national markets, take advantage of the larger organization’s R&D efforts. Furthermore, since Europe and Asia’s networks and technologies are far more advanced than those in the United States and Europe and Asia typically have access to new handset technology up to a year before the US market, technologies rolledout in the domestic market have had significant real-world testing already done. Another strength is T-Mobile’s positioning as the carrier of choice within the youth market. This under-25 market segment is one of the heaviest user groups of cellular technology and associated services. Since these associated services, such as ring-tones, video messaging and picture mail, are fee for service options above and beyond normal calling plans, these services are significant revenue streams for T-Mobile. T-Mobile derives significant strength through its parent company, Deutsche Telekom. By using economies of scale, Deutsche Telekom is able to strengthen all of its national carriers by coordinating and distributing the resources, capabilities and core competencies of all its individual business segments. Furthermore, since Deutsche Telekom is present in the wireless markets of most EU countries and follows the global GSM network model, US T-Mobile is able to attract customers based upon the customers’ phones working nearly anywhere on the globe. Weaknesses T-Mobile has had problems attracting and retaining customers due to the spottiness of its network outside of major metropolitan areas. When a cellular customer is forced to roam on another carrier’s network, there are often significant fees involved as well as a number of premium features, such as SMS, picture mail and on-line access that do not work correctly. T-Mobile’s current network coverage in rural

- 13 -

and exurban areas is a weakness the company will have to correct if they wish to grow outside of their current coverage areas. T-Mobile has been slow to unveil and launch its 3G network. In the meantime, other networks, most publicly Sprint, have launched their 3G networks. In fact, in recent months, Sprint33 has prominently featured the superior download speed over Cingular and T-Mobile’s 2.5G EDGE networks. While TMobile will soon launch its 3G network, its market position has been weakened by being last to market. Opportunities There are many opportunities for T-Mobile to expand and to gain a sustainable competitive advantage. The first and most obvious opportunity is T-Mobile’s recent spectrum purchases for the deployment of third generation cellular technologies. T-Mobile officially received the spectrum on November 30, 2006 and they have already chosen the manufacturers that will provide the technical infrastructure. This means that they are now ready to go ahead and deploy 3G in the areas where they have purchased the right to operate. Another opportunity is that increasingly many cities and municipalities in the United States have started to be interested in the idea of citywide municipal WiFi networks. While many landline and cable telecommunications companies have fought this in the past, it is increasingly obvious that cities are viewing citywide WiFi as a service they are interested in providing. T-Mobile already has a track record in providing WiFi service in many locations nationwide. This is a great opportunity for them to expand their customer base and become a provider for citywide WiFi. Since there is a new generation of WiFi34 coming out that quadruples current WiFi data speeds and almost doubles the range of current WiFi technology, providing citywide WiFi offers not only additional revenue streams, but also a platform to expand their up-and-coming UMA initiative. T-Mobile also has the advantage of having a very popular device among the teen to late 20’s market. This device is of course the sidekick, which is a T-Mobile exclusive. They have the ability to leverage the current and growing popularity of this device platform in order to gain further market share and expand the popularity of this device to other market segments. Finally, T-Mobile can take advantage of their international affiliations to offer low international roaming rates for businesses. This could be a differentiating factor for T-Mobile’s business model given that roaming internationally is generally expensive. Reduced roaming could help T-Mobile to increase its subscriber base in the home market by winning over a few key corporate accounts. In addition to roaming, because of their international nature they might be able to get access to capital funds to purchase another minor competitor in the US. Given that mergers and acquisitions have characterized the US market, it is not outside the realm of possibilities for T-Mobile to acquire the fifth largest carrier in the US (Alltel) in order to increase their capacity. Threats There are of course threats to T-Mobile. These threats come from the established players and from municipal WiFi initiatives. First, as mentioned in the opportunities, many cities and municipalities are interested in offering free WiFi access either throughout their city or, at least throughout certain commercial or touristy districts. There are two local examples of this: OpenNet35 in Salem and OpenNet on Newbury Street in Boston. OpenNet offers free WiFi access to anyone with a WiFi enabled laptop, PDA or cell phone. Since T-Mobile offers pay-per-access WiFi access in many locations, including hotels and coffee shops, if citywide WiFi initiatives are launched, T-Mobile will likely be forced to end this service due to a drop in demand. The second threat comes form other carriers. While T-Mobile is not under the threat of being purchased by another national carrier, they are in danger of being somewhat marginalized by the business
33 34 35

Sprint.com from spring through autumn 2006. WiFi 802.11n specification http://www.salemopen.net/

- 14 -

and corporate users. There are many marketing campaigns by other major competitors touting their “more bars in more places36,” their “most reliable wireless broadband network37,” or their “largest voice and wireless broadband network38.” Although T-Mobile is fighting back with their “get more39” and “stick together40” campaigns by giving business people more wireless airtime and mobile data, T-Mobile runs the risk of adding to the perception that they are indeed not able to compete on a nationwide market. STRATEGIC FIT The ongoing large-scale rollout of 3G networks, as well as the increasing desire and need on the part of the consumer for a cell phone that works internationally, places T-Mobile in a position to dramatically increase its market share from it current fourth place position. Much of T-Mobile’s resources, capabilities and competencies are focused on the company’s strong customer service skills, strong presence in the youth market and the advantages offered through T-Mobile’s parent company Deutsche Telekom. Taking these factors into account, as well as the opportunities they represent, TMobile is in a position to strategically grow its customer base by expanding its services and network. While T-Mobile is well positioned to grow in the coming years, its lack of abilities in certain areas exposes the company to some significant threats. T-Mobile’s failure to launch its 3G network before its competitors has led to its competitors being able to reap the benefits that come with being first to market. Furthermore, while T-Mobile’s positioning as a youth-oriented carrier has been generally successful for the company, it has served to isolate many business and corporate customers. T-Mobile is further threatened by the growing drive towards free or heavily subsidized municipal WiFi. Customers would have little use for T-Mobile’s Hotspot services if they are able to receive free internet access through the local government. This could hurt far more than T-Mobile’s WiFi business segment as the Hotspot service has served as an effective marketing tool for other T-Mobile services and products. PROBLEM STATEMENT T-Mobile must determine a strategy for achieving greater market share while maintaining a competitive advantage. Any such strategy must look at growing T-Mobile from its current position as the smallest of the national carriers with a substantially smaller network than its competitors. Finally, this strategy must account for T-Mobile overcoming its late entry into the 3G marketplace. STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES T-Mobile is facing a number of issues that it must overcome and opportunities that it must correctly take advantage of if it is to grow its market share. The abilities of the company, its competitive advantages and the result of the SWOT analysis leads to the following four strategic courses of action could lead to market share and profits growth. Alternative 1: Slow and Steady Despite the publicity and hype surrounding 3G, most customers have no need at this time for the services and products that 3G makes possible. SMS had been around for a decade before it took off. Picture mail was available for several years before it became popular. One significant reason is that most people do not frequently upgrade their hardware. Consequently, it takes several years for a critical mass
36 37 38 39 40

Cingular marketing campaign circa 2006 Verizon Wireless marketing campaign circa 2006 Sprint marketing campaign circa 2006 circa 2003-2006 circa 2006

- 15 -

of people to have compatible hardware. While the other carriers are pushing forward with marketing campaigns focusing on 3G technologies that consumer do not yet have a need for, T-Mobile should maintain its focus on proven technologies and exceptional customer support. T-Mobile also will maintain and expand its niche marketing and unique services as it works towards a successful roll-out and launch of its 3G UMA network. This approach has the benefit of functioning within T-Mobile’s existing core competencies while not stretching resources during a period when T-Mobile’s competitors are expending huge amounts of resources while rushing 3G technologies to market. The disadvantage to this approach is that it provides virtually no new growth opportunities. This approach also carries the risk of customers leaving en masse if T-Mobile is unable to get their 3G network up and operational before a critical mass of consumer want access to 3G technologies. Alternative 2: Mergers & Acquisitions With this plan of action, T-Mobile would look for acquisitions targets in order to expand their network and the number of customers that they have. In this scenario, T-Mobile would merge or acquire Alltel, the fifth largest carrier in the US. T-Mobile did just spend a lot of money for the spectrum auctions and has committed to beginning the deployment of 3G technology, thus they already have spent a considerable amount of money. T-Mobile would thus have to leverage its international connections in order to acquire the funds for this merger or acquisition. There are many advantages to this, the main one being that Alltel has a lot of customers and has quite a large footprint in the US market. By taking over Alltel, T-Mobile would instantaneously expand its GSM network in areas that it currently has no coverage without paying roaming fees. Additionally, because Alltel is also running an AMPS and a CDMA network, they currently have Verizon, Sprint and Cingular as customers. Alltel sells airtime on its networks to these carriers. By merging, T-Mobile would have access to additional revenue that they previously did not have and this could be a way for paying for the purchase of Alltel. The main disadvantage is the degree of uncertainty involved with this merger or acquisition. Due to the fact that the wireless industry is regulated by several governmental organizations, there is no guarantee that T-Mobile will be able to keep its entire spectrum and, therefore, all the customers that Alltel currently has. It is possible that the FTC would require that the new merged company divest some of its properties. Of course, since T-Mobile and Alltel and only the fourth and fifth largest carriers in the US, this might not happen. Alternative 3: Expand WiFi Segment Many people focus on a lot on the cellular segment of T-Mobile, however not many look at their wireless Hotspots. In this alternative strategy, T-Mobile would expand its WiFi segments by becoming a municipal WiFi provider. As was described earlier, municipal WiFi is something that many cities and towns are looking toward implementing. Since T-Mobile has experience in deploying Wireless networks, this should not prove too difficult. The advantages of this strategy are that T-Mobile already has a proven track record with Wireless Hotspots. By providing municipal WiFi networks they are guaranteed to have a certain amount of revenue when they are providing this service to a city. Additionally, since T-Mobile is starting the UMA initiative this year, the company is gaining access to an infrastructure, paid for by someone else, to increase its coverage area and provide better quality phone services. There are two disadvantages with this strategy. T-Mobile is going to start competing with established wire line providers such as Verizon and Comcast. This means that they would need to be more aggressive in advertising their Hotspot services and they would be competing against companies that they had not competed with before. The flip side to this argument of course is that since citywide WiFi networks are increasingly becoming a reality, the battle is coming to T-Mobile, so T-Mobile will need to make the first move. The other disadvantage is that even if T-Mobile provides a city with WiFi service, it doesn’t necessarily mean that they can piggyback their UMA service onto it.

- 16 -

Alternative 4: A combination of Mergers and Segment Expansion T-Mobile could choose to pursue an aggressive expansion drive. This alternative would incorporate both alternatives 2 and 3 from the above paragraphs. In order to dramatically increase its market share in a short time, T-Mobile should acquire one of the larger regional cellular companies, in this case, Alltel. As described above, this provides the advantage of dramatically and quickly increasing T-Mobile’s customer pool. As Alltel currently employs 2 incompatible network technologies, T-Mobile should begin the process of migrating customers over to GSM / UMA model phones as existing handset are replaced. Too quick a migration will cost the company a large number of customers. In the meantime, T-Mobile can collect revenue based upon Alltel’s CDMA roaming agreements with Verizon Wireless and Sprint. At the same time as the acquisition of Alltel, T-Mobile should ramp-up its WiFi Hotspot service and begin marketing it to municipalities. By acting proactively, T-Mobile can position itself as one of the providers of choice for cities and town entering the municipal WiFi market. While the infrastructure outlay for this initiative may be large, the strategic advantage T-Mobile gains in terms of public exposure, advertising revenue streams and consumer awareness of T-Mobile’s other products are enormous. The obvious disadvantage of this approach is that this is a huge expansion and upheaval for T-Mobile and it potentially threatens the culture of quality customer services and shifts focus away (at least temporarily) from T-Mobile’s most successful market segment, the youth market. RECOMMENDATION It is our recommendation, the T-Mobile adopt an aggressive expansion plan through the use of acquisitions and WiFi expansion. We make this recommendation for a number of reasons. Baring the collapse of one of the major competitors, it is unlikely that T-Mobile will be able to capture enough of the market from its competitors to ever dramatically increase its market share. Acquiring Alltel’s 15 million customers, even while allowing for some attrition, would put T-Mobile in a much more realistic place to directly compete with the big three cellular companies. That being said, there still is not likely to be significant short or mid-term changes in market share number once Alltel is conglomerated into TMobile. It is necessary, therefore, for T-Mobile to execute other initiatives to increase its market share and customer base. By ramping-up T-Mobile’s WiFi services, the company is creating significant future income streams, opening up whole new marketing avenue and providing a valuable service to its existing and potential customers boosting new contracts and retention. It cannot be stressed enough, however, that while this new growth initiative will likely require some adjustments to T-Mobile’s corporate culture, TMobile’s senior management should ensure that the company’s commitment to providing high-quality customer service be maintained. The recommended growth plan will generate a significant number of new customers. Retention, especially with the former Alltel customers, will be difficult. T-Mobile’s customer service will prevent many people from leaving the company. ACTION PLAN The following action plan lists several general steps that T-Mobile must take in order to implement the recommended course of action. The recommendation and this action plan make the assumption that Alltel is either willing to be bought by T-Mobile or is open for a hostile takeover attempt. In real-time, however, Alltel is not currently for sale; however this recommendation can be applied to any of the larger regional cellular companies. T-Mobile will immediately announce that they are purchasing Alltel. Given the relative ranking of T-Mobile and Alltel, a rapid approval by the SEC and FCC are hoped for. Shortly thereafter, T-Mobile will approach several candidate cities about test-piloting city-wide WiFi with rollout to coincide with testing of T-Mobile UMA 3G network. During this time newly hired WiFi initiative staff as well as transitioning Alltel staff will undergo extensive training on T-Mobile’s If timed correctly, by the 4th

- 17 -

Quarter of 2007, Alltel’s customers will be fully integrated into T-Mobile, the first prototype city-wide networks will be coming on-line (neighborhood trial basis) and the UMA networks will be available for public consumption. Conclusion T-Mobile has been struggling to grow beyond its fourth place position in the US cellular market. However, other than its market share issues the company has otherwise been very successful. T-Mobile is known for its dedication to high-quality customer service. The company has also been very successful in capturing the youth market as well it Hotspot public WiFi products. That being said, if T-Mobile wants to grow its profits and consumer base than it will need to take a new approach to sales and growth. Based upon an analysis of the T-Mobile’s internal and external environment, it is our recommendation that T-Mobile implement an aggressive expansion and growth strategy. We recommend that T-Mobile purchase Alltel, the largest of the regional carriers. Such a purchase would add approximately 15 million subscribers to T-Mobile’s customer pool. Also, since Alltel manages both GSM and CDMA networks, T-Mobile can take in revenue from the extensive roaming agreements Alltel has with Sprint and Verizon. The purchase of Alltel will take care of short-term growth. Mid- to long-term growth can be realized by focusing on T-Mobile’s Hotspot WiFi network and its expansion into municipal WiFi. Successful adoption of T-Mobile as a municipal WiFi provider will provide T-Mobile with enormous amounts of public exposure, advertising revenue and new marketing media. While successful implementation of these growth recommendations will gain millions of new customers, TMobile cannot abandon its commitment to customer service. This commitment has served T-Mobile very well and should continue. Customer retention is just as important as customer acquisition.

- 18 -

EXHIBITS Exhibit 1: Wireless Value Chain

- 19 -

Exhibit 2: Learning, Adoption and Experience Curve

- 20 -

Exhibit 3: Characteristics of Discontinuous Innovations

- 21 -

Exhibit 4: Managing Disruptive Technologies

- 22 -

Exhibit 5: Hurdles that slow adoption

- 23 -

Exhibit 6: Product Life Cycle - Services

- 24 -

Exhibit 7: Product Life Cycle – Technologies

- 25 -

Exhibit 8: T-Mobile’s 2006 Coverage Map

- 26 -

BIBLIOGRAPHY Agevik, N. (2005). Shared UMTS Networks - A Techno-Economic Study on Mobile Network Operators’ Possibilities to Deliver Unique Products and Services. Royal Institute of Technology). Ancarani, F., & Shankar, V. (2002). Symbian: Customer Interactions though Collaboration and Competition in a Convergent Industry. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://mail2.rhsmith.umd.edu/Faculty/KM/papers.nsf/0/2704c038b72161eb85256c4800650a26/$FIL E/Symbian_Venky_Fabio.pdf Anderson, N. (2006). Cell phone unlocking legal (for three years). Ars Technica (Electronic version). Retrieved November 30, 2006 from http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20061124-8280.html Anwar, S. T. (2002). NTT DoCoMo and m-commerce: A case study in market expansion and global strategy.[Electronic version]. Thunderbird International Business Review, 44(1), 139-164. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from Wiley Interscience Journals database. Baron, S., Patterson, A., & Harris, K. (2006). Beyond technology acceptance: understanding consumer practice [Electronic version]. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 17(2), 111-135. Retrieved November 1, 2006, Bauer, J. M., & Lin, Y. C. (2004). Transition paths to next-generation wireless services. Paper presented at the 32nd Research Conference on Communication Information and Internet Policy, Arlington, VA. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://quello.msu.edu/wp/wp-04-04.pdf Belk, J. (2006, Enabling the Speed of Businees: One 3G chipmaker has high hopes for wireless enterprise data. Mobile Enterprise, 7(7) 36. Björkdahl, J., Bohlin, E., & Lindmark, A. (2004). Financial Assessment of Fourth Generation Mobile Technologies. Paper presented at the EURO CRP Conference, Barcelona, Spain. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www2.gsb.columbia.edu/journals/files/chazen/NTT_DoCoMo.pdf BusinessWire. (2006). Focusing on the debate over the place in the equation of fixed and mobile WiMAX, traditional 3G Technologies and their offispring - UMTS TDD, FLASH-OFDM, and iburst. Retrieved November, 21, 2006, from http://networking.itbusinessnet.com/articles/viewarticlejsp?id=83262 Carter, K. R., Katz, R., Pitt, W. & Van Rossen, J. (2003). NTT DoCoMo, USA: Can it Bring Wireless Internet to America? Retrieved November/01, 2006, from http://www2.gsb.columbia.edu/journals/files/chazen/NTT_DoCoMo.pdf Cartwright, P. A. (2002). Only Converge: Networks and Connectivity in the Information Economy. [Electronic version]. Business Strategy Review, 13(2), 29. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from Business Source Premier database. Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Ben, Quinn, Rice, and Stanton annouced as Week eight nominees for the cingular all-american player of the week award. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases

- 27 -

Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular 8525 rides wireless speedway. New Windows Mobile-powered PocketPC debuts as North America's first UMTS/HSDPA enabled wireless PDA. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular completes national GSM coverage integration. Better coverage, fewest dropped calls from on-time completion. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular converts providence place store to better serve growing hispanic consumer market. Strategic move by the #1 wireless provides to the U.S. latino community. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular delivers on Nebraska network enhancements. Company answers the call with over $12 Million in 2006 to provide most reliable service. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular earns 'most reliave' network rating in Jacksonville third-party test shows network investment pays off. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular expands network cell coverage in central New York thirteen new cell sites enhance wireless network as part of $60 Million investment plan. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular fulfills the need for speed in south Florida with new ultra fast wireless broadband service. 3G network delivers average data speeds of 400-700 Kbps. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular fullfills the need for speed in Orlando with ultra-fast wireless broadband service. 3G network delivers average data speeds of 400-700 Kbps. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular giving fans the chance to go into the garage with chase for the cup leader Jeff Burton. Cingular video features exclusive Jeff Burton race reviews and previews during chase. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular goes 'out of the box' with new field solutions suite companies with operations in the field now can quickly and easily deploy handheld-based family of corrigo enabled services to mobile workforces. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular increases Albany area network coverage. Six new

- 28 -

cingular cell sites enhance service as part of $180 Million investment. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular introduces herd tattoos - A painless way to communicate you team spirit. Another cingular first, Marshal University Herd Phone Tattoos desgined specifically for the Motorola RAZR V3 and Motorola SLVR handsets. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular introduces Hokie tattoos - A painless way to communicate you team spirit. Another cingular first, Virginia Tech Hokie Phone Tattoos desgined specifically for the Motorola RAZR V3 and Motorola SLVR handsets. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular Introduces text voting at 19th annual town point Virginia wine festival. Txt 2 vote 4 ur favt winery!. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular lights up Baton Rouge with 3G service. Mobile wireless broadband network transforms city into metropolitan "hot spot". http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular lights up Birmingham with 3G service. Mobile wireless Broadband network transforms city into Metropolitan "hot spot". http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular lights up columbia with new wireless broadband network mobile broadnabd services transform capital city into wireless speedway. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular lights up Knoxville with 3G service. Mobile wireless broadband network transforms city into wireless "hot spot". http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular lights up toledo with 3G service. Mobile wireless broadband network transforms city into metropolitan "hot spot". http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular lights up Tulsa with 3G servive, Mobile wireless broadband network transforms greater tulsa into huge "hot spot". http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases

- 29 -

Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular meets Charlotte's need for speed with new ultra-fast wireless broadband service. Mobile Broadband services transforms city into wireless speedway. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) cingular meets Greensboro's need for speed with new ultra fast wireless broadband service. Mobile broadband services transform city into wireless speedway. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular offers racing fans a chance to wish best of luck to driver jeff Burton 'TXT contrats 2 jeff burton' campaing to prove a boost in the Chace for the cup. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular Partners with HBO to Bring Outstanding HBO Latin to Mobile Phones. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular revs up service in Tampa and Lakeland with new wireless broadband network. Ultra-fast network delivers average data speeds of 400-700 Kbps. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular says its stadium network is a grand slam. Cingular ready for World Series traffic on its cell sites. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) cingular shoots out of the gate with new wireless broadband network in Louisville. Ultra fast mobile network transforms city into wireless "hotspot". http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular Wireless customers now enjoy music content from Napster, Yahoo! Music, XM Satellite Radio and eMusic. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) cingular wireless debuts exclusive video content dedicated to Southeastern Conference Sports. Nation's largest wireless carrier to offers SEC game highlights and feature packages. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular wireless enhanced Somerset Network and Coverage with Five New Cell Sites. More than 25 new sites to be added across Kentiky and Southern Indiana by year-end. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) cingular wireless expands coverage in lake country. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from

- 30 -

http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular wireless joins PADRES to fight childhood cancer. Promotion Expected to raise critical funds & increase bone marrow donations. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular wireless reports record third quarter 2006 results highest ever net income of $847 million, a year-over-year increase of over 280 percent. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular wireless to sell stake in IDEA cellular. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular wirelesscontinues network expansion in Hawaii. Evelen new cell sites added to the network since January. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Cingular.com gets a makeover. Website redesign makes it easier to surf n' save. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) College football fans select Arkansas running back Darren McFadden as Week 10 cingular all-american player of the week. Award is the only major college football honor determined exclusively by fan voting. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) College football fans select Texas quarterback Colt McCoy as the Week Nine Cingular All-America Player of the Week. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) College football fans select Texas quarterback Colt McCoy as the Week Seven Cingular All-America Player of the Week. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Harrell, McCoy, Ore and Smith Announced as Week Nine Nominees for the cingular all-america Player of the week award. Award is the only Major college football honor determined exlusively by fan voting. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Notre Dame selects cingular wireless. Leading wireless carrier delivers end-to-end integrated voice and data solutions to keep campus community connected at prestigious university. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases

- 31 -

Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) R U GTNG GR8T CANDY? Check on Kids with Halloween with Text and Multi-media messaging. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Studying abroad? cingular helps New York college students stay in touch with parents. One phone number for over 185 counties. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) TXT2CONNECT: survey indicates text messanging improves parent-child communications. Cingular teaming up with parenting expert, Dr. Ruth Peters, to help parents keeps in touch with their kids through text messaging. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2006). Coverage Map. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://www.cingular.com/support/images/maps/payasyougo.gif Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) ABC sports, ESPN College Football Pundits Nominated university of Michigan running back Michael Hart for the Cingular/ABC sports all-american player of the week award. Fan voting will determine this week's player of the week award. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Cingular adds new cell sites in Flagler County. Coverage expanded in Hammock Beach, Palm Coast. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Cingular and MobiTV announce first radio service for the nations largest digital voice and data network. Cingular customers can now enjoy instant access to more than 40 channels of commericial free digital radio via MobiRadio. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) cingular brings 3G wireless broadband to southeast Texas. Mobile wireless broadband services transform much to the golden triangle into a huge 'hot spot'. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Cingular laucnhes 3G network. BroadbandConnect service offers ultra-fast connections. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Cingular responds to customer demand by brining new mobile messanging service to the masses. With Cingular's mobile email and mobile IM services, customers can now easily access all major email and IM communities. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Cingular stikes a pose at Mercedes-Benz fashion week at

- 32 -

Smashbox studios in Los Angeles. Cingular provides all customers with exclusive access to fashion news on designers, models, editors, and style-makeovers on their wireless handsets. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Cingular wireless activates 30 new cell sites across southen mississippi. Ongoing network investment enhances customer's wireless service. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Cingular wireless launches cigular video with exclusive content consumers can soon customize phones with more wireless services and entertainment options. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Cingular wireless recognized again as leaderin hispanic diversity. Three of its senion executives are hispanic. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Cingular wireless responds to earthquake in Hawaii. Speedy service restoral and helpful customer tips. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Cingular wireless sues telemarketers. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) cingular, Nokia 'connect' with Nokia 9300. EDGE-enabled business device in U.A. to feature Blackberry Connect. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) College footbal fans select Tennessee quarterback Eric Aigne as the Week six cingular all-american player of the week. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) Introducing the latest 'catch' from Cingular: the Firefly Phone. In time for holidays, cingular offers cool, fun mobile phone for Tweens that helps keep parents in control of calls. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2005). (Press Release) The cingular messaging awards celebrate the 'the of the best' in Text, IM, Picture and video messages. Cingular customers are invited to enter unique online awards program that recognizes creative expression and utilizes messaging-themes user generated content. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Cingular completes massive overnight conversion of AT&T Wireless Stores. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases

- 33 -

Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Cingular delivers on Iowa and Western Illiois Network enhancements. Company answers call with over $16 Million in 2006 to provide most reliable service. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Cingular flips switch on number portability. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Cingular gets down to business with nation's largest wireless company establishes sales and support organization focused exclusively on B2B customers. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Cingular offers Microsoft Direct Push technology for the Cingular 8125, 2125 Devices. Companies introduce easy-to-deploy enterprise class push e-mail experience and solutions specific rate plans. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Cingular submits first port request. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Cingular Wireless First to the edge. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php? s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Cingular wireless 'raises the bar,' adds 200th cell site in 2004. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) cingular wireless refutes lawsuits files by the foundation for taxpayer and consumer rights. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Roayl Carribbean International and Celebrity Cruises Offer guests new way to stay in touch at seas. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Snap It, Say It, and Send It with Cingular's New Multimedia Messanging Service. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cingular Wireless. (2004). (Press Release) Wireless -- the Number one gift choice of teens. http://www.cingular.com: Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://cingular.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=press_releases Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 1 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net

- 34 -

Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 10 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 11 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 12 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 13 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 2 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 3 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 4 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 5 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 6 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 7 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 8 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Cook, C. (2006). Strategic Management Chapter 9 Slides (7th ed.). University of West Alabama: Thompson South-Western.from http://boston.umassonline.net Deutsche Telekom. (2006). 2005 Annual Report. http:www.deutschetelekom.com: Deutsche Telekom. Retreived November 24, 2006 from http://www.downloadtelekom.de/dt/StaticPage/46/44/gb2005_en.pdf_46448.pdf Deutsche Telekom. (2006). (Press Release) Deutsche Telekom Supervisory Board appoints René Obermann as new CEO. http://www.deutschetelekom.com: Deutsche Telekom. Retrieved November 13, 2006, from http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20061112/ap_on_bi_ge/germany_deutsche_telekom_ceo_resigns&printe r=1 Deutsche Telekom. (2006) (Press Release) Obermann introduces new board. http://www.deutschetelejom.com: Deutsche Telekom: Retrieved December 1, 2006 from http://www.telekom3.de/dtag/cms/content/dt/en/99928

- 35 -

Dornan, A., & Malykhina, E. (2006, Wireless Disconnect. Information Week, 109(51) 53. Federal Communications Commission. (2006). Summary for Auction 66. Retrieved November 22, 2006, from http://wireless.fcc.gov/auctions/default.htm?job=auction_summary&id=66 Ferenczi, P. M. (2006, WiMax and the next Big Idea. Mobile Enterprise, 7(8) 26. french, A. (2006, Subletting Service. Mobile Enterprise, 7(8) 10. Grech, S. (2003). Game Analysis: Cellular vs. WLAN. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www.netlab.tkk.fi/opetus/s38042/s03/presentations/sandro/MOB_WvsC.pdf GSM Association. (2006). T-Mobile Roaming Partners. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www.gsmworld.com/roaming/gsminfo/roa_uswe.shtml GSM World. (2006). GSM Statistics. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www.gsmworld.com/gsmstats.shtml Habib, H., Junzheng, X., Rieck, O., Yinzhi, C. (2005). Alliances of Networks and Networks of Alliances: Internationa Cooperation in Mobile Telecommunications. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://userpage.fuberlin.de/~jmueller/its/conf/porto05/papers/Rieck_Yinzhi_Habib_Junzheng.pdf Harmantzis, F., Gunasekaran, V. (2004). Cost Analysis of WLAN integrated with GSM/GPRS Networks: Do Hotspots Benefit Cellular Operators? Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www2.gsb.columbia.edu/journals/files/chazen/NTT_DoCoMo.pdf Harmantzis, F., Tanguturi, V. P. (2004). Migration to 3G Wireless Broadband Internet and Real Options: The case of an operator in India. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www2.gsb.columbia.edu/journals/files/chazen/NTT_DoCoMo.pdf Henry, P. S., & Hui Luo. (2002). WiFi: what's next? Communications Magazine, IEEE, 40(12), 66-72 . Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://libproxy.library.unt.edu:2696/iel5/35/24323/01106162.pdf? isnumber=24323∏=STD&arnumber=1106162&arnumber=1106162&arSt=+66&ared=+72&arAutho r=Henry%2C+P.S.%3B+Hui+Luo Henten, A., Tan, S.E. (2005). New Wireless Technologies: Continuity and/or Change. http://www.cict.dtu.dk/Publications/Working_papers.aspx: Center for Information and Communication Technologies. November 1, 2006, from http://www.cict.dtu.dk/Publications/Working_papers.aspx Hitt, M. A., Hoskisson, R. E., & Ireland, R. D. (Eds.). (2006). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases (7th ed.). California: South-Western College Publishing. Hoover, N. (2006). The dawn of WiMax. Information Week, 110(3), 53. Institute for Mobile Markets Research. (2006). [Graphic] "Virtuous Spiral" of converging technologies fuels growth. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http://www.immr.org

- 36 -

Institute for Mobile Markets Research. (2006). [Graphic] Characteristics of Discontinuous Innovation. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http://www.immr.org Institute for Mobile Markets Research. (2006). [Graphic] Development Funnel Drives Growth. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http://www.immr.org Institute for Mobile Markets Research. (2006). [Graphic] Hurdles that slow adoption often overlooked, underestimated. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http://www.immr.org Institute for Mobile Markets Research. (2006). [Graphic] immr Research Methods. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http://www.immr.org Institute for Mobile Markets Research. (2006). [Graphic] Managing Disruptive Technologies - Context & Challenges. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http://www.immr.org Institute for Mobile Markets Research. (2006). [Graphic] Opportunities across the wireless value chain. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http://www.immr.org Institute for Mobile Markets Research. (2006). [Graphic] The Learning, Adoption and Experience Curve. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http://www.immr.org Institute for Mobile Markets Research. (2006). [Graphic] Virtual Prototypes Present Realistic, Configurable Concepts. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http://www.immr.org J.D. Powers & Associates. (2006). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: A dedicated point of contact is criticalin delivering a positive service experience to business wireless customers. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2006). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Average spending for wireless service continues to increase as non-voice products gain traction. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2006). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Cell Phone Type/Brand is becoming key factor for customers when choosing a wireless service. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2006). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: The incidence of wireless users contacting their carrier for customer issues is at an all-time hight. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2006). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: VIrgin mobile ranks highsted in inaugural prepaid satisfaction survey. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2005). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Business more satisfied with voiceover IP than traditional telephone services. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006,

- 37 -

J.D. Powers & Associates. (2005). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Customer switching is increasing among wireless customers who are most dissatisfied with the retail sales experience. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2005). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Live-Person interaction is key to receiving positive wireless customer care experience. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2005). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Satisfaction declines as telecom data service business customers demand more from providers. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2005). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Satisfaction with wireless service providers decreases significantly as recent mergers impact customers perception on the service experience. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2005). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: The number of wireless calls experiencing a problem with initial connections devlines 50 percent despite an increase in call volume. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2005). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: T-mobile ranks highest in inaugural business wireless satisfaction study. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2004). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Access to service representatives has a significant impact on satisfaction among business customers of telecom data service. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2004). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Businesses cite risk of losing service as No. 1 reason for not switching local of long distance service. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2004). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Satisfaction with wireless service providers icnreases significatly as custoemrs report higher rating in call quality and cost-related attributes. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2004). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Static and Initial connection are problems most often reported by cell phone users. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2004). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: T-mobile ranks highest in customer care performance among the largest wireless carriers. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2004). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: T-Mobile ranks highest in wireless

- 38 -

retail sales satisfaction performance. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2003). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Customer loyalty becoming a more critical issue in the wireless industry as phone number portability is poised to become a reality in November. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2003). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: More business data customers willing to switch telecommunication providers in favor of cost-saving bundles. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2003). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Providing a specific point of contact to service local telephone and long distance business accounts significantly impacts customer loyalty. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2003). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Verizon wireless rankes highest in network quality performance. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2003). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Wireless customers switching intent is newaly four times higher among users who rathe their service bellow average in customer care. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2002). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Wireless Phone penetration among U.S. households slows down as fewer first time subscribers enter the marketplace. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, J.D. Powers & Associates. (2002). J.D. Powers & Associates Reports: Wireless Phone penetration among U.S. households slows down as fewer first time subscribers enter the marketplace. http://www.jdpowers.com: J.D. Powers & Associates. (J.D. Powers & Associates Reports) November 3, 2006, Jesdanum, A. (2006, November 22, 2006). U.S. Copyright Office Issues New Rights. [Electronic version]. Yahoo! Finance, Retrieved November 30, 2006, Kay, R. (2006, UMTS. [Electronic version]. Computerworld, 38. Retrieved November 5, 2006, Khesal, N. R. (2005). Differentiation Strategies for Operators Sharing UMTS Networks. Unpublished Master's, Royal Institute of Technology. Lawson, S. (2006, Sprint's next leap in wireless: WiMax. CIO, 25. Lee, J. (2006). Formulating Competitive Repertoires - Telecom Strategic Alliance Activitiesfrom http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~jmueller/itsnew/abstracts/Abstracts/Lee.doc.

- 39 -

Lih, A. (2003). The Role of Wireless Communications in the Age of Digital Media: USA. Unpublished manuscript.from http://jmsc.hku.hk/faculty/alih/publications/wireless-us-finale-3.pdf Lih, A. (2003). The Role of Wireless Communications in the Age of Digital Media: USA. Unpublished manuscript.from http://jmsc.hku.hk/faculty/alih/publications/wireless-us-finale-3.pdf Mahatanankoonb, P., Wena, J. H., Limb, B. (2005). Consumer-based m-commerce: exploring consumer perception of mobile applications.[Electronic version]. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 27(4), 347357. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from Science Direct database. Mäkelä, R. (2004). Mobile Services and Application Areas in USA. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://www.tekes.fi/ohjelmat/vamos/USA.pdf Malykhina, E. (2006, Mark your Calendars: WiMax in 2008. Information Week, 110(1) 34. Malykhina, E. (2006, Nokias seeks customers who seek their way into the world. Information Week, 110(1) 41. Malykhina, E. (2006, Schools could be among the first to embrace WiMax. Information Week, 109(50) 30. Malykhina, E., & Hoover, N. (2006, Gadgetry's New Glue. Information Week, 110(2) 28. McGee, J. Sammut-Bonnicci, T. (2002). Network Strategies for the New Economy.[Electronic version]. European Business Journal, 14, 174-185. Retrieved November 1, 2006, Moore, M. (2006). Deutsche Telekom CEO Resigns. Retrieved November 13, 2006, from http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20061112/ap_on_bi_ge/germany_deutsche_telekom_ceo_resigns&printe r=1 Morse, J. (2006, November 2, 2006). Report: Cingular network spending slows down with carrier access. [Electronic version]. RCR Wireless News, Retrieved November 3, 2006, Nielsen, I., Pullin. (2005). A simple secret for design. Interactions, 12(4), 48-50. Randolph, K. (2006). Analysis of Auction 66 - Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) Spectrum. http://www.bia.com: BIA Financial Network. Retrieved November 22, 2006, from http://www.bia.com/data_perspective_090606.html Rannenberg, K. (2004). Identity Management in mobile cellular networks and related applications. Unpublished manuscript.from http://www.wiiw.de/publikationen/Identitymanagementinmobilecell965.pdf Robinson, T. (2005). WiMAX to the world? NetWorker, 9(4), 28-34. Rysavy, P. (2006, Time to Decide. Network Computing, (August) 42. Salem OpenNet. (2006). SalemOpenNet History. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www.salemopen.net

- 40 -

Sawhney, H. (2003). Wi-Fi Networks and the Reorganization of Wireline-Wireless Networks. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://tprc.org/papers/2003/211/SawhneyTPRCpaper.pdf Schmidt, T., Townsend. (2003). Why Wi-Fi wants to be free. Communications of the ACM, 46(5), 47-52. Schroder, B., Weller, A.,. (2002). Prediction of the connection stability of UMTS-services in the downlink-an analytical approach. Vehicular Technology Conference, 2002. Proceedings. VTC 2002Fall. 2002 IEEE 56th, 2, 1105-1109 . Retrieved November 1, 2006, from http://libproxy.library.unt.edu:2696/iel5/8066/22310/01040775.pdf? isnumber=22310∏=STD&arnumber=1040775&arnumber=1040775&arSt=+1105&ared=+1109+vol. 2&arAuthor=Schroder%2C+B.%3B+Weller%2C+A. Wireless Number Portability Act, (2003). Retrieved December 1, 2006, from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgibin/query/z?c108:S.1221.IS Seybold, A. M. (2006, 3G Today: Now that we have it, how do we use it? Mobile Enterprise, 7(8) 30. Silva, J. (2006). TracFone to challege cell phone unlocking rules. Retrieved November 30, 2006, from http://rcrnews.com/printwindow.cms?newsid=27867&pageType=news Springer,T., Kadner,K., Steuer,F., Yin,M. (2006). Middleware Support for Context-Awareness in 4G Environments. WOWMOM '06: Proceedings of the 2006 International Symposium on on World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, 203-211. from http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WOWMOM.2006.71 Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) "Business is Beautiful" for Sprint. http://www.sprint.com: SprintNextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Alro Steel Selects Sprint to Connect Operations Across the Country. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Eye-Catching Handset Bring Full-Track Music Download Power and Live Broadcast Television to the Palm of your Hand. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) First 2.0 Megapixel Camera Phone Available on Nextel Network with i880 by Motorola. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) GSA Selects Sprint To Continue Government Agencies. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Mobile Operations Map an Evolutional Path Beyoind HSPA and EV-DO. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do

- 41 -

Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Music Tones from Beyonce's Dangerously in Love Album go "Platinum" on Sprint. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Music Tones from Lil' Flips U Gotta Feel Me Album "Gold" on Sprint: Over 500,00 Downloaded. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) NASCAR NEXTEL FanView Named One of the Best Inventions 2006 by TIME Magazine. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Spring And Interscope Records Deliver The First-Ever Music Series Exclusively For Mobile Phones in U.S. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Spring and SBC Communications Announce Wi-Fi Roaming Pact. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Spring Introduces BlingTones, a New Category of Hip-Hop Ringers, actual beats created and recoded by producers of Today's Hottest Songs. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint and RealNetworks Launch Rhapsody Radio. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint Announces Key Strategic Decisions. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint Extend Mobility Leadership with Aggressive Broadband Network Expansion. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint Launches EV-DO REvision A-Capable Mobile Broadband Card in the Nation. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint Launches Faster Mobile Broadband Network in Seattle. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint Launches Unique Program to Offer Mobility Solutions for Business Customers. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint Nextel Announces 4G Wireless Broadband Initiative with

- 42 -

Intel, Motorola and Samsung. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) SPRINT NEXTEL COMPLETES MERGER. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint Nextel Teams with QUALCOMM and Lucent Technologies to Extend Industry-Leading Push-To-Talk Services with QUALCOMM's QCHAT Solution. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint Nextel to Announce 4G Next Generation Network Plans. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint Relay Wireless Now Available on Sidekick and HipTop Wireless Devices. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint Strengthens Commitment to Business Customers with New Rates for International Wireless Long-Distance. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Sprint TV Live Launches on Sprint Multimedia Handsets. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Suddenlink and Sprint Nextel Establish Wireline Telephony Services Relationships. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA and Sprint Make it a Snap for Customers to Share Picture Messages. http://www.sprint.com: Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sprint-Nextel. (2006). (Press Release) Wireless Accessibility Matrix. http://www.sprint.com: SprintNextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://www2.sprint.com/mr/mrhome.do Sullivan, L. (2006, Buying its Way to Market: T-mobile will use money and new spectrum to revamp its cellular network. Information Week, 110(1) 54. Thomas, D. (2006). Nokia and Ericsson to provider 3G to T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 27, 2006, from http://www.cellular-news.com/story/20620.php T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) Introducing myFaves from T-Mobile: A New Wireless Communication Experience with Unlimited Calling to Those Who Matter Most. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx

- 43 -

T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) Limited Edition T-Mobile Sidekicks Debut; Diane von Fursterberg and L-R-G Help Create Iconic Devices. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) NFHS and T-Mobile Partner to Promote Participation in High School Activity Programs. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) Nokia and T-Mobile Reveal Exquisitely Crafted Luxury Slider Phone. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) Samsung and T-Mobile Announce Three New Phones, Each With Its Own Compelling Design. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) Samsung and T-Mobile Set the Ultra-Slim Bar with the Samsung Trace. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) Samsung and T-Mobile Unveil Premium Slim Flip Phone with BlackBerry Connect and QWERTY-like Keyboard. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile and RIM Introduce the Ultra-Sleek Blackberry Pearl. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile Continues to Earn Customer Care Accolades. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile Continues to Lead the Pack in Wireless Retail Service. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile Earns Highest Wireless Customer Satisfaction Ranking for Fourth Time in a Row. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile HotSpot Checks into SOFITEL to Help Customers Live it Up, Wirelessly. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile introduces kidConnect: A Worry-Free WIreless Plan for Parents to Stay Connected to Kids. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile Once Again Achieves Highest Honors in Wireless

- 44 -

Retail Service. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile Sidekick 3 Available to "Kick-start" the SUmmer. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile Sues Phone Record Brokers for Crimial Profiteering. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile Unveils a New Full-Feature Smartphone, the T-Mobile Dash. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Launches New Community Outreach Program Tapping Into Employee Volunteerism Nationwide. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Once Again Receives Highest Ranking in Wireless Customer Care by J.D. Power and Associates. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA reports record fourth quarter and full year 2005 results.. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 19, 2006, from http://www.tmobile.com/Cms/Files/Published/0000BDF20016F5DD010312E2BDE4AE9B/0000BDF20016F5DE 0109CCD52DA93572/file/TMUS_Q4%202005%20Earnings%20Release.pdf T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA secures rights from FCC to auctioned spectrum. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Statement of Conclusion of Bidding in the FCC Auction of Advanced Wireless Services. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobile Waives Call Charges for American Evacuees. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-MOBILE'S EXCLUSIVE 'INSIDER SWEEPSTAKES' GETS YOU CLOSED TO THE FIFA WORLD CUP. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2006). (Press Release) T-Mobiles Receives highest Marks for Wireless Call Quality, According to J.D. Power and Associates Study. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx

- 45 -

T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) Deutsch Telekom to Provide $2 Million to Help Hurrica Katrina's Smalest Victims. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) New Ad Campaign highlights T-Mobile ToGo as the "Straight Up" Prepaid Solution. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile and Catherine Zeta-Jones Agree to 'Get More Advertising'. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile Brings Today's Hottest Artists Up Close and Personal. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-mobile HotSpot Announces Network Expansion, Roaming Agreements and Customer Growth. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile Inks Broad Marketing Partnership with NBA and WNBA. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-mobile Now Offers Wireless Calls to Mexico for Five Centes Per Minute. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA reports fourth quarter and full year 2004 results.. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 19, 2006, from http://www.tmobile.com/Cms/Files/Published/0000BDF20016F5DD010312E2BDE4AE9B/0000BDF20016F5DF 010980E5CA0EC674/file/2004_Q4.pdf T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-mobile Shots it's Better to Give and Receive Picture and Video Messages. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA and RIM Launch the New BlackBerry 7105t and the New Blackberry Internet E-mail Service for Yahoo! Mail Users. http://www.t-mobile.com: TMobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Announces 20-Million Customer Milestone. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA enabled KODAK-EASYSHARE-ONE Digital Camera Owners to Share Pictures 'On the Go' at More than 5,000 T-Mobile HotSpot Locations Nationwide. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx

- 46 -

T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Grants Customers Freedom of Choice by Declaring "All Messages are Created Equal". http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Gulf Coast Wireless Network Coverage at or Near Normal Levels. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Joins Effort to Assist Public Safety and Law Enforcement in Expanding the Reach of AMBER Alerts. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Kicks off Digital Life with the Introductions of the T-Mobile Sidekick II Juicy Couture Edition and the T-Mobile Sidekick II Mister Cartoon Edition. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Tops Wireless Carriers Overall Business Customer Satisfaction. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2005). (Press Release) World Renowned Motorola RAZR Debuts at T-Mobile USA. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) A New Blackberry Phone That Fits In Your Pocket? Now You're Talking!. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) America Flips its Lid for the T-Mobile Sidekick II. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) Comcas and T-Mobile to Create Philadelphia's First-Ever Outdoor Wi-Fi HotSpot at South Street's Headhouse Square. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) CUL8R Triple Tap: T-Mobile USA makes Instant Messaging an Instant Hit with the Nokia 6800 Messaging Phone. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) The Ultimate in Service: T-Mobile Hotspot Checks in Hyatt Hotels. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-MOBILE AND COMCAST ANNOUNCE STRATEGIC MARKETING ALLIANCE. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx

- 47 -

T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-Mobile and FedEx Kinko's Office and Print Center Complete Deployment of WIreless Hotspots. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-Mobile and Nokia Get 'Hard Code' at a Town Near you. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-Mobile Hotspot Announces Wi-Fi Roaming Agreement with Six Other International Wireless Carriers. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-Mobile HotSpot Customer Ger More Security as Wi-Fi Leader Rolls Out 802.1x Across Nationwide HotSpot Network. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-Mobile HotSpot Wireless Broadband Service Joins Cisco Powered Network Program to Deliver Reliable Wi-Fi Wireless Internet Service. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-Mobile Survey: Majority of Online Employed U.S. Adults (60%) Devote Up to One Hour of PErsonal Time to Work Each Day. http://www.t-mobile.com: TMobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA and HP Launch the First Truly Integrated Wireless iPAQ Handheld. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Launches CallerTunes; THe First Nationwide Ringback Tone Service that Lets USers 'Represent Their Style". http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA makes Wi-Fi Easier than Ever. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Offers Exclusive "King Arthur" Mobile Content. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2004). (Press Release) WIRELESS DATA AND INTERNET ACCESS MADE SIMPLE: ONE CARD DOES IT ALL. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) Kinko's Cuts the Cord, Unleashes T-Mobile HotSpot Wi-Fi Deployment. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx

- 48 -

T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) Now Easier for Consumers and Business People to GET MORE with T-Mobile. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile All Access Breaks Into Alcatraz With Exclusive Barenaked ladies and Train Event. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile and Intel Promote Wireless Broadband. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile and iPass Agreement Transforms Wi-Fi Industry. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile Brings Unlimited Multiplayer Gaming to U.S. Market with First Launch of Nokia N-Gage Game Deck. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-mobile Customers Get More WIth First Ever 5 City, 5 Concert, 1 Night "All Access" Experience. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile Hosts First Wireless Photo Contest. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile HotSpot Continues Industry Leadership with Largest Deployment of 802.1x Security Standard for Wi-Fi. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile Launches Handspring Treo 270. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA and Western Wireless to Expand GSM/GPRS 1900 Footprint in Rural U.S. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Announces Action Sports Team. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Announces It Has Been Awarded A Nationwide Wireless Priority Service Contract. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-Mobile USA Deploys New "Pico-Station" Technology, Makes

- 49 -

Other Enhancements As Part of Continuous Coverage Quality Effort. http://www.t-mobile.com: TMobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) T-mobile USA Launches New Blackberry 6210. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2003). (Press Release) World-Capable Color BlackBerry 7230 from RIM Arrives in United States, Available Exclusively from T-Mobile USA. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) Actress Catherine Zeta-Jones Signs with T-Mobile International as Global Spokeswoman. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) Microsoft and VoiceStream to Deliver Wireless Data to Customers' Pockets. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) Revolutionary T-Mobile Sidekick Wireless Device Now Available Nationwide. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) T-mobile and Sierra Wireless introduce 'Global Ready' Wireless PC Card. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) T-Mobile Hosts First Ever Concert on Alcatraz. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) T-mobile International Reports First Quarter 2002 Results of Voicestream. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) T-mobile Introduces Camera Phones Starting at Under $100. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) T-Mobile Launches Microsoft Windows Powered PocketPC Phone Edition. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) T-Mobile Launches Service in California and Nevada. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) T-Mobile, Starbucks and HP Rollout High-Speed Broadband Wireless Internet Access. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006,

- 50 -

from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) VoiceStream Announces Voice Enabled Blackberry and PC Data Card Available. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://t-mobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) VoiceStream CEO John Stanton portrays Vision of Wireless Data at CTIA. http://www.t-mobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx T-Mobile USA. (2002). (Press Release) VoiceStream Expands Text Messaging Service. http://www.tmobile.com: T-Mobile USA. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://tmobile.com/Company/PressReleases.aspx Unknown Director. (2006). In Alltel (Ed.), (Commercial) Alltel U commercial. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=wJfVp2-INb4 Unknown Director. (2006). In Sprint (Ed.), (Commercial) Hip Hop Boost Mobile Commerical. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=youtwKCOSvc Unknown Director. (2006). In Verizon (Ed.), (Commercial) LG Chocolate ad 3. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=hoObngKNV_w Unknown Director. (2006). In Verizon (Ed.), (Commercial) Motorola Q. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=wOu94TABZFQ Unknown Director. (2006). In Alltel (Ed.), (Commercial) MyCircle Commercial 2. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=h7n2uSzI9Bc Unknown Director. (2006). In Alltel (Ed.), (Commercial) MyCircle Commerical. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=PuftRh3QUsU Unknown Director. (2006). In T-Mobile (Ed.), (Commercial) myFaves commercial. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=z-1iyqYswFo Unknown Director. (2006). In T-Mobile (Ed.), (Commercial) myFaves commercial (third commercial). http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=Ot7X5syrYd8 Unknown Director. (2006). In T-Mobile (Ed.), (Commercial) myFaves lovers commercial. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=UcVd5E4NSe8 Unknown Director. (2006). In Verizon (Ed.), (Commercial) Pirates of the Carribean. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=yvhKIXT5OQk Unknown Director. (2006). In T-Mobile (Ed.), (Commercial) Poser Mobile. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=hs2ID5fvs7w Unknown Director. (2006). In T-Mobile (Ed.), (Commercial) Poser Mobile (restaurant commercial). http://www.youtube.com: from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tyHfF5CzXN4&NR

- 51 -

Unknown Director. (2006). In T-Mobile (Ed.), (Commercial) Poser Mobile (second commercial). http://www.youtube.com: from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zozyFPWEZqg&NR Unknown Director. (2006). In Sprint (Ed.), (Commercial) Rip Hamilton Boost Mobile Commercial. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=Fjmk8OtLC_I Unknown Director. (2006). In Verizon (Ed.), (Commercial) Shakira Music Commercial. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=aNPRLjbdZxI Unknown Director. (2006). In Sprint (Ed.), (Commercial) Sprint broadband versus Cingular Edge vulture commercial. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=0OLdo06RKu8 Unknown Director. (2006). In Sprint (Ed.), (Commercial) Sprint Corner of the window commercial. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=R1IcivDJmUU Unknown Director. (2006). In Sprint (Ed.), (Commercial) VooDoo Commercial. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch?v=l2go5sXSHU4 Unknown Director. (2006). In Sprint (Ed.), (Commercial) Who is faster? Sprint's 3G or Cingular's EDGE? wild west commercial. http://www.youtube.com: from http://youtube.com/watch? v=JRYf01hQlfI Varshney, U. (2003). The status and future of 802.11-based WLANs.[Electronic version]. Computer, 26(6), 102-105. Retrieved November 1, 2006, Verisign. (2006). Wireless Number Portability (WNP) Challenge and Opportunity in the Wireless TElecommunications Industry. http://www.verisign.com: Verisign. Retrieved December 02, 2006, from www.verisign.com/stellent/groups/ public/documents/white_paper/001951.pdf Verizon Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) Chocolate Flavors for every Whim - Cherry, Mint, White and Black. Basking Ridge, NJ: Verizon Wireless. Retrieved November 22, 2006, from http://www.verizonwireless.com Verizon Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) SkyZone Entertainment Launches Multi-player EXTREME HANGMAN on Verizon Wireless. http://www.verizonwireless.com: Verizon Wireless. Retrieved November 8, 2006, from http://news.vzw.com/ Verizon Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) V CAST Customers Get Red Carpet Exclusive with Starts at Teen People's Artist of the Year Party. http://www.verizonwireless.com: Verizon Wireless. Retrieved November 21, 2005, from http://news.vzw.com/ Verizon Wireless. (2006). (Press Release) V CAST Offers "CSI," "Survivor," Davil Letterman, CBS News, "entertainment tonight" and much more. http://www.verizonwireless.com: Verizon Wireless. Retrieved December 12, 2005, from http://news.vzw.com/ Verizon Wireless. (2006). Coverage Map. Retrieved November 11, 2006, from http://www.verizonwireless.com Wagner, M. (2006, November 27, 2006). DMCA exceptions leave most consumers out in the cold.

- 52 -

[Electronic version]. Information Week, Retrieved November 30, 2006, Wikipedia. (2006). Alltel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alltel Wikipedia. (2006). Cingular Wireless. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cingular_Wireless Wikipedia. (2006). Digital Multimedia Broadcasting. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Multimedia_Broadcasting Wikipedia. (2006). Digital Multimedia Broadcasting. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Multimedia_Broadcasting Wikipedia. (2006). DVB. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVB Wikipedia. (2006). Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enhanced_Data_Rates_for_GSM_Evolution Wikipedia. (2006). Generic Access Network. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generic_Access_Network Wikipedia. (2006). Global System for Mobile Communications. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_System_for_Mobile_Communications Wikipedia. (2006). IS-95. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IS-95 Wikipedia. (2006). MediaFLO. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MediaFLO Wikipedia. (2006). Sprint-Nextel. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprint_Nextel Wikipedia. (2006). SunCom. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SunCom Wikipedia. (2006). T-Mobile. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-Mobile Wikipedia. (2006). Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Mobile_Telecommunications_System Wikipedia. (2006). Verizon Wireless. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verizon_Wireless Wikipedia. (2006). WiMAX. Retrieved November 10, 2006, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMAX

- 53 -

White, B. (2006). Apples-to-Apples Comparison of the "Big Four" U.S. Wireless Providers' Calling Plans. The Wireless Report. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from http://www.thewirelessreport.com/2006/02/13/apples-to-apples-comparison-of-the-big-four-u-swireless-prov/

Zarri, M. (2003). Future service capabilities offered by the 3GPP system.[Electronic version]. 3G Mobile Communication Technologies, 2003. 3G 2003. 4th International Conference on (Conf. Publ. no. 494), , 354-358. Retrieved November 1, 2006,

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.