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Thermodynamic Tutorial

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Centre

Course

Year

Trimester

(CFS)

: Foundation in Science

: Year 1

: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code

Unit Title

: FHSC 1024

: Thermodynamics

Electromagnetism

and

1.

A steam pipe is covered with 1.50-cm-thick insulating material of thermal

conductivity 0.200 cal/cm C s. How much energy is lost every second when

the steam is at 200C and the surrounding air is at 20.0C? The pipe has a

circumference of 800 cm and a length of 50.0 m. Neglect losses through the

ends of the pipe.

[Answer: 402 MW]

2.

A thermopane window consists of two glass panes, each 0.50 cm thick, with a

1.0-cm-thick sealed layer of air in between. If the inside surface temperature is

23C and the outside surface temperature is 0.0C, determine the rate of

energy transfer through 1.0 m2 of the window. Compare your answer with the

rate of energy transfer through 1.0 m2 of a single 1.0-cm-thick pane of glass.

[Answer: 52 W (thermopane), 1.9 kW (glass)]

3.

A copper rod and an aluminum rod of equal diameter are joined end to end in

good thermal contact. The temperature of the free end of the copper rod is

held constant at 100C, and that of the far end of the aluminum rod is held at

0C. If the copper rod is 0.15 m long, what must be the length of the

aluminum rod so that the temperature at the junction is 50C?

[Answer: 9.0 cm]

4.

A Styrofoam box has a surface area of 0.80 m 2 and a wall thickness of 2.0 cm.

The temperature of the inner surface is 5.0C, and the outside temperature is

25C. If it takes 8.0 h for 5.0 kg of ice to melt in the container, determine the

thermal conductivity of the Styrofoam. (Lf = 3.33105 J/kg)

[Answer: 7.210-2 W/m oC]

5.

A solid sphere has a temperature of 773 K. The sphere is melted down and

recast into a cube that has the same emissivity and emits the same radiant

power as a sphere. What is the cubes temperature?

[Answer: 732 K]

6.

A bar of gold (Au) is in thermal contact with a bar of silver (Ag) of the same

length and area (figure above). One end of the compound bar is maintained at

80.0C, while the opposite end is at 30.0C. Find the temperature at the

junction when the energy flow reaches a steady state.

[Answer: 51.2 oC]

7.

200C in a room where the temperature is 22C. Calculate the net rate at

which the sphere radiates energy.

[Answer: 0.11

kJ/s]

8.

At high noon, the Sun delivers 1.00 kW to each square meter of a blacktop

road. If the hot asphalt loses energy only by radiation, what is its equilibrium

temperature?

[Answer: 91

o

C]

9.

727C and Star Y has a surface temperature of 11 727C. If both stars have the

same radius, what is the ratio of the luminosity (total power output) of Star Y

to the luminosity of Star X? Both stars can be considered to have an emissivity

of 1.0.

[Answer:

16]

10.

A student wants to lose some weight. He knows that rigorous aerobic activity

uses about 700 kcal/h (2900 kJ/h) and that it takes about 2000 kcal per day

(8400 kJ) just to support necessary biological functions, including keeping the

body warm. He decides to burn calories faster simply by sitting naked in a

16C room and letting his body radiate calories away. His body has a surface

area of about 1.7m2 and his skin temperature is 35C. Assuming an emissivity

of 1.0, at what rates (in kcal/h) will this student burn calorie?

[Answer: 170 kcal/h]

11.

At a tea party, a coffeepot and a teapot are placed on the serving table. The

coffeepot is a shiny silver-plated pot with emissivity of 0.12; the teapot is

ceramic and has an emissivity of 0.65. Both pots hold l.00 L of liquid at 98C

when the party begins. If the room temperature is at 25C, what is the rate of

radiative heat loss from the two pots?

2

[Hint: To find the surface area, approximate the pots with cubes of similar

volume.]

[Answer: 4.5 W; 24 W]

UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

Centre

Course

Year

Trimester

(CFS)

: Foundation in Science

: Year 1

: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code

Unit Title

: FHSC 1024

: Thermodynamics

Electromagnetism

1.

cal 102 cm

T

k

0.200

cm C s 1 m

L , with

kA

J

4.186 J

1 cal 83.7 s m

C

J

200C 20.0 C

8.00 m 50.0 m

P 83.7

s m C

1.50

10 2 m

J

402 MW

s

4.02 108

2.

A T

, where R Li ki

R

Thus,

0.50 102 m

1.0 102 m

m 2 C

0.44

0.0234 W m C

W

0.84 W m C

R 2

1.0 m 23C

P

2

0.44 m 2 C W

and

52 W

R

1.0 102 m

m 2 C

1.2 102

0.84 W m C

W

1.0 m 23C

2

so

1.2 10-2 m 2 C W

, 37 times greater

and

3.

When the temperature of the junction stabilizes, the energy transfer rate must be the

same for each of the rods, or Cu Al . The cross-sectional areas of the rods are equal,

and if the temperature of the junction is 50C, the temperature difference is

T 50C for each rod.

T

T

k Al A

Al

LCu

LAl

, which gives

Cu k Cu A

Thus,

kAl

238 W m C

LCu

15 cm 9.0 cm

397 W m C

kCu

LAl

4.

5

Q mice L f 5.0 kg 3.33 10 J kg

58 W

t

t

8.0 h 3 600 s 1 h

kA

Thus,

58 W 2.0 102 m

L

k

7.2 102 W m C

A T 0.80 m2 25C 5.0C

2

Tc

5.

A 4 4r 2 4 4 r

4

s Ts

T

Ts

2 s

Ac

6

L

6 L

3

3

Vc Vs ; L 4 r 3 ; L 4 ; L 4

3

3

r

3 r 3

3

Tc

4 4

6 3

1

3

Ts

4 4

6 3

2

3

Ts 0.806Ts

Tc 4 0.806Ts 732K

finding Rate of Heat Transfer in multiple materials, both methods (a) and (b)

For

is also acceptable

(a)

A(TE TC )

A(TH TE )

Q A(TH TC )

Q

; (b) k H AH

k C AC

t

t

LH

LC

i Li ki

6.

Au Ag

, or

80.0C T

T 30.0 C

kAg A

L

L

kAu A

This gives

T

7.

kAu kAg

51.2 C

314 427

The absolute temperature of the sphere is T 473 K and that of the surroundings is

T0 295 K . For a perfect black-body radiator, the emissivity is e 1 . The net power

radiated by the sphere is

net Ae T 4 T04

W

2

m K

or

8.

473 K

4

295 K

Assume that the ground below the pavement is a very good insulator and that the

emissivity of the blacktop is unity. Then, in steady state, the square meter of asphalt

4

must radiate energy at the same rate as receiving it from the Sun. From AeT ,

the temperature of the asphalt is

T

Ae

1

4

5.67 10

-8

1 000 W

W m 2 K 4 1.00 m 2 1.00

1

4

364 K 91C

9.

3 net e A(T 4 Ts 4 )

1 kcal 3600 s

1 h

4186 J

10.

170 kcal h

11.

s3 V , so s V 1/ 3 and 6s 2 A 6V 2 / 3.

Coffeepot:

3 net e A(T 4 Ts4 )

4.5 W

Teapot:

3 net 0.65[5.670 108 W (m 2 K 4 )][6(1.00 L) 2/3 (103 m3 L) 2 / 3 ][(98 K 273.15 K)4 (25 K 273.15 K)4 ]

24 W

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