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UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

Centre
Course
Year
Trimester

: Centre for Foundation Studies


(CFS)
: Foundation in Science
: Year 1
: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code
Unit Title

: FHSC 1024
: Thermodynamics
Electromagnetism

and

Additional Tutorial 3: Heat Transfer


1.
A steam pipe is covered with 1.50-cm-thick insulating material of thermal
conductivity 0.200 cal/cm C s. How much energy is lost every second when
the steam is at 200C and the surrounding air is at 20.0C? The pipe has a
circumference of 800 cm and a length of 50.0 m. Neglect losses through the
ends of the pipe.
[Answer: 402 MW]
2.

A thermopane window consists of two glass panes, each 0.50 cm thick, with a
1.0-cm-thick sealed layer of air in between. If the inside surface temperature is
23C and the outside surface temperature is 0.0C, determine the rate of
energy transfer through 1.0 m2 of the window. Compare your answer with the
rate of energy transfer through 1.0 m2 of a single 1.0-cm-thick pane of glass.
[Answer: 52 W (thermopane), 1.9 kW (glass)]

3.

A copper rod and an aluminum rod of equal diameter are joined end to end in
good thermal contact. The temperature of the free end of the copper rod is
held constant at 100C, and that of the far end of the aluminum rod is held at
0C. If the copper rod is 0.15 m long, what must be the length of the
aluminum rod so that the temperature at the junction is 50C?
[Answer: 9.0 cm]

4.

A Styrofoam box has a surface area of 0.80 m 2 and a wall thickness of 2.0 cm.
The temperature of the inner surface is 5.0C, and the outside temperature is
25C. If it takes 8.0 h for 5.0 kg of ice to melt in the container, determine the
thermal conductivity of the Styrofoam. (Lf = 3.33105 J/kg)
[Answer: 7.210-2 W/m oC]

5.

A solid sphere has a temperature of 773 K. The sphere is melted down and
recast into a cube that has the same emissivity and emits the same radiant
power as a sphere. What is the cubes temperature?
[Answer: 732 K]

6.

A bar of gold (Au) is in thermal contact with a bar of silver (Ag) of the same
length and area (figure above). One end of the compound bar is maintained at
80.0C, while the opposite end is at 30.0C. Find the temperature at the
junction when the energy flow reaches a steady state.
[Answer: 51.2 oC]

From Q8 to Q12, use Stefan-Boltzmann constant, = 5.6710-8 W/m2 K4


7.

A sphere that is a perfect blackbody radiator has a radius of 0.060 m and is at


200C in a room where the temperature is 22C. Calculate the net rate at
which the sphere radiates energy.
[Answer: 0.11
kJ/s]

8.

At high noon, the Sun delivers 1.00 kW to each square meter of a blacktop
road. If the hot asphalt loses energy only by radiation, what is its equilibrium
temperature?
[Answer: 91
o
C]

9.

Measurements on two stars indicate that Star X has a surface temperature of 5


727C and Star Y has a surface temperature of 11 727C. If both stars have the
same radius, what is the ratio of the luminosity (total power output) of Star Y
to the luminosity of Star X? Both stars can be considered to have an emissivity
of 1.0.
[Answer:
16]

10.

A student wants to lose some weight. He knows that rigorous aerobic activity
uses about 700 kcal/h (2900 kJ/h) and that it takes about 2000 kcal per day
(8400 kJ) just to support necessary biological functions, including keeping the
body warm. He decides to burn calories faster simply by sitting naked in a
16C room and letting his body radiate calories away. His body has a surface
area of about 1.7m2 and his skin temperature is 35C. Assuming an emissivity
of 1.0, at what rates (in kcal/h) will this student burn calorie?
[Answer: 170 kcal/h]

11.

At a tea party, a coffeepot and a teapot are placed on the serving table. The
coffeepot is a shiny silver-plated pot with emissivity of 0.12; the teapot is
ceramic and has an emissivity of 0.65. Both pots hold l.00 L of liquid at 98C
when the party begins. If the room temperature is at 25C, what is the rate of
radiative heat loss from the two pots?
2

[Hint: To find the surface area, approximate the pots with cubes of similar
volume.]
[Answer: 4.5 W; 24 W]
UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN
Centre
Course
Year
Trimester

: Centre for Foundation Studies


(CFS)
: Foundation in Science
: Year 1
: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code
Unit Title

: FHSC 1024
: Thermodynamics
Electromagnetism

Solutions for Additional Tutorial 3: Heat Transfer

1.

cal 102 cm
T
k

0.200

cm C s 1 m
L , with

kA

J
4.186 J
1 cal 83.7 s m
C

Thus, the energy transfer rate is


J

200C 20.0 C
8.00 m 50.0 m
P 83.7

s m C
1.50
10 2 m

J
402 MW
s

4.02 108

2.

The rate of energy transfer through a compound slab is

A T
, where R Li ki
R

(a) For the Thermopane,

Thus,

R R pane Rtrapped air R pane 2 R pane Rtrapped air

0.50 102 m
1.0 102 m
m 2 C
0.44

0.0234 W m C
W
0.84 W m C

R 2

1.0 m 23C
P
2

0.44 m 2 C W

and

52 W

(b) For the 1.0 cm thick pane of glass:


R

1.0 102 m
m 2 C
1.2 102
0.84 W m C
W

1.0 m 23C
2

so

1.2 10-2 m 2 C W

1.9 103 W 1.9 kW

, 37 times greater

and

3.

When the temperature of the junction stabilizes, the energy transfer rate must be the
same for each of the rods, or Cu Al . The cross-sectional areas of the rods are equal,
and if the temperature of the junction is 50C, the temperature difference is
T 50C for each rod.
T
T
k Al A
Al
LCu
LAl
, which gives

Cu k Cu A

Thus,

kAl
238 W m C
LCu
15 cm 9.0 cm
397 W m C
kCu

LAl

4.

The energy transfer rate is

5
Q mice L f 5.0 kg 3.33 10 J kg

58 W
t
t
8.0 h 3 600 s 1 h

L gives the thermal conductivity as

kA

Thus,

58 W 2.0 102 m
L
k

7.2 102 W m C
A T 0.80 m2 25C 5.0C
2

Tc

5.

A 4 4r 2 4 4 r
4
s Ts
T
Ts
2 s
Ac
6
L
6 L

3
3
Vc Vs ; L 4 r 3 ; L 4 ; L 4
3

3
r
3 r 3
3

Tc

4 4

6 3

1
3

Ts

4 4

6 3

2
3

Ts 0.806Ts

Tc 4 0.806Ts 732K

finding Rate of Heat Transfer in multiple materials, both methods (a) and (b)
For
is also acceptable

(a)

A(TE TC )
A(TH TE )
Q A(TH TC )
Q

; (b) k H AH
k C AC
t
t
LH
LC
i Li ki

6.

In the steady state,

Au Ag

, or

80.0C T
T 30.0 C
kAg A

L
L

kAu A

This gives
T

7.

kAu 80.0C kAg 30.0C


kAu kAg

314 80.0C 427 30.0C


51.2 C
314 427

The absolute temperature of the sphere is T 473 K and that of the surroundings is
T0 295 K . For a perfect black-body radiator, the emissivity is e 1 . The net power
radiated by the sphere is

net Ae T 4 T04

W
2

5.67 108 2 4 4 0.060 m

m K

or
8.

473 K

4
295 K

net 1.1 102 W 0.11 kW

Assume that the ground below the pavement is a very good insulator and that the
emissivity of the blacktop is unity. Then, in steady state, the square meter of asphalt
4
must radiate energy at the same rate as receiving it from the Sun. From AeT ,
the temperature of the asphalt is

T
Ae

1
4

5.67 10

-8

1 000 W

W m 2 K 4 1.00 m 2 1.00

1
4

364 K 91C

9.

3 net e A(T 4 Ts 4 )

1 kcal 3600 s

1 h
4186 J

1.0[5.670 108 W (m 2 K 4 )](1.7 m 2 )[(35 K 273.15 K) 4 (16 K 273.15 K) 4 ]

10.

170 kcal h

11.

Approximate the pots as cubes of similar volume.


s3 V , so s V 1/ 3 and 6s 2 A 6V 2 / 3.

Coffeepot:
3 net e A(T 4 Ts4 )

0.12[5.670 108 W (m 2 K 4 )][6(1.00 L) 2/3(10 3 m 3 L) 2 / 3 ][(98 K 273.15 K)4 (25 K 273.15 K) 4 ]


4.5 W

Teapot:
3 net 0.65[5.670 108 W (m 2 K 4 )][6(1.00 L) 2/3 (103 m3 L) 2 / 3 ][(98 K 273.15 K)4 (25 K 273.15 K)4 ]
24 W