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Thermodynamic Tutorial

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Centre

Course

Year

Trimester

(CFS)

: Foundation in Science

: Year 1

: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code

Unit Title

: FHSC 1024

: Thermodynamics

Electromagnetism

and

Throughout this tutorial:

Universal gas constant, R = 8.314 J mol1 K1

Avogadro number, NA = 6.02 1023 mol1

Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 1023 J K1

1 atm = 1.013 105 Pa

1.

A 20.0 L tank contains 0.225 kg of helium at 18.0 C.

(a)

How many moles of helium are in the tank?

(b)

What is the pressure in the tank, in pascals and in atmospheres?

Given that

molar mass of helium = 4 g mol1

[Answer: (a) 56.3 moles; (b) 6.81 106 Pa, 67.2 atm]

2.

A large cylindrical tank contains 0.750 m3 of nitrogen gas at 27 C and 1.50 105 Pa

(absolute pressure). The tank has a tight fitting piston that allows the volume to be

changed. What will be the pressure if the volume is decreased to 0.480 m3 and the

temperature is increased to 157 C?

[Answer: 336 kPa]

3.

A young male adult takes in about 5.0 104 m3 of fresh air during a normal breath.

Fresh air contains approximately 21% oxygen. Assuming that the pressure in the

lungs is 1.0 105 Pa and air is an ideal gas at a temperature of 310 K, find the number

of oxygen molecule in a normal breath.

[Answer: 2.5 1021 molecules]

4.

A cylinder 1.00 m tall with inside diameter 0.120 m is used to hold propane gas. It is

initially filled with gas until the gauge pressure is 1.30 106 Pa and the temperature is

22.0 C. The temperature of the gas remains constant as it is partially emptied out of

the tank, until the gauge pressure is 2.5 105 Pa. Calculate the mass of propane that

has been used.

Given that

molar mass of propane = 44 g mol1

[Answer: 0.213 kg]

5.

A metal tank with volume 3.10 L will burst if the absolute pressure of the gas it

contains exceeds 100 atm. If 11.0 mol of ideal gas is put into the tank at temperature

of 23 C, to what temperature can the gas be warmed before the tank ruptures? Ignore

the thermal expansion of the tank.

[Answer: 70.2 C]

6.

What is the temperature of a gas of CO2 molecules whose rms speed is 329 m s1?

Given that

molar mass of carbon = 12 g mol1

molar mass of oxygen = 16 g mol1

[Answer: 191 K]

1

7.

If the translational rms speed of water vapor molecules in air is 648 m/s, what is the

translational rms speed of carbon monoxide molecules in the same air? Both gases are

at the same temperature.

Given that

molar mass of hydrogen = 1 g mol1

molar mass of carbon = 12 g mol1

molar mass of oxygen = 16 g mol1

[Answer: 519 m s1]

8.

A quantity of a monatomic ideal gas expands to twice the volume while maintaining

the same pressure. If the internal energy of the gas were U0 before the expansion,

what is it after the expansion?

[Answer: 2U0]

9.

Helium, a monatomic gas, fills a 0.010 m3 container. The pressure of the gas is 6.2

105 Pa. How long would a 186.5 W engine have to run to produce an amount of

energy equal to the internal energy of this gas?

[Answer: 50 s]

10.

In TV, electrons with a speed of 8.4 107 m s1 strike the screen from behind, causing

it to glow. The electrons come to a halt after striking the screen. There are 6.2 1016

electrons per second hitting the screen over an area of 1.2 107 m2. What is the

pressure that the electrons exert on the screen?

Given that

mass of electron = 9.11 1031 kg

[Answer: 40 Pa]

11.

At 0.0 C and 1.00 atm, 1.00 mol of a gas occupies a volume of 0.0224 m3.

(a)

What is the number density?

(b)

Estimate the average distance between the molecules,

(c)

If the gas is nitrogen (N2), the principal component of air, what is the total

mass and mass density?

[Answer: (a) 2.69 1025 m3; (b) 4 nm; (c) 1.25 kg/m3]

12.

A cylinder in a car engine takes Vi = 4.50 102 m3 of air into the chamber at 30 C

and at atmospheric pressure. The piston then compresses the air to one-ninth of the

original volume (0.111Vi) and to 20.0 times the original pressure (20.0Pi). What is the

new temperature of the air?

[Answer: 400 C]

13.

A tire with an inner volume of 0.0250 m3 is filled with air at a gauge pressure of 36.0

psi. If the tire valve is opened to the atmosphere, what volume outside of the tire does

the escaping air occupy? Some air remains within the tire occupying the original

volume, but now that remaining air is at atmospheric pressure. Assume the

temperature of the air does not change.

[Answer: 0.0362 m3]

14.

A flight attendant wants to change the temperature of the air in the cabin from 18 C

to 24 C without changing the number of moles of air per m3. What fractional change

in pressure would be required?

[Answer: 0.02]

2

Centre

Course

Year

Trimester

(CFS)

: Foundation in Science

: Year 1

: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code

Unit Title

: FHSC 1024

: Thermodynamics

Electromagnetism

and

Solution for Additional Tutorial 4: Kinetic Theory and Ideal Gas Law

n. mole

1.

mass

225

56.3 moles

molar mass

4

(a)

pV nRT p (20 10 3 m 3 ) (56.3 moles)(8.3 14Jmol 1 K 1 )(18 273K)

(b)

p 6.81 10 6 Pa

2.

6.81 10 6 Pa

67.2 atm

1.013 10 5 Pa/atm

pV nRT

.

T1= (27+273) K, V1=0.750 m3, P1= 1.50105 Pa;

T2= (157+273) K, V2= 0.480 m3, P2=? Pa;

p1V1 p2V2

pV

nR constant

T

T2 ,

T

1

n, R are constant so

;

V1 T2

0.750 m 3 430 K

5

5

(1.50 10 Pa)

3.36 10 Pa

3

V

T

0.480

m

300

K

2 1

pV nRT

p2 p1

Remarks: In

3.

n

(1 105 Pa)(5 10 4 m 3 )

0.0194 mol

(8.314Jmol 1K 1 ) (310K)

4. pV nRT pV m M RT

p m RT ( MV ) constant

T, V, M, R are all constant, so

p1 m1 p 2 m 2 , where m is the mass of the gas in the tank.

p1 1.30 106 Pa 1.01 105 Pa 1.40 106 Pa p2 2.50 105 Pa 1.01 105 Pa 3.51 105 Pa

;

2

3

m1 p1VM / RT ; V hA h r (1.00 m) (0.060 m) 0.01131 m

2

m1

0.2845 kg

(8.3145 J/mol K)((22.0 273.15) K)

Then

p2

3.51 105 Pa

(0.2845 kg)

0.0713 kg.

6

1.40 10 Pa)

p1

m2 m1

m2

m1 m2 0.2848 kg 0.0713 kg 0.213 kg.

p1

8.737 106 Pa

V

3.10 10 3 m 3

so p1 / T1 p2 / T2

p / T nR / V constant,

p2

1.013 107 Pa

(296.15 K)

343.4 K 70.2C

8.737 10 Pa

p1

T2 T1

v rms

6.

3RT

Mv

((12 32) 10 3 kgmol 1 )(329ms 1 ) 2

191K

M

3R

3(8.314Jmol 1 K 1 )

v CO

v H2 0

7.

M H2 0

M CO

18

0.802 v CO 0.802v H 2 0 519 ms 1

28

8.

U0

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

9.

10.

3

3

Q

9300 J

nRT PV 9300 J; P 186.5 ; Q U 186.5 Js -1

50s

2

2

t

t

N / t me v i

Nme v i / t

F

A

A

A

40 Pa

1.2 10 7 m 2

11.

(a)

N nN A (1.00 mol)(6.022 1023 mol1)

2.69 1025 m 3

3

V

V

0.0224 m

(b)

The volume of the sphere is

V

1

1

N

3.72 1026 m3 per molecule.

25 atoms

N

2.69 10

3

V

m

V 4 3

r 4r 3 ,

N 3

since 3.

Then

The distance separating molecules is approximately the diameter of the

spheres.

Solve for d = 2r.

V

d 2r 2

4 N

1/ 3

3.72 1026 m3

2

1/ 3

4 nm

(c)

M (1.00 mol)[2(14.00674 g mol)] 28.0 g

12.

M

28.0 g

1.25 kg m3 .

3

3

V

0.0224 m 10 g

PV = nRT

Tf

Ti

Tf

13.

and

1 kg

Pf V f

Pi Vi

P f V f Ti

PiVi

673

Pi Vi

V

PV nRT , so f

Vi

nRT

Pf

nRT

Pi

K = 400 C

Pi

P

, or Vf i Vi .

Pf

Pf

The volume outside of the tire is equal to the difference between the total final volume

and the initial volume.

P

P

36.0

Vf Vi i Vi Vi Vi i 1

(0.0250 m3 )

1 0.0362 m3

Pf

P

14.70

f

P T , so

14.

Pf Pi Tf Ti

24 18

0.02 .

Pi

Ti

18 273.15

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