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UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

Centre
Course
Year
Trimester

: Centre for Foundation Studies


(CFS)
: Foundation in Science
: Year 1
: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code
Unit Title

: FHSC 1024
: Thermodynamics
Electromagnetism

and

Additional Tutorial 4: Kinetic Theory and Ideal Gas Law


Throughout this tutorial:
Universal gas constant, R = 8.314 J mol1 K1
Avogadro number, NA = 6.02 1023 mol1
Boltzmann constant, k = 1.38 1023 J K1
1 atm = 1.013 105 Pa
1.
A 20.0 L tank contains 0.225 kg of helium at 18.0 C.
(a)
How many moles of helium are in the tank?
(b)
What is the pressure in the tank, in pascals and in atmospheres?
Given that
molar mass of helium = 4 g mol1
[Answer: (a) 56.3 moles; (b) 6.81 106 Pa, 67.2 atm]
2.

A large cylindrical tank contains 0.750 m3 of nitrogen gas at 27 C and 1.50 105 Pa
(absolute pressure). The tank has a tight fitting piston that allows the volume to be
changed. What will be the pressure if the volume is decreased to 0.480 m3 and the
temperature is increased to 157 C?
[Answer: 336 kPa]

3.

A young male adult takes in about 5.0 104 m3 of fresh air during a normal breath.
Fresh air contains approximately 21% oxygen. Assuming that the pressure in the
lungs is 1.0 105 Pa and air is an ideal gas at a temperature of 310 K, find the number
of oxygen molecule in a normal breath.
[Answer: 2.5 1021 molecules]

4.

A cylinder 1.00 m tall with inside diameter 0.120 m is used to hold propane gas. It is
initially filled with gas until the gauge pressure is 1.30 106 Pa and the temperature is
22.0 C. The temperature of the gas remains constant as it is partially emptied out of
the tank, until the gauge pressure is 2.5 105 Pa. Calculate the mass of propane that
has been used.
Given that
molar mass of propane = 44 g mol1
[Answer: 0.213 kg]

5.

A metal tank with volume 3.10 L will burst if the absolute pressure of the gas it
contains exceeds 100 atm. If 11.0 mol of ideal gas is put into the tank at temperature
of 23 C, to what temperature can the gas be warmed before the tank ruptures? Ignore
the thermal expansion of the tank.
[Answer: 70.2 C]

6.

What is the temperature of a gas of CO2 molecules whose rms speed is 329 m s1?
Given that
molar mass of carbon = 12 g mol1
molar mass of oxygen = 16 g mol1
[Answer: 191 K]
1

7.

If the translational rms speed of water vapor molecules in air is 648 m/s, what is the
translational rms speed of carbon monoxide molecules in the same air? Both gases are
at the same temperature.
Given that
molar mass of hydrogen = 1 g mol1
molar mass of carbon = 12 g mol1
molar mass of oxygen = 16 g mol1
[Answer: 519 m s1]

8.

A quantity of a monatomic ideal gas expands to twice the volume while maintaining
the same pressure. If the internal energy of the gas were U0 before the expansion,
what is it after the expansion?
[Answer: 2U0]

9.

Helium, a monatomic gas, fills a 0.010 m3 container. The pressure of the gas is 6.2
105 Pa. How long would a 186.5 W engine have to run to produce an amount of
energy equal to the internal energy of this gas?
[Answer: 50 s]

10.

In TV, electrons with a speed of 8.4 107 m s1 strike the screen from behind, causing
it to glow. The electrons come to a halt after striking the screen. There are 6.2 1016
electrons per second hitting the screen over an area of 1.2 107 m2. What is the
pressure that the electrons exert on the screen?
Given that
mass of electron = 9.11 1031 kg
[Answer: 40 Pa]

11.

At 0.0 C and 1.00 atm, 1.00 mol of a gas occupies a volume of 0.0224 m3.
(a)
What is the number density?
(b)
Estimate the average distance between the molecules,
(c)
If the gas is nitrogen (N2), the principal component of air, what is the total
mass and mass density?
[Answer: (a) 2.69 1025 m3; (b) 4 nm; (c) 1.25 kg/m3]

12.

A cylinder in a car engine takes Vi = 4.50 102 m3 of air into the chamber at 30 C
and at atmospheric pressure. The piston then compresses the air to one-ninth of the
original volume (0.111Vi) and to 20.0 times the original pressure (20.0Pi). What is the
new temperature of the air?
[Answer: 400 C]

13.

A tire with an inner volume of 0.0250 m3 is filled with air at a gauge pressure of 36.0
psi. If the tire valve is opened to the atmosphere, what volume outside of the tire does
the escaping air occupy? Some air remains within the tire occupying the original
volume, but now that remaining air is at atmospheric pressure. Assume the
temperature of the air does not change.
[Answer: 0.0362 m3]

14.

A flight attendant wants to change the temperature of the air in the cabin from 18 C
to 24 C without changing the number of moles of air per m3. What fractional change
in pressure would be required?
[Answer: 0.02]
2

UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN


Centre
Course
Year
Trimester

: Centre for Foundation Studies


(CFS)
: Foundation in Science
: Year 1
: Trimester 3

Session

: 201501

Unit Code
Unit Title

: FHSC 1024
: Thermodynamics
Electromagnetism

and

Solution for Additional Tutorial 4: Kinetic Theory and Ideal Gas Law

n. mole

1.

mass
225

56.3 moles
molar mass
4

(a)
pV nRT p (20 10 3 m 3 ) (56.3 moles)(8.3 14Jmol 1 K 1 )(18 273K)

(b)

p 6.81 10 6 Pa

2.

6.81 10 6 Pa
67.2 atm
1.013 10 5 Pa/atm

pV nRT

.
T1= (27+273) K, V1=0.750 m3, P1= 1.50105 Pa;
T2= (157+273) K, V2= 0.480 m3, P2=? Pa;

p1V1 p2V2
pV

nR constant
T
T2 ,
T
1
n, R are constant so
;
V1 T2
0.750 m 3 430 K
5
5
(1.50 10 Pa)
3.36 10 Pa
3
V
T
0.480
m
300
K

2 1
pV nRT

p2 p1

Remarks: In
3.

, T must be in Kelvins, even if we use a ratio of temperatures.

pV nRT (110 5 Pa)(5 10 4 m 3 ) n (8.314Jmol 1K 1 ) (310K)


n

(1 105 Pa)(5 10 4 m 3 )
0.0194 mol
(8.314Jmol 1K 1 ) (310K)

Number of oxygen molecule n N Av %O 2 0.0194mol N Av 0.21 2.5 10 21 molecules


4. pV nRT pV m M RT
p m RT ( MV ) constant
T, V, M, R are all constant, so
p1 m1 p 2 m 2 , where m is the mass of the gas in the tank.
p1 1.30 106 Pa 1.01 105 Pa 1.40 106 Pa p2 2.50 105 Pa 1.01 105 Pa 3.51 105 Pa

;
2
3
m1 p1VM / RT ; V hA h r (1.00 m) (0.060 m) 0.01131 m
2

m1

(1.40 106 Pa)(0.01131 m 3 )(44.1 103 kg/mol)


0.2845 kg
(8.3145 J/mol K)((22.0 273.15) K)

Then

p2
3.51 105 Pa
(0.2845 kg)
0.0713 kg.
6
1.40 10 Pa)
p1

m2 m1

m2

is the mass that remains in the tank.


m1 m2 0.2848 kg 0.0713 kg 0.213 kg.

5. Find the initial pressure P1


p1

nRT1 (11.0 mol)(8.3145 J/mol K)((23.0 273.13)K)

8.737 106 Pa
V
3.10 10 3 m 3

p2 100 atm(1.013 105 Pa/1 atm) 1.013 107 Pa

so p1 / T1 p2 / T2

p / T nR / V constant,

p2
1.013 107 Pa
(296.15 K)
343.4 K 70.2C

8.737 10 Pa
p1

T2 T1

v rms

6.

3RT
Mv
((12 32) 10 3 kgmol 1 )(329ms 1 ) 2

191K
M
3R
3(8.314Jmol 1 K 1 )

v CO

v H2 0

7.

M H2 0
M CO

18
0.802 v CO 0.802v H 2 0 519 ms 1
28

8.
U0

3
3
3
3
3

nRT P0V0 U 1 P1V1 ;V1 2V0 , P1 P0 U 1 P0 2V0 2 P0V0 2U 0


2
2
2
2
2

9.

10.

3
3
Q
9300 J
nRT PV 9300 J; P 186.5 ; Q U 186.5 Js -1
50s
2
2
t
t

N / t me v i
Nme v i / t
F

A
A
A

(6.2 1016 electrons s 1 )(9.11 10 31 kg )(8.4 10 7 ms 1 )


40 Pa
1.2 10 7 m 2

11.

(a)

Find the number density.


N nN A (1.00 mol)(6.022 1023 mol1)

2.69 1025 m 3
3
V
V
0.0224 m

(b)

Assume that each molecule is at the center of a sphere of radius r.


The volume of the sphere is
V
1
1
N
3.72 1026 m3 per molecule.
25 atoms
N
2.69 10
3
V
m

V 4 3
r 4r 3 ,
N 3
since 3.

Then
The distance separating molecules is approximately the diameter of the
spheres.
Solve for d = 2r.
V
d 2r 2

4 N

1/ 3

3.72 1026 m3
2

1/ 3

4 nm

(c)

Find the total mass and mass density.


M (1.00 mol)[2(14.00674 g mol)] 28.0 g

12.

M
28.0 g

1.25 kg m3 .
3
3

V
0.0224 m 10 g

PV = nRT

Tf
Ti

Tf

13.

and

1 kg

Pf V f
Pi Vi

P f V f Ti
PiVi

20 .0 Pi 0.111Vi 30 273 .15


673
Pi Vi

V
PV nRT , so f
Vi

nRT
Pf
nRT
Pi

K = 400 C

Pi
P
, or Vf i Vi .
Pf
Pf

The volume outside of the tire is equal to the difference between the total final volume
and the initial volume.
P
P
36.0
Vf Vi i Vi Vi Vi i 1
(0.0250 m3 )
1 0.0362 m3

Pf
P
14.70

f
P T , so

14.

Pf Pi Tf Ti
24 18

0.02 .
Pi
Ti
18 273.15