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THE MOMENTUM EQUATION

1. A strong wind at 30 m/s blows directly against a 120 cm x 300 cm window in a large

2.

building. Estimate the force of the wind on the window. (Answer: 1980 N)

A 10-cm-diameter hose delivers 0.04 m3/s of water through a 4-cm-diameter nozzle.

3. A 90-nozzle with exit diameter d is attached to a hose of diameter 3d with pressure p.

The nozzle changes the direction of the water flow from the hose through an angle of

90. Calculate the magnitude of the force of the water in the nozzle if:

(a) p=200 kPa, d= 1 cm

(b) p= 400kPa, d= 6mm

(c) p= 300 kPa,d= 1.2 cm

(d) p= 500 kPa, d= 2.2 cm

(Answer: (a) 148N (b) 106.7N (c) 320N (d) 1795N)

4. A 6-cm-diameter horizontal stationary water jet having a velocity of 40 m/s strikes a

vertical plate. Determine the force needed to hold the plate if:

(a) It is stationary

(b) It moves away from the jet at 20 m/s

(c) It moves into the jet at 20 m/s

(Answer: (a) 4524 N (b) 1131 N (c) 10,180 N)

5. A 4-cm-diameter horizontal stationary water jet having a velocity of 50 m/s strikes a

cone having in included angle at the apex 60. The water leaves the cone

symmetrically. Determine the force needed to hold the cone if:

(a) It is stationary

(b) It moves away from the jet at 20 m/s

(c) It moves into the jet at 20 m/s

(Answer: (a) 421N (b) 151.5N (c) 825N)

6. A jet boat travelling at 12 m/s takes in 0.08 m 3/s of water and discharges it at 24 m/s

faster that the boats speed. Estimate the thrust produced and power required.

(Answer: 30.9 hp)

PLATE NO. 4

FLOW IN PIPES AND CLOSED CONDUITS

1. What is Reynolds number of flow of 0.4m 3 /s of oil (SG= 0.86, = 0.025 Pa.s) through a

450-mm-diameter pipe? (Answer: 38,392)

2. An oil with SG= 0.85 and v= 1.8 x 10-5 m2 /s flows in a 10-cm-diameter pipe at 0.50 L/s.

is the flow laminar or turbulent? (Answer: Re= 354, Laminar)

3. Fluid with kinematic viscosity 0.00015 ft2 /s flows through a pipe of diameter 9 in. What

is the maximum velocity for laminar flow? (Answer: 0.40 ft/s)

4. Two pipes, one circular and one square, have the same cross sectional area. Which has

the larger hydraulic radius, and by what percentage? (Answer: 12.8%)

5. If oil with a kinematic viscosity of 0.005 ft 2/s weighs 54 lb/ft3 , what will be the flow rate

and head loss in a 3600-ft length of 4-in-diameter pipe when the Reynolds number is

6.

How much power is lost per kilometer of length when a viscous fluids (=0.20 Pa.s)

flows in a 200-mm-diameter pipeline at 1.00 L/s? The fluid has a density of 840 kg/m 3.

7. Water flows at 0.20 m3 /s through a 300-mm-diameter, 120-m-long pipe, under a pressure

difference of 280 mm Hg. Find the friction factor. (Answer: 0.0233)

8. Fluid flows through a 10-mm-diameter tube at Reynolds number if 1800. The head loss is

30 m in a 120-m length of tubing. Calculate the discharge in liters per minute. (Answer:

5.53 L/min)

9. Oil of absolute viscosity 0.00210 lb-s/ft2 and specific gravity 0.850 flows through 10,000

ft of 12-in-diameter cast iron pipe at the rate of 1.57 cfs. What is the lost head in the pipe?

(Answer: 25.3 ft)

10. For the pipe system, the pressure head at A is 120 ft of water and the pressure head at E is

72 ft of water. Assuming the pipes are in a horizontal plane, what is the flow in each

branch of the loop? Neglect the minor losses. (Answer: 2.19 cfs, 1.37 cfs, 1.69 cfs)

Pipe

Length (ft)

Diameter (inches)

12,000

12

100

4.000

100

8,000

10

100

E

A

E

3

11. What size pipe should be installed to carry 0.785 cfs of heavy oil (v=0.00221 ft 2 /s, SG=

0.912) at 60F if the available lost head in the 1000-ft length of horizontal pipe is 22 ft?

Assume laminar flow. (Answer: 6.75 in)

12. Medium lubricating oil (SG= 0.860) is pumped through 1000 ft of horizontal 2-in pipe at

the rate of 0.0436 cfs. If the drop in pressure is 30 psi and assuming the flow to be

laminar, what is the absolute viscosity of the oil? Is the flow really laminar? (Answer:

0.0019 lb-s/ft2 )

13. Mercury at 20C flows through 4m of 7-mm-diameter glass tubing at an average velocity

of 5 m/s. Estimate the head loss in m and the pressure drop in kPa. (Answer: hf=10.5 m,

p= 1.4 MPa)

14. Ethyl alcohol at 20C flows through a 10-cm horizontal drawn tube 100 m long. The fully

developed wall shear stress is 14 Pa. Estimate (a) the pressure drop, (b) the volume flow

rate, and (c) the velocity u at r= 1cm. (Answer: (a) 56 kPa; (b) 85 m3 /h ; (c) u= 3.3 m/s

at r= 1cm)

15. (a) Find the shear stress on 40-in-diameter asphalted iron pipe if the fluid is water at 71F

and the average velocity is 10 fps. Use f= 0.0127.

(b) What will be the shear stress if the average velocity is reduced to 5 fps? Use f=

0.0132. (Answer: 0.306 psf, 0.0796 psf) Use pWATER = 1.93 slugs/ft3

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