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Crankshaft & Camshaft Position Sensors

Copyright AA1Car
Distributorless ignition systems require a crankshaft position sensor (CKP), and sometimes also a
camshaft position sensor (CMP). These sensors serve essentially the same purpose as the ignition
pickup and trigger wheel in an electronic distributor, the only difference being that the basic timing signal
is read off the crankshaft or harmonic balancer instead of the distributor shaft. This eliminates ignition
timing variations that can result from wear and backlash in the timing chain and distributor gear. It also
does away timing adjustments (or misadjustments as the case may be).
On 1996 vehicles with Onboard Diagnostics II (OBD II), the crankshaft position sensor is also used to
detect variations in crank speed caused by ignition misfire. If the computer senses enough of these, it will
illuminate or flash the Check Engine or Service Engine Soon light to signal the driver he has a problem.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSORS


There are a variety of different types of crankshaft position sensors. One is a Hall effect crank position
sensor that reads a notched metal "interrupter" ring on the back of the harmonic balancer. This was first
used on the early GM 3.8L V6 Buick Sequential Fuel Injection (SFI) engines (and turbos) with
distributorless Computer Controlled Coil Ignition (C3I). The crank position sensor provides an on-off
signal to the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) that the computer uses to monitor engine rpm and crank
position. The system also uses a separate cam position sensor in place of the original distributor to inform
the PCM about valve timing. This enables the PCM to determine the correct firing sequence which it then
uses to control both injector and ignition timing. Ford uses a similar setup on its 5.0L V8 with
distributorless ignition.
Another type of crankshaft position sensor GM uses is the "combination sensor" which you'll find mounted
on the front of the 3.0L and 3300 V6. GM calls it a combination sensor because the crank position sensor
contains a pair of hall effect switches that generate two separate signals. There are two notched
interrupter rings on the back of the harmonic balancer. One ring has three notches which causes one of
the hall effect switches to generate three crank position signals every revolution. The other ring has only
one notch, which causes the other hall effect switch to generate a single "sync-pulse" signal that the ECM
uses to calculate rpm and ignition timing.
Another variation of the combination sensor is the "fast start" system used on GM's 3800 engine. A pair of
Hall effect switches are mounted by the crank pulley while a cam sensor is mounted over the timing gear.
One crank signal generates 3 pulses per revolution while the other generates 18. This allows the coil
module to "sync" with the engine more quickly so the engine will start almost instantly.
The third type of crankshaft position sensor is a magnetic pickup that reads slots machined in a "reluctor"
ring in the center of the crankshaft, on the harmonic balancer or flywheel. This setup is used on GM

engines with the Direct Ignition Systems (DIS) on the 2.0L, 2.5L and 2.8L engines, and the Integrated
Distributorless Ignition (IDI) on the 2.3L Quad 4, and also many Ford, Chrysler and import engines.
On the GM applications, the crank reluctor ring has six equally spaced slots 60 degrees apart. A seventh
slot is spaced 10 degrees from one of the others so the crank sensor will generate an extra "sync-pulse"
every revolution. The PCM then uses the information to calculate proper ignition and injector timing. This
type of sensor must be carefully positioned so the air gap is within .050 in. of the crankshaft reluctor ring.

CKP & CMP SENSOR DIAGNOSIS


The fastest way to check the crank and/or camshaft sensors on a 1995 or newer vehicle with OBD II is to
plug in your scan tool and check for any fault codes.
P0335....Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit
P0336....Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance
P0337....Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Low Input
P0338....Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit High Input
P0339....Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Intermittent
P0340....Camshaft Position Sensor 'A' Circuit (Bank 1 or Single Sensor)
P0341 Camshaft Position Sensor 'A' Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 1)
P0342....Camshaft Position Sensor 'A' Circuit Low Input (Bank 1)
P0343....Camshaft Position Sensor 'A' Circuit High Input (Bank 1)
P0344....Camshaft Position Sensor 'A' Circuit Intermittent (Bank 1)
P0345....Camshaft Position Sensor 'A' Circuit (Bank 2)
P0346....Camshaft Position Sensor 'A' Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2)
P0347....Camshaft Position Sensor 'A' Circuit Low Input (Bank 2)

P0348....Camshaft Position Sensor 'A' Circuit High Input (Bank 2)


P0349....Camshaft Position Sensor 'A' Circuit Intermittent (Bank 2)
You can also use your scan tool to check for the presence of a cranking rpm signal if an engine is
cranking but is not starting because there is no spark (which is often a clue that the crankshaft position
sensor is not working).
On pre-OBD II vehicles, you can use a scan tool to check for codes, or use a manual flash code
procedure to read out codes. On a pre-OBD II GM application, a trouble Code 12 while cranking would
indicate no reference signal being generated. On pre-OBD II Ford applications, a Code 14 would indicate
a problem with the crank position sensor signal, which Ford calls a "PIP" (Profile Ignition Pick-up) signal.
CRANK POSITION SENSOR CHECKS
Whether a crankshaft position sensor is the magnetic type or a hall effect switch, most problems can be
traced to faults in the wiring harness. A disruption of the sensor supply voltage, ground or return circuits
can cause a loss of the all-important timing signal resulting in an engine that cranks but won't start.
Also, on some vehicles, damage to the notched sensor ring on the crankshaft, harmonic balancer or
flywheel can cause an erratic crankshaft sensor signal.
When troubleshooting a suspected crankshaft position sensor problem, you should follow the diagnostic
flow charts in the vehicle manufacturer's service literature to isolate the faulty component when a fault
code is present, otherwise there is no way to know if a no-spark starting problem is a bad ignition module,
coil, computer, wiring fault or ignition switch.
Magnetic sensors can be checked by unplugging the electrical connector and checking resistance
between the appropriate terminals. On a GM 2.3L Quad 4, for example, the sensor should read between
500 and 900 ohms. Always refer to the vehicle manufacturers test specifications when testing these
sensors. Obviously, if you see a zero resistance reading (shorted) or an infinite (open) reading, the sensor
has failed and needs to be replaced. If viewed on an oscilloscope, a magnetic crank sensor will produce a
waveform similar to that below:

A good magnetic crank position sensor should produce an alternating current when the engine is cranked,
so a voltage output check while cranking is another test that can be performed. With the sensor
connected, read the output voltage across the appropriate terminals while cranking the engine. If you see
at least 20 mV on the AC scale, the sensor is good, meaning the fault is probably in the module, coil,
wiring or computer.
Hall effect crankshaft position sensors typically have three terminals; one for current feed, one for ground
and one for the output signal. The sensor must have voltage and ground to produce a signal, so check
these terminals first with an analog voltmeter. Sensor output can be checked by disconnecting the coil
and cranking the engine to see if the sensor produces a voltage signal. The voltmeter needle should jump
each time a shutter blade passes through the Hall effect switch. If observed on an oscilloscope, you
should see a square wave form (see above) that changes in frequency.
If your diagnosis reveals a faulty crank sensor, the only option is to replace it. With Hall effect sensors, the
sensor must be properly aligned with the interrupter ring to generate a clean signal. Any rubbing or
interference could cause idle problems as well as sensor damage. Magnetic crankshaft position sensors
must be installed with the proper air gap, which is usually within .050 in. of the reluctor wheel on the
crankshaft.
CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSORS
On many engines with distributorless ignition systems and sequential fuel injection, a camshaft position
sensor is used to keep the engine's control module informed about the position of the camshaft relative to
the crankshaft. By monitoring cam position (which allows the control module to determine when the intake
and exhaust valves are opening and closing), the control module can use the cam position sensor's input
along with that from the crankshaft position sensor to determine which cylinder in the engine's firing
sequence is approaching top dead center. This information is then used by the engine control module to
synchronize the pulsing of sequential fuel injectors so they match the firing order of the engine. On some
applications, input from the camshaft position sensor is also required for ignition timing.
The camshaft position sensor may be magnetic or Hall effect, and mounted on the timing cover over the
camshaft gear, on the end of the cylinder head in an overhead cam application, or in a special housing

that replaces the distributor (in the case of some of the GM applications). Operation and diagnosis is
essentially the same as that for a crankshaft position sensor

P0300-P0389
Descriere:
P0300
Random/Multiple Cylinder Misfire Detected Random / Multiple Cylinder rateurilor la aprindere Detectat

P0301 P0301
Cylinder 1 Misfire Detected Cilindru 1 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0302 P0302
Cylinder 2 Misfire Detected Cilindru 2 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0303 P0303
Cylinder 3 Misfire Detected Cilindru 3 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0304 P0304
Cylinder 4 Misfire Detected Cilindru 4 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0305 P0305
Cylinder 5 Misfire Detected Cilindru 5 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0306 P0306
Cylinder 6 Misfire Detected Cilindru 6 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0307 P0307
Cylinder 7 Misfire Detected Cilindru 7 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0308 P0308
Cylinder 8 Misfire Detected Cilindru 8 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0309 P0309
Cylinder 9 Misfire Detected Cilindru 9 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0310 P0310
Cylinder 10 Misfire Detected Cilindru 10 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0311 P0311
Cylinder 11 Misfire Detected Cilindru 11 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat
P0312 P0312
Cylinder 12 Misfire Detected Cilindru 12 rateurilor la aprindere Detectat

P0313 P0313
Misfire Detected with Low Fuel Rateurilor la aprindere Detectat cu redus de combustibil
P0314 P0314
Single Cylinder Misfire (Cylinder not Specified) Un singur cilindru rateurilor la aprindere (butelie nu
este specificat)
P0320 P0320
Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Malfunction De aprindere / Distribuitor Speed Motor de
intrare Circuit Defeciunile
P0321 P0321
Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Range/Performance De aprindere / Distribuitor Speed
Motor de intrare Circuit Range / Performance
P0322 P0322
Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit No Signal De aprindere / Distribuitor Speed Motor de
intrare Circuit fr semnal
P0323 P0323
Ignition/Distributor Engine Speed Input Circuit Intermittent De aprindere / Distribuitor Speed Motor
de intrare Circuit intermitent
P0325 P0325
Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Malfunction (Bank 1 or Single Sensor) Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Defeciunile
(Banca 1 sau unic Sensor)
P0326 P0326
Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 1 or Single Sensor) Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Range /
performan (Banca 1 sau unic Sensor)
P0327 P0327
Knock Sensor 1 Circuit low Input (Bank 1 or Single Sensor) Knock Sensor 1 circuitului de intrare mic
(Banca 1 sau unic Sensor)
P0328 P0328
Knock Sensor 1 Circuit High Input (Bank 1 or Single Sensor) Knock Sensor 1 Circuit High Input
(Banca 1 sau unic Sensor)
P0329 P0329
Knock Sensor 1 Circuit Input Intermittent (Bank 1 or Single Sensor) Knock Sensor 1 circuitului de
intrare intermitent (Banca 1 sau unic Sensor)
P0330 P0330
Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Malfunction (Bank 2) Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Defeciunile (Banca 2)
P0331 P0331
Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Range/Performance (Bank 2) Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Range / performan
(Banca 2)

P0332 P0332
Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Low Input (Bank 2) Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Low Input (Banca 2)
P0333 P0333
Knock Sensor 2 Circuit High Input (Bank 2) Knock Sensor 2 Circuit High Input (Banca 2)
P0334 P0334
Knock Sensor 2 Circuit Input Intermittent (Bank 2) Knock Sensor 2 circuitului de intrare intermitent
(Banca 2)
P0335 P0335
Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Malfunction Arborele cotit POSITION SENSOR-un circuit de
Defeciune
P0336 P0336
Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Range/Performance Arborele cotit POSITION SENSOR-un circuit
de Range / Performance
P0337 P0337
Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Low Input Arborele cotit POSITION SENSOR-un circuit de intrare
Min
P0338 P0338
Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit High Input Arborele cotit POSITION SENSOR-un circuit de mare
de intrare
P0339 P0339
Crankshaft Position Sensor A Circuit Intermittent Arborele cotit POSITION SENSOR-un circuit de
intermitenta
P0340 P0340
Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Malfunction Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Defeciunile
P0341 P0341
Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range/Performance Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Range /
Performance
P0342 P0342
Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Low Input Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0343 P0343
Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit High Input Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit High Input
P0344 P0344
Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit Intermittent Camshaft Position Sensor Circuit intermitent
P0350 P0350
Ignition Coil Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0351 P0351

Ignition Coil A Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil Un Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0352 P0352
Ignition Coil B Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil B Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0353 P0353
Ignition Coil C Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil C Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0354 P0354
Ignition Coil D Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil D Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0355 P0355
Ignition Coil E Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil E Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0356 P0356
Ignition Coil F Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil F Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0357 P0357
Ignition Coil G Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil G Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0358 P0358
Ignition Coil H Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil H Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0359 P0359
Ignition Coil I Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil I Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0360 P0360
Ignition Coil J Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil J Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0361 P0361
Ignition Coil K Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil K Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0362 P0362
Ignition Coil L Primary/Secondary Circuit Malfunction De aprindere Coil L Primar / Secundar Circuit
Defeciunile
P0370 P0370
Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Malfunction Momentul de referin de nalt rezoluie de
semnal o defeciune

P0371 P0371
Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Too Many Pulses Legume uscate Timing Reference High
Resolution Signal A Prea Multe
P0372 P0372
Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Too Few Pulses Legume uscate Momentul de referin de
nalt rezoluie, sunt un indiciu prea puini
P0373 P0373
Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A Intermittent/Erratic Pulses Momentul de referin de nalt
rezoluie Signal A intermitent / leguminoase neregulat
P0374 P0374
Timing Reference High Resolution Signal A No Pulses Momentul de referin de nalt rezoluie de
semnal A leguminoase Nu
P0375 P0375
Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Malfunction Momentul de referin de nalt rezoluie de
semnal B Defeciunile
P0376 P0376
Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Too Many Pulses Momentul de referin de nalt rezoluie
de semnal leguminoase uscate B Prea Multe
P0377 P0377
Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Too Few Pulses Momentul de referin de nalt rezoluie
de semnal leguminoase uscate B, prea puini
P0378 P0378
Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B Intermittent/Erratic Pulses Momentul de referin de nalt
rezoluie Semnal B intermitent / leguminoase neregulat
P0379 P0379
Timing Reference High Resolution Signal B No Pulses Momentul de referin de nalt rezoluie de
semnal B nr leguminoase uscate
P0380 P0380
Glow Plug/Heater Circuit "A" Malfunction Bujie / Heater Circuit "o defeciune"
P0381 P0381
Glow Plug/Heater Indicator Circuit Malfunction Bujie / Heater Circuit Defeciunile indicatorului
P0382 P0382
Glow Plug/Heater Circuit "B" Malfunction Bujie / Heater Circuit "B" Defeciunile
P0385 P0385
Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Malfunction Arborele cotit POSITION SENSOR B Circuit
Defeciunile
P0386 P0386
Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Range/Performance Arborele cotit POSITION SENSOR B Circuit

Range / Performance
P0387 P0387
Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Low Input Arborele cotit POSITION SENSOR B Circuit Low Input
P0388 P0388
Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit High Input Arborele cotit POSITION SENSOR B Circuit de mare de
intrare
P0389 P0389
Crankshaft Position Sensor B Circuit Intermittent Arborele cotit POSITION SENSOR B Circuit
intermitent