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CHAP TER 1
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
IDEA OF FUTURE VISION PROJECT
The Future Vision housing scheme project is for providing an economical & perfect residential area for
the people especially of the middle class society with the basic requirements.
The required sewerage system is to be designed to facilitate the people.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION:
The Future vision housing society is a complete residential neighborhood in all respects. The scheme
comprises of:
An English-medium school.
Two hundred & Eighty one (281) houses divided into different blocks(A To M).
Three(3) flats & Apartments each.
a well equipped dispensary, with cooperative staff.
Parks.
Graveyard.
These facilities provide ease to the residents All the basic necessities including electricity, gas,
telephone and water are available. The scheme also has its own waste water treatment plant.. Being
adjacent to the Jhelum road, the housing scheme is very easily accessible by road, lying at just 15
minutes drive from Jhelum city.

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:
The Future Vision Society is situated on the west bank of the Upper Chenab canal, 10 km along the
Jhelum road
HOUSING PLAN:
The Future Vision Housing project Housing Plan is divided into:
Independent Housing Plots
Apartments(3)
Flats (3)
The independent plots in the society have been divided into 13 housing blocks which are
named: A to M for distinction.
The detail of no. of each housing units is given below

Chapter 2
RELATED THEORY

SEWERAGE:
It is the liquid waste or waste water produced as a result of water use.

SEWER:
Sewer is a pipe or conduit, generally closed, and flow takes place under gravity.

SOURCES OF WASTE WATER:


Sources of waste water or sewage are commonly encountered are:

Domestic Wastewater
It is the waste water from houses, office, other buildings, hotels and institutions.

Industrial Wastewater
It is the liquid waste from industrial process.

Storm water
It includes surface runoff generated by rainfall and the street wash.

COMPONENTS OF WASTE WATER ENGINEERING:


1)
2)
3)

Collection system (network of sewer pipes)


Disposal work (sewage pumping stations, outfalls)
Treatment works (for rendering waste water treatment)

TYPES OF SEWERS:

Sanitary sewer
It carries sanitary sewage i.e. waste water from municipality including domestic and industrial
waste water.

Storm sewer
It carries storm sewage including surface runoff and street wash.

Combined sewer
It carries domestic, industrial and storm sewage.

House sewer
It is the sewer conveying sewage from plumbing system of a building to common or municipal
sewer.

Lateral sewer
This sewer carries discharge from house sewer.

Sub main sewer

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This sewer carries discharge from two or more laterals.

Main / Trunk sewer


It receives discharge from two or more sub mains.

Outfall sewer
It receives discharge from all collecting system and conveys it to the point of final disposal.

TYPES OF SEWER SYSTEMS:

Separate system
In this system storm water is carried separately from domestic and industrial waste water.

Combined system
In this system sewers carry both sanitary and storm water.

Partially combined system


If some portion of storm or surface runoff is allowed to be along with sanitary sewage, the system is
known as partially combined system.
The sewerage system of the Future Vision scheme has been designed according to partially combined
system, being the most economical option in a developing country such as Pakistan.

DESIGN PERIOD FOR SEWER SYSTEMS:


Design of Sewer system
Period of design is indefinite, as the system is designed to care for the maximum development of
the area.
1)

2)

Design of Sewage pumping station


Design period is usually 10 years.

3)

Design of sewage treatment plant


Design period is usually 15-20 years.

STRENGHT OF RCC PIPES:


Three edge bearing test is used to measure the strength of R.C.C pipes. Load is applied on the pipe to
produce 0.25mm crack. The test defines the load that can be safely supported by the sewer.

JOINTS IN SEWER PIPES:


There are two types of joints in Concrete (up to 300 mm diameter) and R.C.C pipes (greater than 300
mm diameter)
Bell and Spigot joint (Employed for sewers from 225 mm to 600 mm diameter)
Tongue and groove joint (employed for sizes greater than 600 mm diameter)

SEWER APPURTENANCES:
Appurtenances ate those devices, in addition to the pipes and conduits, that all essential for the
operation of the sewer system. They include:

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Manhole (provided when drop is less than 0.6m)
Drop manholes (provided when drop is more than 0.6m)
3. Inlets
An inlet is an opening into a storm or combined sewer for entrance of storm runoff. It is designed to
permit the passage of water from the street surface into the sewer
a) Curb inlet
b) Gutter inlet
c) Catch basins
4. Flush tanks
5. Inverted siphon
1.
2.

6.

PUMPING STATIONS:
Used to elevate and transport waste water when:
Continuation of gravity flow is no longer feasible
Basements are deep
Any obstacle lies in the path of sewer
Receiving stream is higher than the sewer
Sewage is to be delivered to and above ground treatment plant

MAIN COMPONENTS OF SEWAGE PUMPING STATION:


Screens
Dry well (for installation of pumps)
Wet well (for receipt of waste water)
Pumps (along with valves, force main, motor, control panel etc)

Design of wet well and pump selection:


In small pumping stations, where pump is sized to meet the peak the peak or maximum flow, the
following considerations are made:
The detention time in the wet well at average flow should preferably be not more than 30
minutes.
The pump must run for at least 2 minutes
Cycle time must not be less than 10 minute.

CHAPTER 3

DESIGN CRITERIA
Complete details are given here regarding all aspects of design of waste water disposal system for this
project.
The Design procedure aims primarily to determine the:
Diameters
Slopes of the pipes to be laid.

THE SEWER SYSTEM:


For the type of waste water disposal system, three(3 )options were available as shown below:
TYPE OF SEWER SYSTEMS

CHARACTERISTICS

Separate system

All sanitary and storm sewage carried in separate


sewer pipes.

Combined system

All sanitary and storm sewage carried in same


sewer pipe.

Partially Combined system.

All sanitary sewage carried with a portion of


storm sewage or surface runoff in same sewer
pipe.

SELECTED SEWER SYSTEM:

Partially Combined system.

DESIGN SEWAGE FLOW CRITERIA


In general, the design sewage flow for sewer system is calculated using the following equation:

Design sewage flow = Peak sanitary sewage flow + Storm sewage flow + Infiltration

PEAK SANITARY SEWAGE FLOW:


The peak sanitary sewage flow is obtained by application of a peak factor to the average sewage
flow. Relevant equation is as follows:
Peak sanitary sewage flow = Peak factor Average sanitary sewage flow
There are two approaches for determination of peak sewage flow i.e. from WASA specifications or by
using the Herman formula.

USING WASA SPECIFICATIONS:


For the calculation of peak factor for the design purpose, the 1986 specifications provided by the WASA
(Water and Sanitation Agency) have been referred.

AVERAGE SEWAGE FLOW


(m3/day)

PEAK FACTOR TO OBTAIN Qmax

2500

4.00

2500 5000

3.40

5000 10,000

3.10

10,000 25,000

2.70

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25,000 50,000
50,000 100,000

2.50
2.30

100,000 250,000

2.15

250,000 500,000
> 500,000

2.08
2.00

In our case, Peak factor for average sewage flow = 4.0

USING HERMAN FORMULA:


An alternative method for determination of peak factor is by using the Herman formula. The formula is
given below
M

Q MAX
14
1
Q AVG
4 P

DESIGN EQUATION:
The Mannings formula is used for design of sewers flowing under gravity.
2

1
v . R 3 . S2
n
Where

v = Velocity of flow (m/sec)


R = Hydraulic mean depth =

Area
D

(when pipeis flowing full or half full)


Wetted perimeter 4

S = Slope of the sewer


n = Mannings coefficient of roughness for pipes (n = 0.013 for RCC pipes)

MINIMUM SELF CLEANSING VELOCITY:


It is the minimum velocity that ensures non settlement of suspended matter in the sewer.
For Partially combined sewerage system = 0.7 m/sec

Maximum velocity:
Maximum velocity should not be greater than 2.4 m/sec to avoid excessive sewer abrasion and also to
avoid steep slopes.

MINIMUM SEWER SIZE:


The minimum sewer size is taken as 225mm.

MINIMUM COVER:
1m is taken as the minimum cover over the sewers to avoid damage from live loads coming on the
sewer.

SPACING OF MANHOLES
sewer size
225mm to 375mm
450mm to 750mm
greater than 750mm

spacing
100m
120m
150m

CHAP TER 4
HYDRAULIC STATEMENT & DETAILED DESIGN
This chapter deals with the detailed design of future vision housing society.
This chapter includes the following:

Design of partially combined sewer system (hydraulic statement)


Design of sewage pumping station (only wet well)

PREPARATION OF HYDRAULIC STATEMENT


Hydraulic statement is :
Tabular form or a sheet
Contains information regarding diameters of pipes used, slopes to be maintained, invert levels
etc.

REQUIRED DATA FOR THE PREPARATION OF HYDRAULIC STATEMENT


POPULATION:
The calculation of population was based on the following data:
No of Plots
No of Apartments
No of Flats (2 storey)

=
=
=

281
3
3

Persons /plot=ten(10)
Total population

=
=

(281 x 10) + (3 x 600) + (3 x 400)


5810 persons.

PER CAPITA WATER CONSUMPTION:

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The per capita water consumption is calculated in liters per capita per day (lpcd) using the following
relation

PER CAPITA WATER CONSUMPTION = 350 + R


Where, R = Registration number of the student = 142
Hence, the per capita water consumption came out to be 492 lpcd.

TOTAL AVERAGE DAILY WATER CONSUMPTION:


The relation used for the determination of total average daily consumption of water is as follows:
Total ave rage daily water consumption = Pd Per capita wate r consumption

AVERAGE DAILY SEWAGE FLOW

80% of average daily water consumption

DESIGN SEWAGE FLOW CRITERIA:

In general, the design sewage flow for sewer system is calculated using the following equation:

This design sewage flow value is calculated for each sewer line, by determining each of the
three parameters given in the equation above. The detail of determination of these parameters
follows:

Design sewage flow = Peak sanitary sewage flow + Storm sewage flow + Infiltration

PEAK SANITARY SEWAGE FLOW:


The peak sanitary sewage flow is obtained by application of a peak factor to the average sewage
flow. Relevant equation is as follows:
Peak sanitary sewage flow = Peak factor Average sanitary sewage flow
Using WASA Specifications,
Peak factor = 4 for our case.

INFILTRATION:
Infiltration refers to the wastewater that enters sewers through poor joints, cracked pipes, walls and
manhole covers.
Infiltration rate = 10 % of average sanitary sewage flow

DESIGN FLOW:
IT is given by the following expression:
Design sewage flow = 2 Peak sanitary sewage flow + Infiltration
OR
Design sewage flow=8.1*Q(avg.)

LONGITUDINAL PROFILE OF LONGEST SEWER LINE


It is always recommended to draw a longitudinal profile of sewer line because:
Helps in executing the work of water disposal system
Guides the contractor to execute the work easily & efficiently.
Longitudinal profile is a section along the length showing invert levels, reduced levels, details of
manholes, diameter of sewer pipe lines, slope of sewer pipe lines, length of sewer pipe line etc.

SEWER INVERT LEVELS:


The lowest inside level at any cross section of a sewer pipe is known as the Invert Level at that cross
section.

IMPORTANCE OF INVERT LEVELS:


minimum self cleansing velocity are achieved through calculations of invert levels of sewers at
various manholes.
Formula for calculation of invert level:
U/S Invert level = NGSL/Road level Depth of sewer
Thickness of sewer Diameter of sewe r
D/S Invert level = U/S Invert level (Sewer slope
Length of sewer)

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IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS IN INVERT LEVEL CALCULATION:

When sewers of equal diameter discharge in a manhole and a pipe of same diameter receives
the total discharge, then the lowest D/S Invert Level among the discharging sewers has been
taken as U/S Invert Level of the receiving sewer.
When the diameter of receiving sewer is greater than that of lowest discharging sewer the
following rules are observed in the laying of sewer pipes:
a) The sewer crowns are kept at the same level.
b) U/S IL of receiving sewer is dropped by the difference in diameter of the two sewers.

SEWAGE PUMPING STATION:


A sewage pumping station is needed to elevate or transport sewage to a higher receiving point in the
sewerage system.
Such a need can arise when:
Continuation of gravity flow is no longer feasible
Buildings in vicinity have deep basements
An obstacle is present in the path of sewer
Receiving stream is higher than the sewer
Sewage is to be delivered to an above ground treatment plan.

PUMPING CAPACITY & DESIGN SEWAGE FLOW:


The sewage pump is design according to the maximum design sewage flow of the total population, and
for the current case:
Maximum design sewage flow
So, required pumping capacity

= 18966.528 m3/day = 13.1712 m3/min


= 13.1712 m3/min

AVERAGE SEWAGE FLOW:


The average sewage flow rate is used along with the minimum rate of sewage flow to calculate the
corresponding cycle time for the pumping station:
Average sewage flow

= 2341.538 m3/day = 1.626 m3/min

MINIMUM SEWAGE FLOW:


Minimum sewage flow = 50 % of ave rage sewage flow
Minimum sewage flow = 0.5 x 2341.538 m3/day = 1170.769 m3/day = 0.813 m3/min

CYCLE TIME:
The cycle time for a sewage pumping station is the time elapsed between 2 successive startups of the
motor pump.

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Cycle time = Time to empty the wet well + Time to fill the wet well

FORMULA for calculating cycle time

V
V

PQ Q

VOLUME OF WET WELL:


Volume of wet well corresponding to a certain cycle time is given by the following formula:
V

t min . P
4

The wet well should have a volume such that the cycle time is always greater than the minimum cycle
time recommended for a motor pump.

DESIGN DESIGN CALCULATIONS DESIGN CALCULATIONS


DESIGN CALCULATIONS DESIGN CALCULATIONS
CALCULATIONS

(PUMPING STATION)
Given data:
Maximum design sewage flow

Average sewage flow

= Qmax
=6.35 m3/min

= 9147.26 m3/day

= Qavg = 2286.82 m3/day


=1.58 m3/min

= Qmin= 0.5 * 1.58 m3/day


=0.794 m3/min
Recommended cycle time for pump = 10 minutes
Minimum sewage flow

SOLUTION:
Effective volume of wet well

P. t min 6..35 10

15.87m 3
4
4

CHECK FOR RUNNING TIME:

t=

V
15.87

2.84min > 2 min ( OK)


P Q min 6.35 0.794

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CHECK FOR DETENTION TIME:


=

Qavg

So, Volume of wet well


Assuming Depth
Surface Area
Diameter

.
.

= . < 30 min

=
=

(ok)

=
15.87 m3
=
2.0 m
7.935m
3.18 m

DIAMETER SELECTED = 3.18 meters

CHAP TER 5
DRAWINGS
This chapter deals with the major drawings required for the implementation of the project.
The following drawings are included in this chapter:
Longitudinal profile of sewer
Manhole
3. Sewage pumping station
4. Sewer joints
1.
2.

LONGITUDINAL PROFILE OF THE SEWER


Longitudinal profile of the sewer is:
The graphical representation of Hydraulic Statement.
In our design of future vision housing society I have drawn the longest sewer profile.
The functions of manholes are:

MANHOLES

Cleaning, inspection of sewer pipe


Maintenances of sewer
House connections

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LOCATION OF MANHOLES
Manholes should be located where ever there is:

Change in sewer direction


Change in slope
Change in diameter

A typical figure of manhole is shown in the below figure.

DROP MANHOLES

When lateral or sub main join in a deeper sewer, excavation is saved by keeping the upper
sewer at a reasonable grade and making the vertical drop at the manhole.
Drop manhole is constructed when the drop is more than 0.6m.

A typical figure of drop manhole is shown in the figure.

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SEWAGE PUMPING STATION:


A sewage pumping station is needed :
To elevate or transport sewage to a higher receiving point in the sewerage system.
Such a need can arise when:

Continuation of gravity flow is no longer feasible


Buildings in vicinity have deep basements
An obstacle is present in the path of sewer
Receiving stream is higher than the sewer
Sewage is to be delivered to an above ground treatment plant

The schematic diagram of the pumping station is given below.

CYCLE TIME:
The cycle time for a sewage pumping station is the time elapsed between 2 successive startups of the
motor pump.
Cycle time is given by the following formula:

V
V

PQ Q

VOLUME OF WET WELL:


V

t min . P
4

SEWER JOINTS:
There are two types of joints in Concrete (up to 300 mm diameter) and R.C.C pipes (greater than 300
mm diameter)
Bell and Spigot joint (Employed for sewers from 225 mm to 600 mm diameter)
Tongue and groove joint (employed for sizes greater than 600 mm diameter)
The figure of bell and spigot joint and tongue and groove joints is given below.

15

CHAPTER 6

BILL OF QUANTITY (BOQ) & BEDDING


(a)
Sr
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

FOR EXCAVATION

Sewers
Diameter Excavation(meters) Quuantity Rate
Amount(RS)
Description
(mm)
L(m) W(m) H(m)
m3
Rs/C Rupees
Millions
M1 - M2
225
106
0.638 1.321
89.27 123
10979.79
0.011
M2 M8
225
37
0.638 1.296
30.57 123
3760.04
0.004
M7 M8
225
106
0.638 1.321
89.27 123
10979.79
0.011
M8 M10
225
37
0.638 1.346
31.75 123
3905.10
0.004
M9 M10
225
106
0.638 1.071
72.37 123
8901.86
0.009
M10 M11
310
37
1.598
0.765
45.23 123
5563.46
0.006
M13 M12
225
89
0.638 1.288
73.08 123
8988.58
0.009
M12 M11
310
23
0.765 1.324
23.30 123
2865.38
0.003
M11 - M16
380
39
0.870 1.852
62.84 123
7729.12
0.008
M3 - M16
225
110
0.638 1.304
91.44 123
11247.49
0.011
M16 - M17
460
34
0.990 1.925
64.80 123
7969.85
0.008
M4- M17
225
108
0.638 1.275
87.78 123
10797.40
0.011
M17 - M18
460
48
0.990 1.736
82.49 123
10146.85
0.010

16
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

M5 - M18
M18 M19
M6 M19
M19 M20
M20 M23
M14 M15
M15 M21
M24 M23
M23 M21
M21 - M22
M22 D.S

225
530
310
610
610
225
225
225
310
310
690

110
55
112
42
43
45
163
150
46
15
17

0.638
1.095
0.765
1.215
1.215
0.638
0.638
0.638
0.765
0.765
1.335

1.229
1.625
1.495
1.61
1.154
1.004
0.754
1.206
0.988
0.671
0.859

86.18
97.87
128.09
82.16
60.29
28.80
78.35
115.32
34.77
7.70
19.50

123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123
123

10600.59
12037.47
15755.27
10105.47
7415.76
3542.68
9637.05
14184.82
4276.43
947.07
2397.89
194735.19

0.011
0.012
0.016
0.010
0.007
0.004
0.010
0.014
0.004
0.001
0.002
0.195

TOTAL COST OF EXCAVATION


=0.195 MILLIONS

(B)FOR SEWER MATERIAL


Sr. No.

Description

225mm Sewer

1167

Meters

310mm Sewer

236

Meters

380mm Sewer

39

Meters

4
5
6
7

460mm Sewer
530mm Sewer
610mm Sewer
690mm Sewer

Quantity

2
82
85
17

Unit

Meters
Meters
Meters
Meters

Total cost for


sewerage=1.94 Millions

Rate(RS/m)

Amount(RS)

886.1

1034078.7

1354.95

319768.2

1669.2

65098.8

2104.3

4208.6

2573.65
2992.35
3575.55

211039.3
254349.75
60784.35
1949327.7

17

BEDDING PROVIDED
Prov
Dia
(m)

H(m)

B(m)

H/B

Load
(Lbs/ft/ft

3 edge
bearing
Standard
value(lb/ft/ft

3 edge
bearing
value
for prov
dia.

Load(kg/m

0.225
0.225
0.225
0.225
0.225

1.321
1.296
1.321
1.346
1.071

2.46
0.64

1.66

2.07

1237.65

2722.84

1500

1107.3

0.64

1.64

2.03

1219.08

2681.99

1500

1107.3

0.64

1.66

2.07

1237.65

2722.84

1500

1107.3

2.42
2.46
2.50
0.64

1.69

2.11

1256.06

2763.33

1500

1107.3
2.08

0.64

1.40

1.68

1044.56

2298.04

1500

1107.3
2.59

0.31

1.598

0.77

1.67

2.09

1793.56

3945.83

1500

1525.6

0.225

1.288

0.64

1.63

2.02

1213.11

2668.84

1500

1107.3

0.31

1.324

0.77

1.44

1.73

1541.50

3391.29

1500

1525.6

0.38

1.852

0.87

1.70

2.13

2354.40

5179.68

1500

1870.1

0.225

1.304

0.46

1.925

0.225

1.275

0.64

1.62

2.00

1203.36

2647.40

1500

1107.3

0.46

1.736

0.99

1.45

1.75

2609.50

5740.90

1500

2263.8

0.225

1.229

0.64

1.57

1.93

1168.53

2570.76

1500

1107.3

0.53

1.625

1.1

1.27

1.48

2778.13

6111.89

1500

2608.3

0.31

1.495

0.77

1.59

1.95

1701.13

3742.48

1500

1525.6

0.61
0.61

1.61

0.225
0.225
0.225
0.31
0.31
0.69

1.154
1.004
0.754
1.206
0.988
0.671
0.859

Load
factor

2.41
2.22
2.77
2.43
0.64

1.65

2.05

1225.04

2695.10

1500

1107.3
2.76

0.99

1.58

1.94

2837.49

6242.49

1500

2263.8
2.39
2.54
2.32
2.34
2.45
2.28

1.22
1.22

1.15
0.86

1.33
0.95

3105.20
2315.54

6831.43
5094.18

1500
1500

3002.0
3002.0

0.64
0.64

1.33
1.04

1.57
1.18

989.92
774.51

2177.83
1703.92

1500
1500

1107.3
1107.3

0.64
0.77
0.77
1.34

1.55
1.12
0.80
0.60

1.89
1.29
0.88
0.64

1150.90
1204.02
854.30
1956.82

2531.97
2648.84
1879.45
4305.01

1500
1500
1500
1500

1107.3
1525.6
1525.6
3395.7

1.70
1.97
1.54
2.29
1.74
1.23
1.27

Bedding
suggested

concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
concrete
cradle
Brick Ballast
Crushed
Stone
Brick Ballast
concrete
cradle
Brick Ballast
Brick Ballast
Brick Ballast

18

CHAP TER 7

RECOMMENDATIONS & COMMENTS

I have Carried out the design of this waste water disposal system for the Future Vision housing
scheme with great zeal and the design is complete & will work for the betterment of the people.

Design report is prepared considering all possible features.

Manhole are provided where they were required.

Standard diameters of the pipes have been selected.

Pipes with sufficient length have been provided.

Prper joints have been suggested based on the diameter provided for the pipes.

Required cost for laying the pipes has also been calculated.

The bedding is selected on the basic of required load factor.

Rats for the sewer pipes & excavation were picked from the finance department website.
(http://punjab.gov.pk/aug-jan-2013)

I have also suggested the type of bedding based on the considerations given by WASA LAhORE.

For the effective utilization of the system cleaning and inspection be conducted after a proper
time duration.

I have not provided the flush tank as they were not required.

Proper maintenances should be provided when required.

Proper maintenances of pumps are also required at regular interval.

In the end,I will conclude that this complete design of partially combined sewer improved my
knowledge the design of this system done by me will work very efficiently.

MUHAMMAD USMAN 2009-CIVIL-142


SECTION C