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In this design basic design procedure for selection of suitable sewer diameter , having reasonable
slope , excavation depth for laying of sewer and some other important parameter have been
discussed .

Prepared by :

Mujtaba Ahmadi


Design Assignment
The land encompasses an area of 59,236 m2 (14.6 acre) and have the following characteristic:

Number of houses = 281

Number of flats = 3

Number of apartments = 3

Number of parks = 2

School = 1

Dispensary = 1

Graveyard = 1

For more detail refer to the attached map.


To find a suitable layout for disposal of waste water.

To find diameter of pipes for each length across sewerage system.

To find required slope for laying of pipes.

To plot longitudinal section of ground level and invert level of sewers from primary
disposal (laterals) to the last disposal station.

To find depth for excavation.

Related theory:
Introduction to sewerage system:
The waste water trip starts from fixture. Fixtures are the devices that draws clean water
from the distribution system and discharge waste water in to the sewage system ,without
allowing any flow in the opposite direction . The most common residential plumbing fixtures



Bath tube



Washing machines

The purpose of house plumbing system is to capture all the waste water from these fixtures and
combine it to a single stream for disposal .
This stream is composed of over 99.9 % water .The number seems quite surprising until we
recognize that combine effluent from sinks , tubes, washing machine far exceeds that of the
toilets .
The remaining 0.1 % is suspended and dissolved solids which include:

Dissolved organic matter :which include both human waste and food.

Suspended inorganic particles

Rags ,papers and plastic and other materials

And high concentration of enteric micro-organisms

These are the materials in which all the sewer system is designed to remove.
For removal of these materials proper pipe diameter and slope maintenance is the basic
objective of sewer system design .
And material is sent for centralized treatment or onsite septic system .
Waste water primarily operates by gravity-driven flow. So the treatment plant are located at
lowest points of the area .
The central spine of residential sewerage system is a large diameter vertical pipe called soil
stack ,extending from the roof to the down base slab .Which is connected to a gentle slope pipe
known as lateral , and lateral moves toward sewage system or septic tanks whatever is designed
.All the pipes which connect the fixture to the stack should have a gentle slope.
The slope of sewer pipes should be designed such that all the waste should be removed
efficiently as in case of more slope solids will remain and water will erode the pipe ,however in
case of lesser slope water wont move downward so a specified and reasonable slope should be
adopted .
If topography prevents downhill gradient a sewage lift station should be installed to pump the
waste water to a higher elevation at which point it resumes its gravity for downhill flow .
Manholes are provided to give access for repair and maintenance of the pipe system (sewer).
Manhole is a vertically oriented concrete cylinder typically located where under pipes intersects
with another sewer line or changing direction , slope or diameter of pipe.
Drinking water purification rely more on mechanical and chemical process however waste water
treatment rely more on biological process .

Sewerage system:
Sewerage is the system of collection of wastewater and conveying it to the point of disposal with
or without treatment. Essential components of sewerage system is :
1.Collection System Network of Sewer pipes
2.Disposal Sewage Pumping Stations and Outfalls
3.Treatment Works Wastewater treatment Plants

Source of sewage:
1.Domestic: It is wastewater from houses offices, other buildings, hotels and institutions
2.Industrial: It is the liquid waste from industrial process
3.Storm-water: It includes surface run-off generated by rainfall and the street wash

Type of sewer and sewer system:

1.Sanitary Sewer-It carries sanitary sewage like waste from municipalities including domestic
and industrial waste-water
2.Storm Sewer-It carries storm sewage including surface run-off and street wash
3.Combined Sewer-It carries domestic, industrial and storm Sewage
4.House Sewer-It is the sewer conveying sewage from plumbing system of a building to
common municipal system
5.Lateral Sewer-This sewer carries discharge from houses sewer
6.Sub-main-This sewer receives discharge from two or more laterals
7.Main/Trunk Sewer-Receives discharge from two or more sub-mains
8. Outfall Sewer-It receives discharge from all collecting system and conveys it to the point of
final disposal


Types of sewer system:

1. Separate System
If storm water is carried separately from domestic and industrial wastewater the system is called
as separate system.
Separate systems are favored when
(i)There is an immediate need for collection of the sanitary sewage but not for storm water.
(ii)When sanitary sewage needs treatment but the storm water does not.


2. Combined System
It is the system in which the sewers carry both sanitary and storm water, combined system is
favored when;
(i) Combined sewage can be disposed off without treatment
(ii)Both sanitary and storm water need treatment
(iii)Streets are narrow and two separate sewer cannot be laid


3. Partially Combined System

If some portion of storm or surface run-off is allowed to be carried along with sanitary sewage
the system is known as partially combined system.
(In Urban area of developing countries, mostly partially combined system is employed as it is



Sanitary waste water is not allowed to discharge in any stream.

When there is storm water inside the sewer, some portion of sanitary sewer might go, however
the effects would be less since due to dilution.

Infiltration :
It is the waste water that enters sewers through joints, cracked pipes, walls
Infiltration is almost non-existent in dry weather but increases during rainy season
Pipe dia. Up to 600mm 5% avg. Sewage flow
For greater than 600mm 10% avg. Sewage flow



First of all a surveying should be conducted to find the elevation of points at which sewer
is going to be laid.

Sewer grid should be assigned in such a way so that flow come in a systematic and
regular manner from lateral ,to sub man , main and disposal station.

Disposal stations should be selected at lowest elevation point so that maximum gravity
effect should be utilized and direction of flow is toward disposal station.

After plotting the sewer line in a scaled map , their length should be measure with scale
and correspondingly should be used in calculation.

We allocate the population for each pipe, so that waste water according to defined
population should be discharged in a pipe.

We calculate sewage for each person then multiply with population, we get average
sewage flow.

After multiplying average sewage flow with peak factor we get max or peak sewage

For combine sewer storm flow is equal to peak flow

Then we calculate design flow from = 2 + .

Using Q=V*A we can find diameter of the pipe to be used and we round it to higher
commercially available diameter.

Based on V=0.7 m/s and selected diameter we can calculate slope using Manings

We can calculate imaginary full flow for selected diameter as original flow is less that Q

Actual depth of water and actual velocity of flow can be found from graphs having
relation between full and half full parameters.

As we have ground level corresponding to start and end of each sewer so we can find the
difference in elevation between these two heads of sewer fall = upper ground
level-lower ground level.

At last we find invert level of pipes using following equations:

Upper invert level= Ground level-earth cover-thickness of pipe-dia of pipe.

Lower invert level=upper invert level-(length * slope)


For more clarity one sewer M1M2 design detail is shown below:

Measured length =72 m

30 plot discharge their waste in M1M2 as each plot has population of 10 persons so total
population is 300 persons.

Per capita water consumption is 350+roll number ( l/c/d ) =350+240 (l/c/d)=0.59


= = (300 0.59) 0.85 =

150.45 3 /

= 4 = 4 150.45 = 601.8

= = 601.8

= 0.1 = 0.1 150.45 = 15.045

= 2 + = 2 601.8 + 15.045 = 1218.645

= 0.7

Using = ( ) = (0.7246060) = 0.160 =


160 225 225


.225 3
( 4 )

Using Manings equation 0.7 = (0.13)

Using = 0.7

Upper invert level 100 1 0.05 0.225 = 99.422

Lower invert level = 99.422 72 3.842

103 = 99.145


so S =3.842*10^(-3)

02252 = 2401.92

Design criteria

Design period: 75 years

Per capita water consumption =350+Roll number L/c/d which is equal to 350+240=0.59
And sewage flow is taken as 85% of water consumption.

Peak factor is denoted by M and is the ratio of maximum flow to average flow. In this
design M=4

Roughness coefficient is n=0.013

Thickness of the pipes assumed as 50 mm

Earth cover assumed as one meter.

Population for each plot, flat and apartment assumed as 10,500,800 persons respectively.

Design equations that are used in this job are:

o = 0.85
o = 4
o = 0.1
o =
o = 2 + 0.1
o V full is 0.7 m/s for combine sewer system.
o = /
o Diameter should be rounded to commercial available diameter.

o = (

(4 )

2 ) from this formula slope is obtained. (where D is rounded

diameter in this formula.)

o After rounding pipe diameter to commercial available dia the level of water in
pipe decreases .we can find full discharge corresponding to full flow in
commercial dia =
o Now find ratio of /
o From graphs which is between Qd/Qf ,y/D, V/V full ,having the value of
Qd/Qfull we can find V/Vf and corresponding y/D values.
o Having full velocity =0.7 m/s we can find actual velocity from velocity ratio.

o And corresponding actual depth of water can be found from graph.

Conclusions and comments:

o All our objectives regarding design which was mentioned like :
o To find a suitable layout for disposal of waste water.
o To find diameter of pipes for each length across sewerage system.
o To find required slope for laying of pipes.
o To plot longitudinal section of ground level and invert level of sewers from
primary disposal (laterals) to the last disposal station.
o To find depth for excavation.
Was achieved.

The difference between M1M2 upper invert level and M19M25 lower invert
level is 4.837 meters which shows that slope is very gentle in this long length
indicating that solid waste will always float in water .

Small variation while calculating length may occur.

Manholes should be provided in case of change of direction and slope.

As area is small activated sludge process is suggested for its treatment.

As we observe location of treatment plant is at lower elevation indicating that this

is the best location of treatment plant, as it should be in lowest part of area.

Ground level between two ends of sewer is assumed as straight.

Terence J, M., & E.W. Steel. (1990). Water Supply and Sewerage (1 ed.). McGraw-Hill Companies.
Department, T. R. (2012, February 22). How the sewer system works. Retrieved from Massachusets
Water Resources Authority: