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(b) Definition, Investigation and Analysis

(i) Definition – Nature of the Problem
Description of Organization
Beaconhouse Nazimabad A level is a high school located in North
Nazimabad, in close proximity to KDA chowrangi. It is supervised by the
regional director, Mr.Asim Yaqoob, while its head mistress is Mrs.Bhatti. It
offers a multiplicity of A-level courses essentially covering engineering,
medical and commerce. Its working hours are from 8am to 4pm. A photocopy
shop is established in school, and which is a part of school. It is owned by
Mr.Raees Ahmed, who works here being a staff member of school. He copies
school’s confidential data, other transactional data and teacher’s and
student’s material.

Statement of Problem
Mr.Raees records all details of his work in a register manually and has to
submit this to Mrs.Bhaty, by the end of the month. As the load was less the
work was undemanding but as the school developed, it became a more
hectic and time-consuming task. Multiple registers need to be made,
arranged and named. All were stored in small cabinets and at his home,
when capacity was full. And by the fall of month, he has to reassemble all
and submit in a presentable manner.
My task is simply designing a simple but efficient database which will help
Mr.Raees in handling registers.

Current Methods Used
Any customer that comes for a photocopy handovers the hardcopy, that has
to be photocopied, and tells the number of copies to be made. Amount for
that particular is calculated and told to the customer. If the customer agrees
with the price, details regarding customer is filled in register, otherwise the
hardcopy of customer is returned. If the customer has agreed, he submits
advance payment, i.e. half of the original price, and is told a date and time
when he has to return. When the customer arrives at given date or time, all

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his data is handed over to him and amount left is taken. Register are then
updated.

Origin and Form of Data
This is what is written in register.





Date: The date when the order was given to the shop, e.g. 9-11-2001.
Name: Name of customer, e.g. Asher.
Department: From where does this document belong, e.g. accounting
department.
Description: A brief description of type of document, e.g. admission
form.
Quantity: Number of photocopies that are needed to be made, e.g.
100.
Total Cost: Amount in Rupees that is collected.

Refer to the Appendix for original copies of the forms used in the current
system.

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(ii) Investigation and Analysis

Investigation Plan
Whatever the problem is, it has to be studied using a well defined plan and is
solved by diving it into smaller components. Hence, an investigation plan has
been designed to study the system from each and every angle, precisely.
Interviewing is the basic technique that is planned to be used. This would
help each to provide their personal views on the system, directly. Although,
this will consume my much of my time but I have planned to conduct
multiple interview sessions with Mr. Raees whose core focus will be on
approaching all the problems and their solutions from different phases so
ensure that the solution should not enclose the same deficiencies which are
present in the current system used.
But, moving ahead with a lone piece of study would not be a first-rate
technique. For that I have chosen three distinct days, when I will go and
observe the system in its routine timings. This will provide with me a crystal
clear initiative of what is being done. Monitoring faces of customers and Mr.
Raees would enable me to achieve the first-hand knowledge of the system.

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for me. because it must also be done in a jerk of time. Raees: Yes. Asher: So it means that customer. The records should be Page 4 of 134 . Raees: I would like to have a system that would respond me in a quick manner so that I could deal customers faster. I need to search his details in the register because I do not remember each and every face. a frantic task. Asher: That outlines the same drawback as of previous problem. not possible. mostly. Mr. they need to stand for about 5-10 minutes while I enter their details and like this the ones waiting at back. Just try to explain me the main problems that bothers you. When a customer comes. Asher: Alright. it happens. Raees: Yes. Raees Asher: What is the degree of satisfaction with your current system? Mr. What are the ambitions for it? Mr. who has already given me a document to photocopy.First Interview with Mr. But it is. Raees: Look Ali. Asher: No. Mr. please. when fresh customers arrives to do some photocopy. Raees: Secondly. proceed with your problems. sometimes. don’t do that. Mr. Asher: Alright. to be honest I am fed up of this now. Mr. sometimes. I will try to help you on this. It has been more than a year that the workload has increased in such a manner that I am thinking to shift this work to something else. Obviously. That searching proves. get fed up of you when you take a bit more time to search. leaves the shop. Raees: The one that is most crucial is the management of my records.

The system is such inefficient that it consumes a lot of time of Mr. some new customers exits from the shop. Meanwhile. paying back which is not worth of it. Raees could not find any record of any customer because he has lost that register.organized in such a way that it should take less time in searching a particular record when required. Raees first need to verify whether the customer is genuine. So he searches in his register for the details of the customer and verifies it. Rarely. On the other hand. It takes a lot of time. he sometimes does spelling mistakes or wrote in such hasten style that he couldn’t understand it afterwards. Raees All I have noticed in this interview is the time-management plus the recordmanagement issues. This is because he has a weak memory and he does not remember his customers except most frequent ones. customer complains on lack of evidence provided to them regarding payment as well as documents taken. Raees Analysis of First Interview with Mr. This clarified the importance of each record and need to maintain them. Observation After observing the system throughout its working hours for three days. Also. while entering information of customer. Mr. it occurs that Mr. Raees. ______________________ ______________________ Asher Mr. I will get onto the most possible and feasible solution and convey it to you. Page 5 of 134 . It is much difficult to identify the customer through records. At this stage. along with the original documents. I recognized the issue of storage of his data. I have drawn some key points which are as follows:     When a customer comes to the shop to collect his/her photocopied material. Asher: Thank you very much for a slice of your valuable time.

Raees made mistakes in calculating the price for photocopy. He works under such a hurry that he tries to finish with his customer as early as possible. Asher: There is no problem if you think like that. You may purchase. Raees: But I could not afford that. actually. four machines. Mr. Asher: You are right on your side. The second way out to resolve this is that you hire a single worker to assist you. Second Interview with Mr. My shop is not big enough to hold a large number of machines. that Mr. you could extend your shop covering the back side area. employees and then an additional area. Raees: The essential part is. 3-4 more photocopy machines and hire an employee for each. I am not such economically stable to pay them every month. or rents. This will divide the work load. Raees Asher: Studying your system intimately has enabled me to outline some probable solutions. Mr. Asher: Alright. It also happens sometimes. Mr. that I could not trust anyone to work with me. In such rapidity it is possible for anyone to make errors. Raees: I appreciate your effort but try to understand my problems. The only way to get on with this is computerizing whole system. But for that you need to have some computer knowledge. The explanation for this is nothing but a disturbed mind. Page 6 of 134 . This will wrap all the objectives considering the facts and figures that you have mentioned. You may divide the paperwork and physical work amongst both of you.

I will design bypass solution for that.Mr. Mr. Asher: This would no long continue. first gathering from different registers. discount etc. It would prove to help you in future. Raees: This will help me to deal with multiple customers in short time as it would be quick and competent. So designing a system that does all this easily would be much suitable for you. Raees: Moreover. If number of copies is above 200 and below 300. calculate price. then it’s 25% of total paper cost. secondly. It requires for me to combine all details. Raees: Yes? Asher: I have observed that it consumes a lot of time to update your registers. I would like to know some more about your experience in operational mode. Asher: That is excellent. I do have. I would like you to work on this. I have studied a computer course in my college life. You could easily save all your data and it will also form a report at the end of the month. Raees: I would like to add one more thing. Raees: Yes. Raees: Would not it will be out of my budget? Asher: No. That could meet exact requirements that you want remaining in the boundary of your financial circle. what is the procedure of calculating discount that you do sometimes when customer insists? Mr. Mr. there is no other preference. This would be a perfect option for you. If it’s above it. Asher: In no doubt. Raees: If it is possible to do that. Storage and maintenance of registers is a huge challenge for me. Sometimes registers are lost or spoiled. So would it be possible to store all my registers in computer? Asher: Why not? Mr. Total cost Page 7 of 134 . there are some rules on whose basis I calculate discount. Mr. I need to submit all my records in a presentable form in the office. It is a headache for me to do that. then discount is 10% of total cost. Mr. And. But before proceeding further.

no problem. Page 8 of 134 . It should contain some calculation facilities. Asher: Alright. at the end of the month. thanks for settling down another interview with such positive attitude. including calculation of total cost and discounts. in the office. ______________________ ______________________ Asher Mr. a receipt will also be given to customers indicating the proof of their payment along with the date/time till when their work would be done. Raees Computerization of the whole system proved to be the final decision in accordance with Mr. I have identified the requirements for the new system.is basically number of copies multiplied by 1. By the way. Validation checks must be implemented to ensure that no errors are made while entering data. Mr. Requirement Specification Summarizing all the facts gathered through observation and interviews.5. Raees’s choice along with what I drew about the most feasible solution. It may seem funny but I do not discount until customer asks for. A report facility will also be designed to submit. It would enable him to deal with customers quicker-the primary objective. Raees Analysis of Second Interview with Mr. Additionally. It would provide him with validation checks to avoid errors and calculation of costing along with possible discounts. Raees: That's fine. They are as follows:    It must be faster and more proficient so that more customers could be dealt in same amount of time.

operationally. A user-friendly environment of work should be provided such that it would not. or minimally. A database of all records must be designed such that addition of records. accomplish all the requirements.     It should also be able to produce a hardcopy that will be given to the customers as proof of their payment. Page 9 of 134 . Other than this. Alternative Solutions There are a number of techniques that could be used to achieve these goals. could be imported from market as “Off the shelf”. what would make them insufficient are those unwanted features that will be included. Some programming routines. Few of them are listed below:  Visual Basic: A high-level programming language could be used to formulate a structure that could. including date/time when they have to return. while they would not be demanded. alteration of records and erasure of records could be done easily. necessitate any training. that must be required. Search facility must be provided to search records to identify a customer. But. Backups of records must be made to avoid uncertain loss of data.

along with discounts. in a defined sequence. This would allow producing different types of column graphs. exactly. But. it would require consistent testing strategies as it would contain errors. and. Adding. along with the additional receipt for customers or any other type of input/output form could easily be designed. in the way that is demanded by the proposal. hence. Furthermore. amending and deletion of records could be done easily. allow him to be productive in terms of profit and loss. Formulas could be places in cells to calculate total cost. Monthly report could also be formed. Raees Hardware Requirements To cope-up with the proposed system.  Microsoft Access: A database management program may prove to be the superlative choice among all.development of such program would take too much space on time scale. Consequently.  Microsoft Excel: Spreadsheet software could be used to collect and manipulate with numeric type of data. ______________________ ______________________ Asher Mr. at larger scale. even. it would be developed in less time. Because of its coverage over major objectives. this would not be a first-rate option as well. Mr. Search facilities with respect to multiple parameters are present. It could manage records. Basic requirements are: Page 10 of 134 . bar graphs. 2-D and 3-D line charts. according to the required parameters. All these sum up to indicate a clear cut decision that this technique would not be suitable to work out with Mr. management of records would be too disorganized. Raees has agreed with Microsoft Access. It could store large amount of records easily. pie-charts. Along with that. This would also be much more user-friendly because of the use of forms and reports. which was the principal intent. there will be some necessities in terms of physical components. no much coding is required to deal with this. scatter graphs and many more media to compute statistical analysis and comparisons. This would help to design his monthly reports in much presentable manner and. if done on a spreadsheet. Raees.

Samsung HDMI 22’’ Monitor. Logitech wireless keyboard and laser mouse. This will be used to develop whole new system that has been proposed. (c) Design (i) Nature of the Solution Page 11 of 134 . At least 2 GB DDR RAM of any brand. or more. Microsoft Office Access 2007 as the required database program.        i5 Pentium processor. with a processor speed of 2. Canon ink jet printer. Seagate Hard drive. This will support all hardware that is mentioned in “Hardware Requirements” along with any Microsoft program. Sony External Hard disk of capacity 500 GB. Listed below are some basic necessities in terms of software. ASUS Motherboard.   Microsoft Windows 7 Ultimate as an operating system. or Intel core 2 duo.5 GHz or more. Software Requirements Hardware is of no worth without any software. with a capacity of 160 GB. or any other brand. or larger.

to input data. present. Page 12 of 134 .Objectives of the New System          To initiate a computerized relational database that will substitute the needs of physical registers. from which data may be collected. To make the system as fast as possible relative to the old one. To provide a background running on graphical user interface that would be user friendly. but logical. This data would be entered into the tables to provide a ground for reports and forms to be established. To design simple. To reduce errors when the data is entered. To produce a system that will maintain the records for long periods. Raees. To preserve the security and integrity of data up to the maximum accuracy. were acknowledged and he was really impressed. Raees. data entry forms. ______________________ ______________________ Asher Mr. To design output forms or reports to convey information after processing. Presentations of these objectives. To introduce a search facility in order to save time. is registers made by Mr. when given to Mr. Raees Data Collection The only raw material.

a customer may do multiple transactions.Detailed Systems Design The Entity relationship diagram for the new system is shown below. Similarly. DEPARTMENT CUSTOMER TRANSACTION Page 13 of 134 . The tables have been normalized. Now. This can be explained as a department will contain many customers but the customer will belong to a single department only. One-to-many relationship is used between Department and Customer. it contains no many-to-many relationships directly and all partial key and non-key dependencies have been removed to prepare a fully third normalized form. and Customer and Transaction.

Proposed File. and will contain all the details about payment. Record and Data Structure The following tables will be used in the new system.  Transaction table This table is linked to both.  Customer table This is a linked table to the Department table and will contain customer’s name with respect to their IDs. Structure of tables is defined from the next page. as defined in entity relationship. Department Table Page 14 of 134 .  Department table This will contain the names of departments with respect to their IDs. Department table and Customer table.

FIELD NAME Department ID Department Name DATA TYPE Long Integer Text DATA LENGTH DESCRIPTIO N VALIDATION CHECK 8 This is the primary key of the table Uniqueness Check Presence Check 25 Name of the department Type Check Presence Check DATA LENGTH DESCRIPTIO N VALIDATION CHECK 8 This is the primary key of the table Uniqueness Check Presence Check 25 Name of the department Type Check Presence Check Customer Table FIELD NAME Customer ID Customer Name DATA TYPE Long Integer Text Transaction Table Page 15 of 134 .

FIELD NAME Transaction ID Transaction Date Customer Name DATA TYPE Long Integer Date/Time Text DATA LENGTH DESCRIPTIO N VALIDATION CHECK 8 This is the primary key of the table Uniqueness Check Presence Check 8 25 Department Name Text 25 Description Text 50 Quantity Discount Integer Currency 3 8 Page 16 of 134 The date when the transaction was made Customer Name is selected here using look-up wizard Department Name is selected here using look-up wizard A short description related to the theme of customer’s documents Quantitative measure of the photocopies that were made Amount of discount. if asked by customer in total cost Type Check Format Check Presence Check Referential Integrity Presence Check Referential Integrity Presence Check Type Check Presence Check Type Check Cross-field Check .

Department Form Page 17 of 134 . There are three forms designed in a way that will help user to easily understand and use them. hence. Each module has its respective form which is directly linked to a table of same module. Even buttons are designed in such a way that an icon is always beside them to indicate its purpose.Total Cost Leftover Payment Currency Currency 8 Total cost paid by the customer Type Check Presence Check 8 Total Cost – Advance Payment Type Check Presence Check Input Screens Design The data input method is as simple as possible and. it is done using input forms. while the fields in form will pass through all the parameters and validations that are pre-set in their respective tables. User will only have access to these forms.

Customer Form Page 18 of 134 .This form is linked with the Department table and is used to input name of departments.

Daily Transactions Form Page 19 of 134 .This form is linked with Customer table and is used to input customer name.

Page 20 of 134 .This form is linked to Daily Transactions table and will input all the necessary information.

Department Information Report Page 21 of 134 .Output Screens Design Reports are selected to be the method of conveying information to the user.

Customer Information Report Page 22 of 134 .

Date Wise Sales Report Incomplete Payment Report Page 23 of 134 .

Process Design Main Page 24 of 134 Switchbo .

Output Reports Input Data Exit Application Customer Customer Date wise Sales report Daily Transaction Departme nt Main switchboard Incomplete payment Department Main switchboard (ii) Intended Benefits Page 25 of 134 .

these reports will be smart. Relative to previous technique. resolved straight away. formulae and procedures are predefined. hence. Input Method: Input will be done through a keyboard. fast and more structured. Only buttons are needed to be pressed for any action to occur. This was previously performed using brain and calculator. (iii) Limits of the Scope of the Solution Page 26 of 134 . But. Secondly. a disadvantage will be faced which would be the initiating cost.  Output Method: Outputs are totally based on reports which will be printed using an ink jet printer. It would not be a problem as whole interface. This will craft the system fast and proficient. is userfriendly and contains small icons to help understand any function.  Processing: All processing and calculations will be done automatically by the system as all the methods.  Storage: All records will be stored on a Database saved on hard disk that was previously stored using registers. All types of report based on different criteria will be only a single click away. it will save user’s time. continuous updating of active data and arching of inactive/old data will also maintain the integrity of it. This will replace the previously happening hand-written method. Problem of filling cabinets is. obviously. Continuous Back upping the data will also keep the security of data. including buttons. Hence.

As discussed earlier. used only along with a core emphasis on user-friendliness of the system. Even my designed system is limited to some extent due to some problems. Page 27 of 134 . It will. it may take some time to settle. he is not an expert user of computer. A possible solution is installation of an UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply) or an electrical generator. but again it would cause system to be over-budgeted. Some of them are due to my own capability while some are boundaries of the environment and budget. the system will be tested and debugged but some errors are only encountered once system is activated for some time. It would require updating and maintenance. that were mentioned earlier are branded and will definitely be expensive.  Power failure may affect the system severely as it will stop all the working. Therefore.  I am not a professional analyst or designer and my work may contain some bugs.  The system is not designed in a complex way to perform as brilliant functions as possible. not be of same potential and may cause system to work poorly. It is possible that user will buy hardware of brands other than what are stated.  A changeover will certainly affect the way of working and understanding. Basic operations are. hence. Obviously. it will always have some deficiencies that will resist it being 100% efficient. But for this problem. Rather it has been made as simple as possible because the end-user will be Mr.  Hardware requirements. Raees. But this will not affect the working because it will always be preferable over old/existing system.  There will be some deviation between the design and actually developed system because of the limitation of the software that will be used.However the system is designed. backups will be a regular part. hence. Note that malfunction may crash hard disk and all data may be lost.

3 Bytes Total size of 100 records = 36.63 KB Department Table FIELD NAME DATA TYPE DATA LENGTH Department ID Long Integer 8 Department Name Text 25 Total size of records = 8 + 25 = 33 Bytes Overhead = 33 x 1.63 KB Daily Transaction Table Page 28 of 134 .File Size Estimation Customer Table FIELD NAME DATA TYPE DATA LENGTH Customer ID Long Integer 8 Customer Name Text 25 Total size of records = 8 + 25 = 33 Bytes Overhead = 33 x 1.3 x 100 = 3630 Bytes = 3.1 = 36.1 = 36.3 x 100 = 3630 Bytes = 3.3 Bytes Total size of 100 records = 36.

3 Bytes Total size of 100 records = 157.99 KB (d) Software Development.73 = 22.73 KB Size of database = Sum (Size of all tables) Size of database = 3.3 x 100 = 15730 Bytes = 15.63 + 15.FIELD NAME DATA TYPE DATA LENGTH Transaction ID Long Integer 8 Transaction Date Date/Time 8 Customer Name Text 25 Department Name Text 25 Description Text 50 Quantity Integer 3 Discount Currency 8 Total Cost Currency 8 Leftover Payment Currency 8 Total size of records = 8 + 8 + 25 + 25 + 50 + 3 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 143 Bytes Overhead = 143 x 1. Testing and Implementation (i) Development and Testing Page 29 of 134 .63 + 3.1 = 157.

Tables Department Table Data Sheet View Design View Page 30 of 134 .

Customer Table Data Sheet View Page 31 of 134 .

Design View Page 32 of 134 .

Daily Transactions Table Data Sheet View Page 33 of 134 .

Design View Page 34 of 134 .

Relationships between Tables Page 35 of 134 .

Forms Page 36 of 134 .

Department Form Form View Design View Page 37 of 134 .

Customer Form Page 38 of 134 .

Form View Design View Page 39 of 134 .

Daily Transactions Form Page 40 of 134 .

Form View Design View Page 41 of 134 .

Program Code for Additional Buttons

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Reports

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Department Report
Report View

Design View

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Customer Report Report View Page 45 of 134 .

Design View Page 46 of 134 .

Date wise Sales Report Page 47 of 134 .

To Date A date will be entered in this box. the report will be like this: Page 48 of 134 . From Date A date will be entered in this box.Report View It will need two inputs for creating this report. Accordingly.

Design View Page 49 of 134 .

SQL for Date wise Sales Report Query is named as Date-to-Date Page 50 of 134 .

Design View SQL View Page 51 of 134 .

Incomplete Payments Report Report View Page 52 of 134 .

Design View Page 53 of 134 .

SQL for Incomplete Payments Report Query is named as Incomplete Payment Page 54 of 134 .

Design View SQL View Page 55 of 134 .

Testing Plan Page 56 of 134 .

e. 330 and 10% of 330 is 33. And click ‘Discount’ button Total of 220 copies is 220 x 1.5 i. 330 Refer to Screenshots -10 As validation check is applied to this field. And Total should be 220 x 1.5 – 33 i. And click ‘Only Total’ button Total is 220 x 1.Test # 1 2 3 4 Objective To check whether the ‘Discount’ button.5 i.e. calculate correct total when no discount is required To check if negative values can be entered in Quantity field of Daily Transactions To check if record can be saved without a Test Data Expected Result Actual Result 220 in the Quantity.e. on the Daily Transactions form. and correct Total To check whether the ‘Only Total’ button. calculate 10% of total when the quantity is between 200 and 300. on the Daily Transactions form. it must produce an error Refer to Screenshots No name is entered and new record button is As validation check is applied to this field. 297 Refer to Screenshots 220 in the Quantity. it Page 57 of 134 Refer to Screenshots .

From Date=5-Dec 13 and To Date=10-Dec 13 8 To check whether date in daily transaction accepts a text value Ali is entered in date Page 58 of 134 As criteria is applied to query.customer name in Daily Transactions 5 6 To check if a customer name can be entered who is not present in Customer table To check whether the date in Daily Transactions is accepted if it is greater than current date clicked must produce an error Raza is entered in customer name As this name is not present in the customer table. it should produce an error Refer to Screenshots 7 Check whether the Date-to-Date query works properly and produces report according to present records Parameters were entered i. it should display records whose transaction date is between these two dates As validation check is applied to this field.e. it must produce an error Refer to Screenshots 17-Mar 14 is entered in date As validation check is applied to this field. it should produce an error Refer to Screenshots Refer to Screenshots .

a number To see what happens if Quantity in Daily Transactions is left empty To check whether the calendar option works beside Date field in Daily Transactions table Record is selected and delete button is pressed Record should be deleted from the table Refer to Screenshots Customer name is written and save button is pressed Record should be saved in customer table Refer to Screenshots Psychology is entered in department name It should be accepted Refer to Screenshots 110 is entered in department name As validation check is applied to it.9 10 11 12 13 14 To delete a record in customer table To ensure that record is saved in the Customer table when saved from Customer form To check whether department name accepts normal data i.e. it should produce an error Refer to Screenshots Calendar icon is clicked Calendar enlarges for date selection Refer to Screenshots Page 59 of 134 .e. a name To check whether department name rejects abnormal data i. it should produce an error Refer to Screenshots Nothing is entered in Quantity As validation check is applied to it.

15 To check whether the customer report is produced correctly Double click on customer report Testing Test # 1 Page 60 of 134 Customer reports opens displaying all the customer records Refer to Screenshots .

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(ii) Installation Page 98 of 134 .

it will stop all the work. this would be compromising for some time. This would provide a backup in case of a failure and will also enhance training. he will not be familiar with this and.Method for Installation After the most successful testing. Secondly. I decided to go with direct changeover as there were no drawbacks of introducing the new system. So it is decided to work with both systems at the same time. Raees emphasized and convinced me for Parallel implementation. It was realized that a direct changeover will replaced the old and existing system overnight. Evidence of Installation Page 99 of 134 . but if any error (by chance) occurred. implementing the new one. But Mr. hence.

Karachi I have started using the system as the way you guided while installation. Raees. At that time I was not expecting that all the objectives will be completed in one turn. A flash back played in my mind when you discussed the objectives with me and took my interview. Its features and user-friendliness really helped me to learn and engage with it within a week. Raees PhotoCopy Beaconhouse School Near KDA chowrangi North Nazimaad. just creates a mess. In fact. Because the old system requires me to write manually and.This is a digital copy of the letter sent by the client. Raees Page 100 of 134 . again. Mr. I was really surprised to see that customers were also pleased when I was dealing with each of them in short spans of time. Additionally. Original letter is also present and is with original documents. I think that there is no need of the old system working simultaneously at this stage. the system astonished me. You’re thankful _______________________ Mr. my shop looks beautiful with equipped machines now. No calculator required. to me in acceptance to the installed system. no fillings of cabinets required and no registers required. The system is smooth and I realized that how efficiently it saves my time when I compared it with the previous one.

Moreover. Page 101 of 134 .(iii) Appropriateness of structure and exploitation of available facilities Hardware Amendments Hardware is already specified in previous section and was selected with respect to its reliability. However. Such a result indicates the achievement of the developed software and proves no further amendments are demanded. Technical Documentation is written for understanding of the system if any new analyst or programmer works. testing is completed providing extremely successful results that no test went wrong. Raees. in case a problem occurs. According to the environment and other factors. Software Amendments Software was selected after the verbal agreement with the client. they will work fine and no problem is expected. I am always in consultancy to Mr. appropriateness and integrity. or a different analyst can be hired.

Seagate Hard drive. with a capacity of 160 GB. or more. This will support all hardware that is mentioned in “Hardware Requirements” along with any Microsoft program. or larger. Page 102 of 134 . At least 2 GB DDR RAM of any brand. Listed below are some basic necessities in terms of software. ASUS Motherboard. Canon ink jet printer.5 GHz or more. Microsoft Office Access 2007 as the required database program. or Intel core 2 duo. or any other brand. Samsung HDMI 22’’ Monitor. with a processor speed of 2. This will be used to develop whole new system that has been proposed. Sony External Hard disk of capacity 500 GB. there will be some necessities in terms of physical components.   Microsoft Windows 7 Ultimate as an operating system. Basic requirements are:         i5 Pentium processor. Logitech wireless keyboard and laser mouse.(e) Documentation (i) System Maintenance Document Hardware Requirements To cope-up with the proposed system. Software Requirements Hardware is of no worth without any software.

Input Requirements
Department Table

FIELD NAME

Department
ID

DATA TYPE

Long Integer

DATA
LENGTH

DESCRIPTIO
N

VALIDATION
CHECK

8

This is the
primary key
of the table

Uniqueness
Check
Presence
Check

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Department
Name

Text

25

Name of the
department

DATA TYPE

DATA
LENGTH

DESCRIPTIO
N

Type Check
Presence
Check

VALIDATION
CHECK

Customer Table

FIELD NAME

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Customer ID

Customer
Name

Long Integer

Text

8

This is the
primary key
of the table

Uniqueness
Check
Presence
Check

25

Name of the
department

Type Check
Presence
Check

Daily Transactions Table

Page 105 of 134

FIELD NAME Transaction ID Transaction Date Customer Name DATA TYPE Long Integer Date/Time Text DATA LENGTH DESCRIPTIO N VALIDATION CHECK 8 This is the primary key of the table Uniqueness Check Presence Check 8 25 Department Name Text 25 Description Text 50 Quantity Integer 3 Page 106 of 134 The date when the transaction was made Customer Name is selected here using look-up wizard Department Name is selected here using look-up wizard A short description related to the theme of customer’s documents Quantitative measure of the photocopies that were made Type Check Format Check Presence Check Referential Integrity Presence Check Referential Integrity Presence Check Type Check Presence Check .

if asked by customer in total cost Type Check Cross-field Check 8 Total cost paid by the customer Type Check Presence Check 8 Total Cost – Advance Payment Type Check Presence Check Entity Relationship Diagram Page 107 of 134 .Discount Total Cost Leftover Payment Currency Currency Currency 8 Amount of discount.

Screens Used Page 108 of 134 .

Department Form Form View Design View Page 109 of 134 .

Customer Form Page 110 of 134 .

Form View Design View Page 111 of 134 .

Daily Transactions Form Page 112 of 134 .

Form View Design View Page 113 of 134 .

Page 114 of 134 .

Program Code for Additional Buttons Reports Page 115 of 134 .

Department Report Report View Design View Page 116 of 134 .

Customer Report Report View Page 117 of 134 .

Design View Page 118 of 134 .

Date wise Sales Report Page 119 of 134 .

Report View It will need two inputs for creating this report. From Date A date will be entered in this box. the report will be like this: Page 120 of 134 . To Date A date will be entered in this box. Accordingly.

Design View Page 121 of 134 .

SQL for Date wise Sales Report Page 122 of 134 .

Query is named as Date-to-Date Design View SQL View Page 123 of 134 .

Incomplete Payments Report
Report View
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Design View

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SQL for Incomplete Payments Report
Query is named as Incomplete Payment
Page 126 of 134

Design View SQL View Page 127 of 134 .

Data Dictionary Page 128 of 134 .

DATA LENGTH DESCRIPTIO N VALIDATION CHECK 8 This is the primary key of the table Uniqueness Check Presence Check 25 Name of the department Type Check Presence Check 8 This is the primary key of the table Uniqueness Check Presence Check Text 25 Name of the department Type Check Presence Check Transaction ID Long Integer 8 This is the primary key of the table Transaction Date Date/Time 8 Customer Name Text 25 Department Name Text 25 Description Text 50 The date when the transaction was made Customer Name is selected here using look-up wizard Department Name is selected here using look-up wizard A short description related to the theme of FIELD NAME Department ID Department Name Customer ID Customer Name DATA TYPE Long Integer Text Long Integer Page 129 of 134 Uniqueness Check Presence Check Type Check Format Check Presence Check Referential Integrity Presence Check Referential Integrity Presence Check .

if asked by customer in total cost Total cost paid by the customer Type Check Presence Check Total Cost – Advance Payment Type Check Presence Check Type Check Cross-field Check Type Check Presence Check .customer’s documents Quantity Integer 3 Discount Currency 8 Total Cost Currency 8 Leftover Payment Currency 8 Page 130 of 134 Quantitative measure of the photocopies that were made Amount of discount.

Page 131 of 134 .(ii) User Documentation See appendix for user documentation.

This is an example of user-friendly system. This can be seen in any form. as seen from Form view. An example is on page 35.  To introduce a search facility in order to save time. data entry forms. e.  To provide a background running on graphical user interface that would be user friendly. at the bottom. has been designed compromising tables and forms to input the data. along with User. Discount button.(f) Evaluation (i) Discussion of the degree of success in meeting the original objectives In beginning of the work. Forms are very simple. but logical. reports can be produced in an organized manner.g. All the information is now stored on hard disk rather than physical registers. and of course logical. on Microsoft Access. to input data. Whatever date you want. some objectives were settled to achieve. for searching any record or etc. as can be seen in Design view. All the forms are examples of GUI as can be seen on pages 35-41. on pages 35-41. Page 132 of 134 . Records are saved for a long time. A search bar and button is always there in forms. This can be proved through reports. This is shown in Technical.  To initiate a computerized relational database that will substitute the needs of physical registers.  To produce a system that will maintain the records for long periods. documentation. In the same forms. navigation and help buttons are placed. This has been done as a newly designed database. along with its icon.  To design simple. in Daily Transactions form as can be seen from page 39.

Different types of reports are designed with respect to different parameters. (ii)Evaluate User’s response to the system This can be seen from the letter on page 96. This can only be explained by the end user of the system.  To preserve the security and integrity of data up to the maximum accuracy. passwords can be activated so that only a particular user could access it. As shown in User Documentation. There was enough time for me to complete the task so there is no lacking because of short time scale. Information cannot be leaked by any means then. how data is rejected while entry when it violates any validation check or rule from page 5794. As shown in some of the tests from testing phase.  To reduce errors when the data is entered. They are processed using SQL and provides suitable outputs. There were some limitations due to the boundaries of budget which are still at their place so no improvement could be made with respect to them. This can be seen on pages 42-54  To make the system as fast as possible relative to the old one. And this is agreed in the letter from client in which he thanks for making the system fast. (iii) Desirable Extensions Discussion of degree of success in meeting the original and initial objectives gives a crystal clear idea that no objective has been left blank and I have succeeded from every aspect from analysis to implementation. To design output forms or reports to convey information after processing. Page 133 of 134 . This shows the extent to which the errors while entry is reduced.

But. earlier. I am not a professional analyst and it is possible that my client. Page 134 of 134 . Raees get familiar with this. I didn’t try to complex the simple. Mr. up to now there are no such results generated. Once Mr. Raees. As the requirements were simple and straight forward.As discussed in limitations of the scope of the solution. I will introduce some complex features to improve the sustainability and productivity of his work. encounters some problems while working.