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Worksheet 1 Acids, Bases & Indicators

Acids and bases are chemical opposites. If you add one to the other, they
neutralize each other. Acidity is measured by the pH scale. On this scale, a
neutral substance has s value of 7. Values above this indicate basic
substances, while substances below indicate acidic substances.
Indicators are chemicals which change colour according to the pH of the
solution they are in. The original indicators where extracts from organic
substances.
Colour Changes
Indicator
Litmus
Phenolphthalein
Methyl orange
Bromothymol blue

Acid
Pink
Colourless
Red
Yellow

Neutral
Purple
Colourless
Yellow
Green/blue

Base
Blue
Pink
Yellow
Blue

In everyday situations, indicators are used for purposes such as
testing for soil acidity for farming and gardening, water testing for
pools and aquariums, and for monitoring effluents from industries.

Worksheet 2 Practice Questions & Test Questions
Each solution listed below has been tested with one or more indicators, and
the colour is given. For each, state if it is acidic, neutral or basic.
Solution A: Phenolphthalein is clear. Methyl orange is red. – Acid
Solution B: Phenolphthalein is pink. Methyl orange is yellow. – Basic
Solution C: Phenolphthalein is clear. Methyl orange is yellow. – Neutral
Solution D: Bromothymol blue is blue. Methyl orange is yellow. Basic
Solution E: Phenolphthalein is clear. Litmus is pink. – Acid
A household substance most likely to be very basic is soap.
3a) What is meant by an acid-base indicator? An indicator which is able to
differentiate between an acid and a base depending on the pH.
b) Identify an everyday use of an indicator. Soil testing for gardening
c) Describe how you could prepare a simple indicator from a natural
substance. Boil red cabbage in water to obtain the cabbage indicator (purple).
Then drop the solution into substances to test for pH.

Worksheet 3 Acids in the Environment
Acids and bases react with each other to form water and a “salt” and
neutralises each other.
The oxides of most metals act as bases, in that they will react with an acid to
form water and a metal salt.

temperature or gas pressure. Human activities which produce them are high temperature combustion in power station & engines. because they will either dissolve in/react with water to form an acid solution and or they react with bases and neutralise them.Oxides of non-metals mostly act as acids. so that the concentrations of reactants and products do not change. Human activities have increased the CO2 levels mainly from burning fossil fuels. An equilibrium can be “upset” by a change in concentration. it will “shift” to a new equilibrium position according to Le Chatelier’s principle. There are 3 acidic oxides which are of concern environmentally Carbon dioxide is a natural part of the carbon-oxygen cycle in nature. Human activities that release SO2 include burning of fossil fuels and the smelting of some metal ores. and its opposite are occurring at the same rate. The equilibrium is said to be dynamic. Environmentally NOx gases are the main cause of toxic smogs in large cities but also can contribute to acid rain Worksheet 4 Practice Questions Acid-Base Reactions 1) Name the salt formed in a reaction between i) hydrochloric acid and calcium hydroxide – calcium chloride ii) sulfuric acid and magnesium hydroxide – magnesium sulfate iii) nitric acid and barium hydroxide – barium nitrate b) Write a balanced equation for the reaction of i) Hydrochloric acid and lithium hydroxide HCl + LiOH  H2O + LiCl ii) sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide H2SO4 + 2NaOH  2H2O + Na2SO4 iii) nitric acid and magnesium hydroxide 2HNO3 + Mg(OH)22H2O + Mg(NO3)2 2. The main environmental problem is acid rain which can cause serious ecological damage to lakes and forests. Reactions with basic oxides Write a balanced equation for the reaction of: a) sulfuric acid and iron (II) oxide H2SO4 + FeO H2O + FeSO4 b) hydrochloric acid and magnesium oxide . the system will shift in the direction which opposes the change. Chemical equilibrium occurs when a reaction. Sulfur dioxide occurs naturally in volcanic eruptions and hot springs/geysers. When a change occurs. This states that when an equilibrium is disturbed. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide (collectively known as NOx gases) are produced naturally in very small amounts by lightning. The major problem arising is global warming due to the greenhouse effect.

2HCl + MgO H2O + MgCl2 c) nitric acid and copper (II) oxide 2HNO3 + CuO  H2O + Cu(NO3)2 2) Reactions of Acidic Oxides a) carbon dioxide reacts with calcium hydroxide to form water and calcium carbonate (This is the “lime water” reaction) CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O b) P2O5 is an acidic oxide.x24.08 + 12.71 = 0.01 + 16 x 3) = 0.86g iv) n = 0. x (40.4033… m = 4.71 = 0. i) CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O ii) n = 1/24.29L .0011… m = 0. v= 24.053… x 24.017… x 24.08 + 12.55+32.75/(40..2 L iv) 4.79 = 0.79 = 403.003 = 24.4/24.433 L b) In the smelting of zinc..59 x 24.98.79 =64.07)/2x3 =.79 = 56..5/(14.79 = 1.79 = 620.2 L ii) 0.01 + 16x2) = 8.01 + 16 x 3) = 4.67 x 10-2 x 24.. This is roasted in a blast of air forming zinc oxide and sulfur dioxide gas.2016… m = 0.01 + 32) = 2..98.v=.71 = 2725. it reacts with water to form phosphoric acid (H3PO4) P2O + 3H2O  2H3PO4 c) Sulfur trioxide reacts with water to form a strong acid SO3 + H2O  H2SO4 Worksheet 6 Molar Gas Volumes 1.00453 x 22.79 = 1.00004 moles 2.029 L iii) 120 x 22.29 L iii) 1.2016… x (12.79 = 619.0011 x 32 = 0.008 x 2 ) = 0.2016 x (1.79 = 0.0403.01x2) = 0..39 moles iv) 0.011 moles iii) 10000/24.79 = 0.500 moles ii) 0.53 L 3...03… v = 25. m = 0..33 L iv) 1000/39.025/22.27… v = 2. i) 2ZnS + 3O2 2ZnO + 2SO2 ii) n=1000 x 1000/(65.4033… x 20.88g ii) n = 5/24.3 L ii) n = 100/4.001/22.158 L b) How many moles of gas is i) 12.18 = 88.79 =381280. Molar Gas Volumes a) What is the volume of: i) 2.2016.250/22.71 = 0.4066 g iii) n = 100/22.0375g iii) n = 1..27… x 24.053… v= 0.0352g b) What is the volume (at SLC) of i) n = 100/(12. Problems Involving Reactions a) Carbon dioxide gas reacts with aqueous calcium hydroxide (limewater) to form water and insoluble calcium carbonate...79 = 0.71 = 1. x 24.0403… m= 0.017… v(CO2) = 0.79 = 0..03 x 24.95 = 25.71 = 4. the crush concentrated ore is zinc sulfide. Mass Volume of Gases a) What is the mass of i) n= 5/24.

Acids which donate one proton are called monoprotic. Acidity is measured by the pH scale. The pH value is calculated from the equation pH=-log10[H+] pH values are powers of 10. so each 1 unit of pH actually means a change in acidity of 10 times. which is chemically calcium oxide. forming a hydronium ion.07)x24. in order to:  Help preserve the food by making it more difficult for bacteria and fungi to grow in the food and cause it to spoil. and those which donate 3 are called triprotic. "strong" and "weak" do not refer to the concentration.3tricarboxylic acid. With acids. A naturally occur acid is methanoic acid in an ant bite. The acids most commonly used this way are sulfur dioxide and ethanoic acid  Flavour the food. and weak refers to an acid which only partially ionises.36L Worksheet 8 Acids and pH Acids can be defines as species which donates protons. In water solution an acid molecule donates a proton (which is a helium ion) to a water molecule. A strong acid is one which ionises completely in water. Two important "organic" naturally occuriding acids: ethanoic (CH3COOOH) and citric acid.2.55+32.iii)381280/21x100=1817049.79 = 16270183. by giving it the sour taste that all acids have. For example ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is added to some foods. . systematic chemical name is 2-hydroxypropane-1. Acids are commonly added to foods.0L iv) n=1000 x 1000/(65. A natural base is lime. those that donate 2 protons are diprotic. Most commonly used are ethanoic and citric acids  Improve the nutritional value.