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# Solutions Manual

to accompany

Chemistry
First Australasian Edition
Blackman, Bottle, Schmid,
Mocerino & Wille

Solutions manual compiled by
Allan Blackman
University of Otago

© John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd

2 . Ltd 1.357 g S x = 12.3 g Cd 1.198 × 10.25 g Cd 0. number of neutrons = (42 – 19) = 23 1.25 g Cd x = 0. number of neutrons = (153 – 62) = 91 number of protons = 19.4 Copper is 1.9814 u 1.8 u 63. © John Wiley & Sons Australia. the second sample must have the same ratio of Cd to S: 1.24845 × 12 u = 26.50 g S Solving this for x gives: (1.296 times as heavy as carbon 12 u Review Questions 1.3 Atomic mass of Al = 2.0129 u) + (0.0093 u) = 10.50 g S) =x 0.55 u = 5.1 The first sample has a ratio of: 1.357 g S 3. number of neutrons = (59 – 26) = 33 number of protons = 62.Solutions Manual to accompany Chemistry: First Australasian Edition Chapter 1 The atom Practice Exercises 1.2 (a) (b) (c) number of protons = 26.802 × 11.5 Average atomic mass of boron is: (0. A covalent bond is a chemical bond which involves the sharing of electrons between neighbouring atoms.1 An atom is a chemical species comprising a central positively-charged nucleus surrounded by one or more negatively-charged electrons.25 g Cd)(3.24845 × atomic mass of 12c: 2.357 g S Therefore.

1.8 Nearly all of the mass is located in the nucleus. This guarantees that elements combine in definite mass ratios. This isotope has a mass of 12 u (exactly) by definition.3 . the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers. the elements are always combined in the same proportions by mass.2 The first law of chemical combination is the law of conservation of mass: no detectable gain or loss of mass occurs in chemical reactions. An anion is a negatively-charged chemical species. 1.7 Refer to Table 1. 1. The third and final is the law of multiple proportions: whenever two elements form more than one compound.4 The law of definite proportions. A reactant is a chemical species which is transformed in a chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process whereby one or more chemical species is/are transformed into different chemical species. A cation is a positively-charged chemical species. 1. The Law of Definite Proportions derives from the notion that compounds are always composed of the same types and numbers of atoms of the various elements in the compound. Ltd 1. 1. the charge may be either positive or negative. Elements combine in definite ratios as atoms. An element is a chemical species comprised of only a single type of atom.6 12 6 1.Chapter 1: The atom An ion is a charged chemical species.3 The Law of Conservation of Mass requires that atoms are indestructible. 1. This generally involves the making and/or breaking of chemical bonds.5 Conservation of mass derives from the postulate that atoms are not destroyed in chemical reactions. A compound is a chemical species comprised of two or more elements in a definite and unchanging proportion. because this is the portion of the atom where the proton(s) and the neutron(s). A product is the species formed in a chemical reaction. assuming the atoms are indestructible. are located. C . the heaviest constituent particles of the atom. Chemical elements always combine in a definite fixed proportion by mass to form chemical compounds.1. The second is the law of definite proportions: in a given chemical compound. © John Wiley & Sons Australia.

and the mass number is the sum of the neutrons and the protons.11 The isotopes of an element have identical atomic numbers (number of protons) but differing number of neutrons. I Sr Cs F © John Wiley & Sons Australia. We have studied both protons and neutrons.15 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) potassium zinc silicon tin manganese magnesium nickel aluminium carbon nitrogen 1. and thus differing masses. The modern periodic table is arranged in order of increasing number of protons (increasing atomic number).12 (a) (b) mass number (number of protons + number of neutrons) atomic number (number of protons) 1. 1. Ltd 1.4 .16 Mendeleev constructed his periodic table by arranging the elements in order of increasing atomic weight and grouping the elements by their recurring properties. 1.14 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) Cl S Fe Ag Na P I Cu Hg Ca 1.Solutions Manual to accompany Chemistry: First Australasian Edition 1.10 The atomic number is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom. 1.9 Nucleon is a name for any of the constituent particles of an atomic nucleus.13 (a) 131 53 (b) 90 38 (c) 137 55 (d) 18 9 1.

but silver is not. because of their similar properties and tendencies to form similar compounds. Germanium has an atomic mass of 72.9 u.23 There is no space in the periodic table for another element of mass 73 u. Ne. 1. sometimes called the noble gases: Helium. In order for there to be a new element with an atomic mass of 73. 1.6 u and an atomic number of 32. whereas silver is not.Chapter 1: The atom 1. Xe. Strontium should therefore form compounds that are similar to those of calcium.5 . 1.27 The group 18 elements. so they might well be expected to occur together in nature. 1. therefore Mendeleev left spaces for the ones that he predicted would eventually be discovered because he grouped elements with similar chemical properties together.17 A period in the periodic table is a horizontal row of elements.24 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 1. I W Xe Sm Pu © John Wiley & Sons Australia. Therefore cadmium is expected to have properties similar to those of zinc.18 Not all of the elements had yet been discovered. Radon.25 ductility 1. 1. which does not affect the chemistry of the elements as much as the number of protons. Krypton. Rn.20 Strontium and calcium are in the same group of the periodic table. 1. 1. Neon. A group is one of the vertical columns of the periodic table.19 The atomic number is related to the chemistry of an element since the periodic table is based on atomic numbers and the mass numbers vary with the number of neutrons in the atom. He. the known element arsenic has one more proton and has an atomic mass of 74.21 Silver and gold are in the same periodic table group as copper. it would be expected to be next to germanium and have one more proton. Ltd 1. including the types of compounds found in bone. Next to it on the periodic table is arsenic which has an atomic number of 33. Argon. Ar. Kr. so they are expected to have similar chemical properties.22 Cadmium is in the same periodic table group as zinc. Xenon. However.26 malleability 1.

28 g H ( 4.39/1.31 An orbital is a region in space where there is a non-zero probability of finding an electron.75 to 1. we cannot relate to it. which has the ratio of mass of nitrogen to mass of oxygen of 8.35 Compound (c).28 g hydrogen there will be 29.36 Compound (d). Multiplying the mass of hydrogen by 4. respectively.00 g H x = 29.00. 1.00 to 1.77.67 g N)(6. The only possibility in the list is (d) which has the ratio of the mass of chlorine to calcium of 2.6 . 1.29 Metalloids are semiconductors. 1. Therefore.37 29.35 = 1. Ltd 1.3 g nitrogen.28 mercury and bromine 1. An authentic sample of laughing gas must have a mass ratio of nitrogen/oxygen of 1. A ground state atom is of lower energy than an excited state atom.05 = 1.67 g N to 1.67 g N x = 1.30 Refer to Figure 1.Solutions Manual to accompany Chemistry: First Australasian Edition 1.67 we see that for every 6. The other molecules all have an even number of electrons. The only possibility in this list is (c). 4.3 g nitrogen. 1.34 Quantisation generally involves energies that are absolutely miniscule with respect to the macroscopic world. metals are good conductors and nonmetals are insulators.33 The energies of the two situations are different.28 g H) =x 1.3 g N © John Wiley & Sons Australia. 1.77. An authentic sample of calcium chloride must have a ratio of 1. 1.84/5. even though quantisation does occur. From the first ratio we see that there is a ratio of 4.75.00 g H 6.9. 1. both odd numbers. 1. because they have a total of 15 and 23 electrons.32 Both NO and NO2 must have unpaired spins.00 g H.

0839925.42 12 × 1. 55.597 g Cl. 1.38.000 g of O. The unknown element X is therefore aluminium. 2 × 0. 1. because the atomic mass of 12C is exactly 12.81 g phosphorus.19 g Cl. 0.8192466 × 10–23 g for one 23Na atom 1.3333 1.3333 ratio of the masses of X and O as being We know the atomic mass of O is 15.22 g chlorine there will be 1.00791 u. there is 3.0 g of the phosphorus chloride compound will be formed.43 g chlorine. 1.47 2.5625 : 0. gives the atomic mass of hydrogen.98 g hydrogen. According to the Law of Conservation of Mass there will be 5. we see that for every 12.125 1. Using the same method as above we see that for every 4. we find that for every 6.7 .54 g ammonia.9994 u = 27.125 g of X is combined with 1.5625 × 15.0839925 = 1. 1.9926482 × 10–23 g for one 12C atom 1.00 u.143 g).00 g phosphorus. © John Wiley & Sons Australia.45 We are told that the formula of the compound is X2O3 and that in this compound. From the ratio in Problem 1.39 5. 1. there should be twice the mass of oxygen per mass of nitrogen (2 × 1.42 (a) (b) This ratio should be 4/2 = 2/1. Regardless of the definition. dividing the mass of hydrogen by 4 will give the mass ratio of one atom of hydrogen to one atom of carbon.43 23 × 1.38 From the ratio of phosphorous to chlorine. If 12C is assigned a mass of 24 (twice its accepted value).5625 means that a single atom of X will be times as heavy as a single atom of O. Thus 12 × 0.6605402 × 10–24 g = 1. 0.5 g chlorine. Ltd 1.000 : = 0. then hydrogen would also have a mass twice its current value.56 g nitrogen there needs be 0. 1.44 As there are 4 atoms of hydrogen in a molecule of methane.Chapter 1: The atom 1. This 2 3 0.54 g ammonia produced. so the atomic mass of X will be 0.9994 u.40 55.41 2. the ratio of the mass of hydrogen to that of oxygen is the same. = 1.43. Dividing the mass of chlorine by 3. 1. According to the Law of Conservation of Mass. as required by the formulas of the two compounds. If there are twice as many oxygen atoms per nitrogen atom. we see that for every 1. From these data.5 g phosphorus it is necessary to have 42.286 g oxygen. Multiplying this by 12. This is 0.0 g of the phosphorus chloride.6605402 × 10–24 g = 3. we can calculate the 1.3333 .0158 u.

9858 u) + (0.56 From the data given. 11 electrons 1.7899 × 23. Ltd 1.90 u. Therefore. 53 electrons 146 neutrons.51 (a) (b) (c) (d) 138 neutrons.48 Taking the mass ratio of 109Ag to 12C and multiplying it by 12. Therefore. 6 protons. 79 electrons 1. 11 protons.55 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) A metal 55 Mn 30 25 Approximately 4. the average atomic mass = (0. 92 protons. we can obtain the mass ratios X:Y.54 Consult the periodic table to find examples of various classes of elements. 88 protons. (a) Halogens are in Group 17 (b) Alkali metals are in Group 1 (c) Actinides lie between Ra and Rf on the periodic table (d) Noble gases are in Group 18 Additional Exercises 1.6916 × 62.50 The average atomic mass is the sum of the mass of each isotope multiplied by its abundance.3083 × 64.31 u 1. 1. we see that the mass of 109 Ag is 108. and X:O.55 u 1. © John Wiley & Sons Australia.8 .9826 u) = 24. 82 electrons 12 neutrons. 82 protons.53 Make use of the periodic table to match these correctly: (a) Sr: it is the only Group 2 element in the list (b) In: elements in the same column as Al have similar chemical properties (c) Co: transition metals lie in the d block (d) Ne: noble gases are in Group 18 (e) Pu: actinides are in the f block 1. 55 protons. 53 protons. 88 electrons 8 neutrons. 92 electrons 118 neutrons. 6 electrons 124 neutrons.9396 u) + (0.9278 u) = 63.49 The average atomic mass is the sum of the mass of each isotope multiplied by its abundance.1101 × 25.58 times heavier 1. Knowing the atomic mass of O allows us to calculate the atomic masses of X and Y.9850 u) + (0.1000 × 24. 55 electrons 78 neutrons. 79 protons. the average atomic mass = (0.52 (a) (b) (c) (d) 82 neutrons.Solutions Manual to accompany Chemistry: First Australasian Edition 1.

Therefore. From the problem we find the following ratios: 2.4933.07 so an atom of Y weighs times the mass of an atom of X.9163) = 79.0028 × 57.904.1 u 0.000 by 3 to get 0. Knowing that the atomic mass of O = 15. 1. the average atomic mass = (0. there are 2. To find the relative mass of iron to oxygen we can divide this number by 2 to get 1.85 u 1.3333 for oxygen.4878 g Fe mass of Fe atom = = 0.14 Mass ratio X:O = 1: = 1: 0.0580 × 53.85 u.570 times as heavy as an atom of X.66054 × 10-24 g × 24.66054 × 10-24 g × 55.616 g Fe for every 1 g O.6 u. We know that the mass ratio 5.847 = 9.9183) + (1 – x)80.60 Mass of 1 atom of Mg = 1.07 u = 35.4878 Fe atoms per O atom. or 2. 2 Mass ratio X:Y = 1: The latter result means that an atom of O is 0.9396 u) + (0.616/3.57 55.07 5.93949 u) + (0.9994 u.325 g Fe 2 atoms Fe and 3 atoms O 1.570 We can now use this value to find the atomic mass of Y.58 Let x equal the abundance of 79Br and y equal the abundance of 81Br. the atomic mass of Y = × 28.07 4 1.2736 × 10-23 g © John Wiley & Sons Australia.9163 = 79.9183) + y(80. Solving for x we get x = 0.0220 × 56.9994 u = 28. We know that x + y = 1 and x(78. The average atomic is the sum of the mass of each isotope multiplied by its abundance.5067 and y = 0. we can calculate the atomic mass of X from the equation: atomic mass of X = 1 × 15.1625 for Fe and divide 1.9172 × 55.9 .904.0000 g O mass of O atom In the unknown compound.Chapter 1: The atom 5.75 atoms Fe 3 atoms Fe = = 1 atom O 1 atom O 4 atoms O 1.9333 u) = 55.0359 × 10-23 g Mass of 1 atom of Fe = 1.33333 g O 1.325 g represents 23 as many iron atoms as oxygen atoms.305 = 4.9354 u) + (0. 1.48 78 atoms Fe 0.07 Therefore. Ltd 1. This represents 2. Substituting y = 1 – x we get x(78. 1. you 4 X:Y is 1: can use the atomic masses in the periodic table to show that the compound XY4 is SiCl4.1625 g Fe 3.000 g O Therefore 2.616/3. Although not asked.59 Fe3O4.570. 4 4 5.

We can therefore assume that in 40.3059 ×10 g 55. The volume of a sphere is given by the equation V = 4 3 πr 3 Therefore.305g = 6. 1.847g = 6. © John Wiley & Sons Australia.61 We assume that a typical atom is spherical.Solutions Manual to accompany Chemistry: First Australasian Edition 24. there will be The answers are essentially the same.078 g of Ca. there are approximately 6. there is a factor of 1015 difference between the volume occupied by the nucleus and the total volume of the atom.0221 × 1023 atoms of Fe In 55.2736 × 10 g In 24.847 g of Fe. the volume enclosed by the nucleus is: 3 4 4 V = π r 3 = π (1× 10−15 m ) ≈ 4 × 10−45 m3 3 3 The volume enclosed by the atom is: 3 4 4 V = π r 3 = π (1× 10−10 m ) ≈ 4 × 10−30 m3 3 3 Therefore.022 × 1023 atoms of Ca. Ltd 1. there will be -23 9.305 g of Mg.10 .0222 × 1023 atoms of Mg −23 4.