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In the measuring of surface frictional properties, the tester is
firstly calibrated, and then a metallic arm ends with a rubber slider
edge is fixed horizontally and then fall under its own weight, with
cause a pointer to give the reading on a graduated panel, which is
the British Pendulum Number.
In the Benkelman test, a load is applied on the beam toe, which
will cause the beam to settle, this will give the settlement by
calibrated dial gage.]

This method covers the procedure for measuring surface frictional
properties using the British Pendulum Skid Resistance Tester, which
is a dynamic pendulum impact – type tester used to measure the
energy loss when a rubber slider edge is propelled over a test
surface. The values measured represent the frictional properties
obtained with the apparatus and the procedures stated, which is not
necessary to agree with other slipperiness measuring equipment.
The Benkelman Beam Rebound Deflection Test is a procedure for
determining the static Benkelman Beam rebound deflection at a
point on an asphalt pavement structure under standardized axle
load, tire size, tire spacing, and tire pressure.

1) To be familiar with surface frictional properties measurements.
2) To be familiar with the Benkelman beam test.
3) To measure the friction of the pavement under tire.
4) To determine how much the pavement settle under a load (or
standard load).

Material used:

For Surface Frictional Properties:
 British Pendulum Tester.
 Slider.
For Benkelman beam test:
 Benkelman beam.
 Standard load, 18 kip truck usually.

For Surface Frictional Properties:
Choose a section of the road, which is wanted to know its
Put the British Pendulum tester on the road, and make levelling
for the device using the circular bubble.
Calibrate the device, by letting the pendulum to fall under its
own weight, which make the reading equal zero.

Laboratory work:

and take the dial gage reading. which represent the worse case of friction. in different locations along the road. the result will be low if it is for road pavement. make it pass on the road where the beam toe is between the two tires of the truck. Put the pendulum in its position. beside the safe stopping. Repeat steps 1. Bring a standard truck load 18 kip. 2. which represent the width of the tire. the pendulum will fall and the rubber will hit the ground which will give a reading on the panel. a profile is .         Get down the height of the pendulum by the fast and slow motion screws. and press the bottom to free it.79 Discussion: The frictional property of the pavement is one of the tests that are related to the degree of the safety of the road.065 mm Average friction = 21.5 m. which represent the friction of the road. Make leveling for the beam using the circular bubble. the truck must pass for 1. to guarantee the stability of driving. which have no meaning. since the road must achieve at least the standard friction. but knowing that the standard limit is 40. which occur in flexible pavements only. and not in rigid pavements. which is lower than that for the asphalt pavement friction. The average of deflection of the Benkelman beam. and the road pavement must be treated. until the contact area between the rubber slider and the ground is about 13 cm. Plot a curve representing the distance versus the deflection measured. Make sure that the rubber is good for using. and 3. but usually in the field. Add some water to the road surface. Make sure that the dial gage is on zero. The Benkelman beam test is used to measure the deflection of the road when a standard load applied on it. this result was for the laboratory ground floor. which is made from prestressed concrete. Test results: Average deflection = 16. The results show that the friction was about 25 BPN (British Pendulum Number). CBR test: Put the Benkelman beam on the center of the right lane of the road. which was measured for deflection of a simple beam when a person stand on it. since the rigid crack in contrast with the flexible which deform.

plotted of the road versus the deflection along it. ASTM. Septemper 1965. The errors in this experiment can be summarized as the following:  The devices may not be leveled. subase layers. 5) In Jordan. the temperature. which reduce the friction very much. page 1155 – 1161. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Reading 1550 1550 1480 1480 1590 1435 1570 Deflection (mm) 15. which lead to large deflections. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Table 8–2: BPN 21 22 19 25 35 20 38 . and the area which have large deflection (which determined by the usage of the road) must be redesigned or rehabilitated. 2) A Guide to the Structural Design of Flexible and Rigid Pavements in Canada. Ottawa. 3) The Benkelman beam test is a test used to measure the deflection of the road under a standard limit. Canadian Good Road Association. References: 1) Measuring Surface Frictional Properties Using British Pendulum Tester.  The human errors in taking readings. to see if it achieve the design criteria. which has two main reasons: 1) The roads used by large axle loads trucks. while it is not designed for it. beside this. 2) The excavation work done in the road base. which largely minimize the abilities of the road and cause deflections. base. E 303 – 74.80 14.35 15. 4) The deflection of the road pavement depends on the quality of the surface. Pages 49 – 51.90 14. one of the most distress occur in the roads is the deflection. the asphalt pavement gradients also may affect the friction. Conclusion: 1) The surface friction measurement is a safety test used to measure the friction of the surface of the pavement to ensure that it has minimum friction to have safe driving and stopping.70 Test No.50 14. Appendix Table 8–1: Results of Benkelman beam test Results of friction Measurements Test No.50 15.80 15. 2) The friction of the road can be affected largely by exiting of water.  The devices may not be calibrated or zeroed.

49 15.38 19.79 Average friction = .50 14.8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1549 1570 1620 1938 1950 1460 1940 1540 1540 15.79 Average deflection = 16.60 19.70 16.20 19.40 15.40 15.065 21.11 19.40 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 30 20 10 15 19 15 15 15 25 17 18 avge 1211 1945 12.45 16.065 17 18 19 avge 25 25 20 21.