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Evaluation Form

Univ. of Science
& Tech.
Civil Eng. Dept.
Dr. Taisir Khedaywi

Evaluation Element

Course No. : - CE444 Stud Name: Hassoneh Ata
Course Name: - pavement lap Stud No : 990023029
Topic: penetration& softening
Lab No
:2
Due Date : 21-7-2003
Section :1
Day
: Wednesday
Points
Value

Points Received
1

1

Title Page

5

2

Abstract

5

3

Introduction

5

4

Objectives

5

5

Material Used

5

6

Laboratory Work

5

7

Result& Discussions

20

8

Conclusions

10

9

Acknowledgment

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10 References

5

11 Table With Titles

5

12 Figures

5

13 Appendix

5

14 Spelling, Punctuation
Clearly Sentence
15 Overall Effectives &
Formatting
Total

10
10
100

2

3

4

5

Penetration apparatus. Water bath to maintain temperature at 25°c.Tisir Khidaywi Submitted by: Hassoneh Kiswani Date: Abstract The penetration test and softening point(ASTM D5 & ASTM D2399) are two of tests that is used for determining a lot of properties of bituminous material. Rings.softening point was (49. .25). Steel balls Ring holder& Thermometer sample test was asphalt 60/70 & 80/90.75 &51. Determination the penetration of asphalt sample & Determination the softening point of a sample of asphalt using .CE 444 Lab# 2 Penetration & Softening of Asphalt Submitted to: Dr. Timing device.

Rings. metal ring of specified dimensions. Ball centering guide. . Thermometer. Bath-heat resistance glass vessel. Sample container. Water bath to maintain temperature at 25°c. Introduction: Penetration test and softening point are the important tests that are used for determining a lot of properties of asphalt. Ethylene glycol. for softening point test. The assembly is heated in an ethylene glycol bath at a uniform. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) Material used: Penetration apparatus. Laboratory work: Penetration test: 1. and the conditions that are good for this type. Ring holder.Heat the sample to 150°c for ½ hour. Thermometer. the sample is melted and cooled under controlled conditions. 2) Determination the penetration of a sample of asphalt. Penetration test is used to evaluate asphalt hardening Softening point: is the temperature at which a sample of bituminous becomes soft enough to allow a steel ball enveloped in the sample material. The penetration is measured with a penetrometer by means of which a standard needle is applied to the sample under specific conditions. or water if there is no ethylene glycol. Timing device. Objectives: 1) To be familiar with the penetration test and softening point test. 4) Determining the type of asphalt. Penetration needle weight 50 g.For penetration test. shouldered. prescribed rate and the temperature is taken when the ball envelop in the sample material to fall a distance of 1 in. a steel ball of specified weight is placed upon a disk of sample contained within a horizontal. Steel balls ⅜ in diameter. 3) Determination the softening point of a sample of asphalt.

Put the pointer to zero & level the device.3571 Table 2-1: Results of softening point Group no. 7.671 27. Temp. 6.25 Group #1 Group #2 Group #3 .1428 25.When the ball go through the asphalt and fall for 1 in.2.Put the samples in a water path at 25°c. 3. Results: Table 1-1: Results of penetration test Group no. for first ball.Get down the needle using the fast motion screw until the needle is directly above the surface of specimen about ½ mm. 4.Put the frame in water.Remove any excess asphalt on the rings. for second ball. 6.642 39. 4.Press the bottom of needle and hold for five seconds and then release and take the reading by pressing on the reading gage.Put the sample under the needle and clean the needle with kerosene.Put the rings in the ring holder and put them in the frame with a thermometer in the middle.Level the penetration test apparatus by the screws. 5. the temperature is taken which is the softening point. °c Temp.5 51. 5. 2. °c Average 49. Penetration Average 1 2 3 Group #1 92 91 89 86 4 91 5 Group#2 60 60 55 61 70 Group#2 62 60 60 61 62 Group#4 92 93 90 95 89 33.9 50 49. 3.75 51 51.Paint two rings and plate with fat. Softening 1.Heat the asphalt to 150°c less than 1/2 hour and fill the rings with it. put the two balls in the rings.

this is may be caused by many reasons. since the sample must have a certain temperature during all trials. Some of the disadvantages of the penetration test are: .  The test can be done in the field. because in cold areas when the temperature is low and the asphalt is low penetration it may cause what is called “low temperature cracking”. The penetration test is used for measuring the consistency of the asphalt and to give an idea about the type of asphalt and the best using of it. Penetration test also can be used for evaluation of damage due to overheating. since every penetration unit equal 0. since the overheated asphalt has lower penetration than the undamaged asphalt. Some of the advantages of the penetration test are:  It has relatively low cost equipment. since every conditions of using must have an appropriate properties in asphalt. where the standards say that every reading must be far about 0.1 mm in the asphalt. and this is may be because these results were too close to the edge of the can or to previous readings. On the other hand.5 cm from the edge of the can. and when high penetration asphalt is used in hot areas it may flow at high temperature.1 mm. while the standards say that the specimen must be at 25°c. it can be seen that there is some readings that is far from penetration of 31. One of the reasons of errors that the temperature of laboratory was more than 30°c. Usually the high penetration asphalt is used in cold areas and the low penetration asphalt is used in the hot areas. which means that the needle penetrate 3.  The short testing time. may be the sample was cold at these readings. This indicate that the penetration test is very important factor in choosing the type of asphalt to be used. and 1 cm from any previous reading. Beside this it can be used for measuring the temperature susceptibility of the asphalt and determining that if it is low temperature susceptibility asphalt or high temperature susceptibility asphalt.Group#4 Discussion: These two tests are considered very important indicators that must be known in any project that the asphalt is used in it. It can be seen from the results that most of the results are around 31 which is the average of all results.

 Shear rate of the needle is variable. 3) Penetration test gives an indication about the conditions that the asphalt can be used in it. 4. 3.5°c for the first specimen and 68°c for the second specimen. 2) Softening point is the temperature that the asphalt start to loss it’s ability of carrying itself. Beside that. because in the direct sunlight the temperature may reach these value and then the asphalt will not carry itself and will flow. since the needle is not a cylinder but closer to a cone. like using water instead of Ethylene glycol.) Errors in devices (penetration apparatus). It can be seen from the results that the asphalt has a softening point 66. 5.) Human errors in timing for penetration test and taking readings of temperatures in softening point.) Using water instead of Ethylene glycol. Conclusion: 1) Penetration test is a measure for consistency of the asphalt. 4) The softening point must be watched for any asphalt used to be sure that the asphalt will not flow if the temperature increases. 6. two different penetrations may give the same results. because water don’t distribute the heat evenly like Ethylene glycol.) The temperature was not like in the standards.  The test not available at different temperatures. while in northern countries like Europe it is may be acceptable because the temperature in their countries may not reach these values. especially with the sloped roofs. 2.) The samples may not be prepared well. and this property is very important in using asphalt. especially in hot areas. these values may have some errors. The errors in this experiment can be summarized as the following: 1. The softening point can be defined as the temperature that the asphalt can’t carry itself at it. References: . The grades overlap in the specifications. for example high penetration asphalt used in cold areas. these results may be considered not good in Arab countries. because we don’t want the asphalt to flow if the atmospheric temperature rises more than the softening point.) The existing of some entrapped air in the samples. in other words.

D5-73. ASTM. Huang. by Yang H. Notes.1) 2) 3) 4) Laboratory manual.D2398-76 Pavement analysis and design. .