You are on page 1of 8

Abstract:

In this experiment a paving mixture is extracted with benzene


using the extraction equipment by 3600 rotation per min, this
centrifugal method gives the ability to know asphalt content
which calculated by the difference from the mass of extracted
aggregate, moisture content and mineral matter in the extract.
In the Engler specific viscosity of tar products, the time is
seconds is measured for a fixed volume of liquid material to
flow through an efflux tube under an accurately reproducible
head and at a closely controlled temperature. The Engler
specific viscosity is then calculated by dividing the efflux time
by the viscometer calibration factor as determined by making
the same efflux measurement for water.

Introduction:
This test method is used to determine the quantity of asphalt in
the paving mixtures and pavement samples for specification
acceptance, service evaluation, control and research. The
method prescribes the solvents or any other agents than can be
used in the test method. This test method depends mainly on the
centrifugal concept, which made the mixture divided in to two
parts; the first part is asphalt which dissolved with benzene, and
the second part is the aggregate (coarse and fine), which sieves
at sieve # 4 and sieve # 200. Then the percent of asphalt is
determined depending on the sample size. And also the asphalt
percent in aggregate was determined for the total weight of
aggregate.
The Engler viscosity of tar products test used for
determination of specific viscosity of tar and their fluid
products, which is useful in characterizing the consistency of tar
and tar distillates by measuring their flow properties, which
considered an empirical test.

Objectives:
The aim of this experiment:
To determine the asphalt content and asphalt percent in
aggregate in a paving mixture.
Knowing the effect of aggregate on the asphalt content.
Comparing the asphalt content with the specifications.
To be familiar with the Engler viscosity measurement.
Determination of the viscosity of a material like tar or one
of its products.

Material used:
Quantitative extraction of asphalt:
1. Concrete bituminous mixture sample.
2. Centrifugal machine.
3. Benzene.
4. Pan.
5. Spatula.
6. Balance.
7. Filter.
Engler viscosity for tar products:
1. Engler viscometer.
2. Cup.
3. Timer, (watch).
4. Stopper, to stop the flow of liquid.
5. Thermometer.
6. Flask.
7. The tar (or its product) that is wanted to find its viscosity.

Procedure:
Put the test specimen on a flat pan and separate the mix, then
quarter the material until the mass of material required in
obtained.
Balance 500 gm sample with fine and coarse aggregate.
Put the sample in the extraction machine and dissolve the
asphalt in it with benzene. Thin turn the machine on for a few
minuets, after putting the filter paper above it.
Cover the test specimen another time with benzene and fit the
filter above the edge of blow.
Start the centrifugal revolution slowly and gradually increase the
speed to a maximum of 3600 rev. per min. until solvent flow
from the drain.
Repeat the last step another time by adding 200 ml of benzene to
the sample.
Remove the filter ring from the bowl and dry it, weight it.
Carefully remove all the content of the bowl in to a metal pan
and dry it.
Sieve the content of bowl on sieve # 4 and # 200.
Engler viscosity of tar products:
Sustain the temperature at 25C, using water placed in the cup.
Use the water as the standard liquid to calibrate the device, fill
the cup with water, open the outlet tube, the water will drop and
fill a flask at the bottom of the device.
Measure the time needed to fill the flask with water.

Empty the cup and the flask from water, and fill it with or tar or
any liquid wanted to measure its Engler viscosity.
Open the outlet, and allow the liquid to flow and fill the flask.
Measure the time needed to fill the flask.
Engler viscosity equal the time needed to fill the flask with the
liquid over the time needed to fill the flask with water.

Results:
Asphalt content for sample 1 = 4.58%, % of C.A =48.63,% of
F.A =46.12,% of filler =5.04
Asphalt content for sample 2 = 5.67%, % of C.A =50.23, % of
F.A =44.97,% of filler =4.98
Average Engler viscosity for the oil used = 13.09
.

Discussion:
As seen from the result table above the asphalt percent for
sample one is nearly 5% and this value may be correct because
this value was used in marshal sample preparation.
But for the other sample the asphalt percent value was around
the 6 % and this value can be wrong because such value was not
used in the preparation of the marshal samples.
Sine both samples have the same size aggregate fraction, the
percentages of the coarse, fine and filler for the samples should
be the same. And this is obvious in table two.
From table 2 it can be seen that the percentages of coarse, fine
and filler dose not match with the reality since the true
percentages are 64, 31 and 5 for coarse, fine and filler
respectively.
The reasons for that bay be because the selected sample quarter
was not representative (containing more fine and filler quantity).

Some errors happened in this experiment such as:


The loss of some aggregate during sieving and balancing
because of rush and careless from the students.
Some aggregate, especially filler, may go out with the benzene.
No enough drying for the specimens after extraction so the
benzene dose not evaporates completely.
The viscosity can be defined as the resistance to flow of a
fluid, from this, it can be noticed that this test is used to
determine the consistency of a liquid material (asphalt here),
which affect mainly on the uses of the asphalt.
The Engler viscosity of tar products test used for determination
of specific viscosity of tar and their fluid products, which is
useful in characterizing the consistency of tar and tar distillates
by measuring their flow properties, which considered an
empirical test.
as:
conclusion
The asphalt content for sample 1 was 4.58 % and for sample 2 is
5.67 %.
The use of benzene in this test because of the solubility of
asphalt in it.
The centrifugal force works to through the asphalt away from
the aggregate.

Reference:
American society of testing and materials, D 2172, test
standard method for quantitative extraction of bituminous
paving mixtures, pages (274-290), 1988.

Appendix:
Table 1: sieve analysis of aggregate.
Grou Weight of
Weight of
p
coarse
fine
aggregate (g) aggregate (g)
1
256.6
243.4
2
256.6
243.4
3
283.9
252.5
4
283.9
252.5

Weight
of filler
(g)
26.63
26.63
28.15
28.15

Total weight
of aggregate
(g)
526.44
526.44
563.46
563.46

Table 2: calculation of asphalt content.


Group
Weight Dry
Total
Weight % of
of filter weight weight of of
asphalt
before
of filter aggregate asphalt by total
test (g) after
(g)
(g)
weight
test (g)
1
8.8
10
527.64
24.19
4.58
2
8.8
10
527.64
24.19
4.58
3
8.47
10.15
565.14
32.06
5.67
4
8.47
10.15
565.14
32.06
5.67
Sample of calculation: group 3:
Total weight of aggregate = weight of aggregate (table 51) +
dry weight of
filter after test weight of filter before test
= 563.46+ 10.15 8.47
= 565.14 g
Weight of asphalt = 563.46 total weight of aggregate
= 597.2 565.14
= 32.06 g

Wt of
sample
551.83
551.83
597.2
597.2

% of
c.a

% of
f.a

%
fi

48.63
48.63
50.23
50.23

46.12
46.12
44.67
44.67

5
5
4
4

Asphalt content = weight of asphalt / total weight of specimen *


100 %
= 32.06 / 565.14 * 100 %
= 5.67 %
C.A percent = 283.9/565.14 *100
=50.23%
F.A percent = 252.5/565.14 *100
=44.67%

Table 3: calculation of Engler viscosity.


Group
Time to fill 50 ml Time to fill 50
Viscosity
flask by water
ml flask by oil
(sec)
(sec)
1
15
195
13
2
15
198
13.2
3
15
196
13.06
4
15
197
13.13
Sample of calculation: group 3:
Viscosity = time to fill 50 ml flask by oil / time to fill 50 ml
flask by water

= 196/ 15
= 13.06
Average viscosity = 13.09