You are on page 1of 7

Introduction:

The stripping is one of the asphalt cement tests, which is considered


asphalt a measure for strength of bond between asphalt cement and
aggregate, which depends largely on the type of aggregate.
In most projects, it is needed to know the percent of asphalt content used
in the mixture, to know if it satisfy the theoretical value obtained from
calculations by Marshall method for design, for this reason, the
quantitative extraction of asphalt from bituminous concrete mixture is
used, which separate the asphalt and the aggregate from the mixture, to
determine the asphalt content.

Abstract:
In the stripping test, many samples of asphalt bituminous mixture is
prepared for different types of aggregate, and the mixture are immersed in
boiling water for 10 minutes, which will take off the asphalt from the
aggregate, and then the remaining coating asphalt is estimated visually.
In the extraction of the asphalt, the concrete bituminous mixture is
placed in the centrifugal machine, and some benzene is added to dissolve
the asphalt and take it out when the centrifugal machine work, only the
aggregate will remain, which gives the percent of aggregate in the
mixture and also the asphalt content, then the asphalt percent is calculated
by dividing the dry weight of aggregate by total weight of mixture minus
100.

Objectives:
1) To be familiar with the stripping measurement.
2) To estimate the stripping for a group of asphalt concrete mixture.
3) To be familiar with the quantitative extraction of asphalt from
bituminous concrete mixture.
4) Determination of the asphalt content in a ready bituminous mixture
sample.
Comparing the asphalt content with the specifications.

Material used:

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

For stripping:
Containers.
Scales.
Spatula.
Constant temperature oven.
Aggregate with different types.
Bituminous.

7) Sieves.
Quantitative extraction of asphalt:
1) Concrete bituminous mixture sample.
2) Centrifugal machine.
3) Benzene.
4) Pan.
5) Spatula.
6) Balance.
7) Filter.

Laboratory work:

stripping
1) Choose 4 types of aggregate: lime stone, valley gravel, basalt, and
granite.
2) Make a sieve analysis between sizes 4.75 mm and 9.5 mm to have
one size aggregate.
3) Put the aggregate in the oven for 24 hours and put the asphalt for
hour.
4) Mix the aggregate with the asphalt based on the asphalt content
obtained from Marshall test, mix until the mixture becomes
homogeneous, and all asphalt coats the aggregate.
5) Bring a 1000 cc container, fill it with water and boil it.
6) Put every mixture in a container for 10 minutes and strike it using
glass rod.
7) Using a paper, remove any film of asphalt floating on the surface of
the water.
8) After the 10 minutes, put the aggregate on a cloth piece, and by
observation, estimate the percent of asphalt still coating the aggregate
for each of the four samples.
Quantitative extraction of asphalt:
1) Put the sample of concrete bituminous mixture in the oven, so it can
be divided into small pieces.
2) Take about 500 g of the sample and place it in the centrifugal
machine.
3) Add some benzene to the sample in the machine and wait for about
10 minutes so the asphalt dissolve in benzene.

4) Turn on the machine with slow speed, the benzene will start to get out
taking the asphalt with it, and we still add benzene until the coming
out benzene is pure and has no asphalt dissolved in it.
5) Stop the machine, take the aggregate and put it in the oven to
evaporate the benzene.
6) Make sieve analysis for the aggregate on sieve No. 8 and No. 200 to
know the percentages of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and the
filler, to check their weight with the original. The asphalt weight equal
the original specimen weight minus the total aggregate weight.
7) The asphalt content equal to weight of asphalt over weight of total
specimen.

Test results:For stripping:


For lime stone = 92.5 %
For valley gravel = 50.3%
For basalt = 56.3%For
granite = 19.7%
Asphalt content for group 1 = .04,
Asphalt content for group 2 = .04,
Asphalt content for group 3 = .054,
Asphalt content for group 4 = .054,

Discussion:
In this experiment, we have made the stripping test, to measure how
much of the asphalt sustained on the aggregate, which considered asphalt
quality measurement of the asphalt bituminous mixture.
The stripping depends mainly on the surface of the aggregate, where the
smooth surface aggregate is very bad, since the asphalt has a very weak
cohesion with the surface of the aggregate, which is what happen for the
valley gravel, which has a smooth surface that only 50.3 % of stripping
resistance and this is good but this may caused by experimental error,
while the rough surface like the lime stone surface has a very strong bond
between the asphalt and the aggregate, which is ensured by the result 92.5
% stripping resistance. But not only the surface is the affecting factor on
the stripping, but also the strength of the aggregate is also affect the
stripping, which is obvious for the granite (19.7% stripping) and this is
very good but this caused by the error in our experiment,in fact it despite
of its rough surface, it has a low bond strength, due to it low compressive
strength. Other types of aggregate like basalt has medium stripping

resistance (56.3 %) this result is not in fact due to errorbut in fact it will
be low so for this youcan can be use it in pavement with some
conditions, like adding some chemicals to stabilize the asphalt on the
basalt aggregate.
The quantitative extraction of asphalt form concrete bituminous mixture
is very important test in the paving projects, to see if the contractor use
the right asphalt percent in the mixture, for this reason, many samples
must be taken and tested, from different locations at different times.
The results show that the asphalt content was less than the initial
asphalt content, for example, for group 3+4, it was 5.5 %, while the
mixture were prepared on asphalt content 5.4 %, which means that there
is some errors in the experiment, although, since the asphalt content was
the lowest for group 1+2, which is the same thing for the initial asphalt
content, this refers that the errors are repeated in all the groups specimen,
but in different amounts, which is indicated by the percent of errors,
where it increase with increasing the asphalt content (see the appendix),
because larger asphalt content remain larger amount of asphalt in the
aggregate, and when aggregate weighted, some of the asphalt will be
calculated asphalt aggregate, which increase the percent of aggregate and
reduce the percent of asphalt.
The errors in this experiment can be summarized as the following:
1.) The irregularities of the surface of the aggregate directly under the
piston, which may give erroneous results.
2.) The visual estimation of the asphalt on the aggregate is not precise
method to the amount of asphalt.
1) The asphalt bituminous sample were must be immersed in water for
16 to 18 hr, not for 10 min in boiling water. The aggregate may sustain
some asphalt, and not all of asphalt dissolved in the benzene.
2) The temperature was not like in the standards, which is 25C.
3) The aggregate where placed in the oven for a short time, while the
evaporation of the benzene is not ensured.
Errors in balance, since this experiment depend largely on the weights.
5.) Errors in calculations, plotting the curve, and devices (balance).

Conclusion:
1) The stripping measurement is an empirical test, used to find the
amount of asphalt stripped on the aggregate.

2) The stripping test is not an accurate test, and the ASTM must find
alternative method for measuring the stripping.
3) The surface of the aggregate and its strength are the major
properties that affect the stripping. Quantitative extraction of asphalt
from concrete bituminous mixture is an opposite process for the
Marshall mix design, where the first is used to compare the percent of
asphalt in the mixture with the known one, and the second is used to
find the appropriate percent of asphalt.
4) The quantitative extraction of asphalt is used in the paving projects,
and it must be done quickly, (with in 12 hour), to stop the work if the
results is not acceptable.

References:

1) ASTM, D 1664 80, page 461 464.


2) Engineering properties of soils and their measurements, by
Joseph E. Bowles, Page 217 226.
3) ASTM, D 1883 87, page 532 538.
4) ASTM, D217276, D1665-83, pages (224227).

Appendix
Table 71: amount of asphalt retained on aggregate surface as percent
Group

Lime stone
90
90
98
98
99
99
95
95

Valley gravel
40
40
45
45
44
44
38
38

Basalt
55
51
52
61

55
51
52
61

Granite
20
20
20
20
30
30
23
23

91
89
99
96
98
99
95
89
91
95
97
99
90
85
80
80
94
97
Averag
e

91
89
99
96
98
99
95
89
91
95
97
99
90
85
80
80
94
97
92.5

42
45
40
45
46
48
47
40
43
46
67
65
56
48
56
70
69
68

42
45
40
45
46
48
47
40
43
46
67
65
56
48
56
70
69
68
50.3

53
50
59
70
50
45
40
55
59
68

53
50
59
70
50
45
40
55
59
68

59
61
65
64
64
55
57
45

59
61
65
64
64
55
57
45

20
18
25
25
25
25
11
15
19
16
17
15
20
25
18
11
20
15

56.3

20
18
25
25
25
25
11
15
19
16
17
15
20
25
18
11
20
15
19.7

Appendix
Table 51: sieve analysis of aggregate.
Gro Weight % corse Weight
%
Weig %filler
up of coarse
agg
of fine
fine
ht of
aggregat
aggregat agg
filler
e (g)
e (g)
(g)

Total
weight
of
aggregat
e (g)
482.3
482.3
473.5
473.5

1
258
53.4
195
40.4 29.3
6.07
2
258
53.4
195
40.4 29.3
6.07
3
272.8
57.6
187.6
39.6 13.1
2.77
4
272.8
57.6
187.6
39.6 13.1
2.77
Sample of calculation: group 3:
Total weight of aggregate =weight if coarse aggregate + weight of fine
aggregate + weight of filler=258+195+29.3=482.3
Table 52: calculation of asphalt content.

Group

Weight of
Dry
Total
Weight of
% of
filter
weight of weight of asphalt (g) asphalt by
before test filter after aggregate
total
(g)
test (g)
(g)
weight
1
8.6
10.
482.3
17.7
0.04
2
8.6
10
482.3
17.7
0.04
3
8.5
10
473.5
26.5
0.054
4
8.5
10
473.5
26.5
0.054
Sample of calculation: group 3:
Total weight of aggregate = weight of aggregate (table 51) + dry weight
of
filter after test weight of filter before
test
= 482.3 + 10 8.6
= 482.3
Weight of asphalt = 500 total weight of aggregate
= 500 482.3
= 17.7
Asphalt content = weight of asphalt / total weight of specimen * 100 %
= 17.7 / 500 * 100 %
= .04