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Abstract:

In the measuring of surface frictional properties, the tester is firstly


calibrated, and then a metallic arm ends with a rubber slider edge is fixed
horizontally and then fall under its own weight, with cause a pointer to
give the reading on a graduated panel, which is the British Pendulum
Number.
In the Benkelman test, a load is applied on the beam toe, which will
cause the beam to settle, this will give the settlement by calibrated dial
gage.

Introduction:
This method covers the procedure for measuring surface frictional
properties using the British Pendulum Skid Resistance Tester, which is a
dynamic pendulum impact type tester used to measure the energy loss
when a rubber slider edge is propelled over a test surface. The values
measured represent the frictional properties obtained with the apparatus
and the procedures stated which is not necessary to agree with other
slipperiness measuring equipment.
The Benkelman Beam Deflection Test is a procedure for determining
the static Benkelman Beam rebound deflection at a point on an asphalt
pavement structure under standardized axle load, tire size, tire spacing,
and tire pressure.

Objectives:
1.
2.
3.
4.

To be familiar with surface frictional properties measurements.


To be familiar with the Benkelman beam test.
To measure the friction of the pavement under tire.
To determine how much the pavement settle under a load (or
standard load).

Material used:
1. For Surface Frictional Properties:
1. British Pendulum Tester.
2. Slider.
2. For Benkelman beam test:
3. Benkelman beam.
4. Standard load, 18 kip truck usually.

Procedure:
British bedolum test:
1. Choose a section of the road, which is wanted to know its friction.
2. Put the British Pendulum tester on the road, and make levelling for
the device using the circular bubble.
3. Calibrate the device, by letting the pendulum to fall under its own
weight, which make the reading equal zero.
4. Get down the height of the pendulum by the fast and slow motion
screws, until the contact area between the rubber slider and the
ground is about 13 cm, which represent the width of the tire. Make
sure that the rubber is good for using.
5. Add some water to the road surface, which represent the worse
case of friction.
6. Put the pendulum in its position, and press the bottom to free it, the
pendulum will fall and the rubber will hit the ground which will
give a reading on the panel, which represent the friction of the
road.
Benkelman beam test
1. Put the Benkelman beam on the center of the right lane of the road.
2. Make leveling for the beam using the circular bubble. Make sure
that the dial gage is on zero.
3. Bring a standard truck load 18 kip, make it pass on the road where
the beam toe is between the two tires of the truck, the truck must
pass for 1.5 m, and take the dial gage reading.
4. Repeat steps 1, 2, and 3, in different locations along the road.
5. Plot a curve representing the distance versus the deflection
measured.

Test results:
Average deflection =
Average friction =

Discussion:
The britsh bendolum test of the pavement is one of the tests that are
related to the degree of the safety of the road, since the road must
achieve at least the standard friction, to guarantee the stability of driving,
beside the safe stopping. The Benkelman beam test is used to measure the
deflection of the road when a standard load applied on it, which occur in
flexible pavements only, and not in rigid pavements, since the rigid crack
in contrast with the flexible which deform.
The results show that the friction was about 52.33 BPN (British
Pendulum Number), this result was for the laboratory ground floor, which
is made from prestressed concrete, which is lower than that for the
asphalt pavement friction, but knowing that the standard limit is 40, the
result will be low if it is for road pavement, and the road pavement must
be treated.
The average of deflection of the Benkelman beam was about 10.8mm,
which was measured for deflection of a simple beam when a person stand
on it, which have no meaning, but usually in the field, a profile is plotted
of the road versus the deflection along it, and the area which have large
deflection (which determined by the usage of the road) must be
redesigned or rehabilitated.
The errors in this experiment can be summarized as the following:
1. The devices may not be leveled.
2. The devices may not be calibrated or zeroed.
3. The human errors in taking readings.
4. No enough time to complete required puposes

Conclusion:
From this experiment we can conclude that:
1. The british bendolum test is a safety test used to measure the
friction of the surface of the pavement to ensure that it has
minimum friction to have safe driving and stopping.
2. The friction of the road can be affected largely by exiting of water,
which reduce the friction very much, beside this, the temperature,
the asphalt pavement gradients also may affect the friction.

3. The Benkelman beam test is a test used to measure the deflection


of the road under a standard limit, to see if it achieve the design
criteria.
4. The deflection of the road pavement depends on the quality of the
surface, base, subase layers.
5. In Jordan, one of the most distress occur in the roads is the
deflection, which has two main reasons:
6. The roads used by large axle loads trucks, while it is not designed
for it, which lead to large deflections.
7. The excavation work done in the road base, which largely
minimize the abilities of the road and cause deflections.

References:
1. Measuring Surface Frictional Properties Using British Pendulum
Tester, ASTM, E 303 74, page 1155 1161.
2. A Guide to the Structural Design of Flexible and Rigid Pavements
in Canada, Canadian Good Road Association, Ottawa, Septemper
1965, Pages 49 51.

Appendix
Table1: Results of Benkelman beam test

Table 2: Results of friction measurements


Student trile
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Avg.

Skid resistance
55
60
50
50
55
56
50
55
40
52.33