You are on page 1of 8

Introduction:

It is important to know the percent of asphalt


content used in the mixture, to know if it satisfy the
theoretical value obtained from calculations by
Marshall method for design, for this reason, the
quantitative extraction of asphalt from bituminous
concrete mixture is used, which separate the
asphalt and the aggregate from the mixture, to
determine the asphalt content.
The Engler viscosity of tar products test used for
determination of specific viscosity of tar and their
fluid products, which is useful in characterizing the
consistency of tar and tar distillates by measuring
their flow properties, which considered an empirical
test.
Abstract:
In the extraction of the asphalt, the concrete
bituminous mixture is placed in the centrifugal
machine, and some benzene is added to dissolve
the asphalt and take it out when the centrifugal
machine work, only the aggregate will remain,
which gives the percent of aggregate in the mixture
and also the asphalt content, then the asphalt
percent is calculated by dividing the dry weight of
aggregate by total weight of mixture minus 100, it
was found 6.92 % knowing that the actual is 7.4%
this difference due to the absorbed asphalt.
In the Engler specific viscosity of tar products, the
time is seconds is measured for a fixed volume of
liquid material to flow through an efflux tube under
an accurately reproducible head and at a closely

controlled temperature. The Engler specific


viscosity is then calculated by dividing the flow time
by the viscometer calibration factor as determined
by making the same efflux measurement for water,
it was found 13.27 relative to water viscosity = 1.
Objectives:
1) To be familiar with the quantitative extraction of
asphalt from bituminous concrete mixture.
2) Determination of the asphalt content in a ready
bituminous mixture sample.
3) Comparing the asphalt content with the
specifications.
4) To be familiar with the Engler viscosity
measurement.
5) Determination of the viscosity of a material like
tar or one of its products.
Material used:
Quantitative extraction of asphalt:
1) Concrete bituminous mixture sample.
2) Centrifugal machine.
3) Benzene.
4) Pan.
5) Spatula.
6) Balance.
7) Filter.
Engler viscosity for tar products:
1) Engler viscometer.
2) Cup.
3) Timer, (watch).
4) Stopper, to stop the flow of liquid.

5)
6)
7)

Thermometer.
Flask.
The tar (or its product) that is wanted to find its
viscosity.

Laboratory work:
Quantitative extraction of asphalt:
1) Put the sample of concrete bituminous mixture in
the oven, so it can be divided into small pieces.
2) Take about 500 g of the sample and place it in
the centrifugal machine.
3) Add some benzene to the sample in the machine
and wait for about 10 minutes so the asphalt
dissolve in benzene.
4) Turn on the machine with slow speed, the
benzene will start to get out taking the asphalt
with it, and we still add benzene until the coming
out benzene is pure and has no asphalt dissolved
in it.
5) Stop the machine, take the aggregate and put it
in the oven to evaporate the benzene.
6) Make sieve analysis for the aggregate on sieve
No. 8 and No. 200 to know the percentages of
coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and the filler, to
check their weight with the original. The asphalt
weight equal the original specimen weight minus
the total aggregate weight.
7) The asphalt content equal to weight of asphalt
over weight of total specimen.
Engler viscosity of tar products:

1)
2)

3)
4)

5)
6)
7)

Sustain the temperature at 25C, using water


placed in the cup.
Use the water as the standard liquid to calibrate
the device, fill the cup with water, open the outlet
tube, the water will drop and fill a flask at the
bottom of the device.
Measure the time needed to fill the flask with
water.
Empty the cup and the flask from water, and fill it
with or tar or any liquid wanted to measure its
Engler viscosity.
Open the outlet, and allow the liquid to flow and
fill the flask.
Measure the time needed to fill the flask.
Engler viscosity equal the time needed to fill the
flask with the liquid over the time needed to fill the
flask with water.

Test results:
Asphalt content = 6.92 %, initial AC = 7.4 %
Average Engler viscosity for the oil used = 13.27
Discussion:
The quantitative extraction of asphalt form concrete
bituminous mixture is very important test in the
paving projects, to see if the contractor use the right
asphalt percent in the mixture, for this reason, many
samples must be taken and tested, from different
locations at different times.
The viscosity can be defined as the resistance to
flow of a fluid, from this, it can be noticed that this
test is used to determine the consistency of a liquid

material (asphalt here), which affect mainly on the


uses of the asphalt.
The results show that the asphalt content was less
than the initial asphalt content, for example, it was
6.921 %, while the mixture were prepared on
asphalt content 7.4 %, which means that there is
some errors in the experiment, which is indicated by
the percent of errors, because asphalt remain in the
aggregate (absorbed), and when aggregate
weighted, some of the asphalt will be calculated
asphalt aggregate, which increase the percent of
aggregate and reduce the percent of asphalt.
The Engler viscosity was about 13.273, which
represent the consistency of the oil is 9.864 times
the consistency of the water, which means that the
Engler viscosity is a relative empirical measurement
for the consistency with respect to the water at a
certain temperature (25C), while on the other
hand, there are many other formulated viscosity,
like absolute viscosity and kinematic viscosity, and
there are many other devices to measure the
viscosity, like CannonManning Vacuum
Viscometer, and Asphalt Institute Vacuum
Viscometer.
The viscosity requirements change from area to
area, usually depending on the temperature, where
high temperature areas need high viscosity asphalt,
to avoid flowing if the temperature raise, while in
cold areas, low viscosity asphalt, to avoid low
temperature cracking.
The errors in this experiment can be summarized as
the following:

1)
2)

3)

The aggregate may sustain some asphalt, and


not all of asphalt dissolved in the benzene.
The aggregate where placed in the oven for a
short time, while the evaporation of the benzene
is not ensured.
Errors in balance, since this experiment depend
largely on the weights.

Conclusion:
1) Quantitative extraction of asphalt from concrete
bituminous mixture is an opposite process for the
Marshall mix design, where the first is used to
compare the percent of asphalt in the mixture
with the known one, and the second is used to
find the appropriate percent of asphalt.
2) The Engler viscosity is an empirical measure for
the consistency of a fluid material compared
relative to water.
3) The quantitative extraction of asphalt is used in
the paving projects, and it must be done quickly,
(with in 12 hour), to stop the work if the results is
not acceptable.
4) The viscosity is usually (as penetration), to
determine the consistency of the asphalt, which
gives an idea about the right using of it.
References:
1) ASTM, D217276, D1665-83, pages (224
227).

Appendix
Table: sieve analysis of aggregate.
Sample no
1
2
Sample before 500
500
test gm
Sample after
468
478
test gm
Filter before test 9
9
gm
Filter after test
10
10
gm
Ash wt
1
1
gm
Agg retained
362.6
333.5
seive #4
gm
Agg retained in 119.8
122.5
seive #200
gm
Agg retained in 23.6
24
pan gm
FA @ filter = dry weight of filter after test weight
of filter before test
= 10 9 = 1
Total weight of aggregate = weight of coarse
aggregate + weight of fine aggregate + weight of
filler + weight of FA @ filter
= 326.6 + 119.8 + 10 +9
= 465.4 gm

Weight of asphalt = 500 total weight of aggregate


= 500 456.4
= 34.6 gm
Asphalt content = weight of asphalt / total weight of
specimen * 100 %
= 34.6 / 500 * 100 %
= 6.92 %
Table: Engler Viscosity.
Trial #
Time to fill 60 Time to fill 60 Viscosity
ml flask by
ml flask by oil
water (sec)
(sec)
1
15.721
227.00
14.442
2
18.620
225.00
12.085
3
16.932
225.00
13.293
Average 17.091
226.00
13.272
Sample Calculation (trial #1)
Viscosity = time to fill 60 ml flask by oil / time to fill
60 ml flask by water
= 227.00 / 15.72
= 14.441