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Evaluation Form

Jordan University of Science and Technology


Department of Civil Engineering

Course No.: CE 441


Course Name: Pavement Lab
Topic: Marshall Test Method.

Evaluation Elements
1.
2.
3.
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Title Page
Abstract
Introduction
Objectives
Material Used
Laboratory Work
Results and Discussions
Conclusion
Acknowledgement
References
Tables with Titles
Figures with Captions
Appendix
Spelling, Punctuation &
Clarity Sentences
15. Overall Effectiveness &
Formatting
Total

Student Name:
Student No.:
Lab. No.: 5, 6, 7.
Due Date:
Section: 2
Day: monday.

Points
Value
5
5
5
5
5
5
20
10
-5
5
5
5
10

Points Received
2
3
4

10
100

0
.

Marshall Test Method:


A. Preparation of Aggregate.
B. Preparation of 12 samples.
C. Find Stability, Flow, Air Voids, Voids of Mineral Aggregate (VMA), Unit
Weight, Stiffness.
Abstract:
This experiment is conducted to find out the Optimum Asphalt Content that
will produced the max values for the needed properties for the mixture that will
be used in some highway construction as a wearing course. Some of these
properties are: Stability, Flow and Air Void. Marshall Design Method will be used
which is used widely in the world.
The Marshal Method starts with preparation the test specimens, which
required the material proposed for use meet the requirements of the project
specifications, the aggregate blend combinations meet the gradation
requirement of the project specifications & for use in density and voids analysis,
the Bulk Specific Gravity of all aggregate used in the blend, and the Specific
Gravity of the Asphalt Cement are determined. See table (A-1) for Aggregate
preparation and analysis, where the aggregate and the asphalt will be mixed
and filled in the standard mold & compacted, then these compacted specimen
will be tested for Flow and Stability.

Introduction:
The Marshall Test is the most famous method for designing the Paving
Mixtures. The American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) has
standardized the Marshall Test procedure.
The main objective of this test is to find the Asphalt Content in blends,
which satisfy the optimum values for some of the mixture properties.
Definitions related to this experiment are: Stability: It is the maximum load resistance in Newton (lb.) that
the standard test specimen will develop at (60oC) when tested as
outlined hereinafter.
Flow: the total movement or strain, in units of 0.25 millimeter,
occurring in the specimen between no load and maximum load
during the stability.
Theoretical maximum specific gravity of bituminous paving
mixture (Gmm): The ratio of the weight in air of non-compacted
paving mixture at a stated temperature to the weight of the same
volume of gas free distilled water.
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Bulk specific gravity of compacted bituminous mixture (Gmb):


The ratio of the weight of compacted paving mixture at stated
temperature to the weight of equal volume of gas free distilled water.
Effective specific gravity of total aggregates (Gse): the ratio of
the weight in air of a unit volume of permeable material (excluding
voids permeable to asphalt) at a stated temp to the weight in air of
equal density of an equal volume of gas free distilled water.
Bulk specific gravity of total aggregates (Gsb): the ratio of the
weight in air of a unit volume of permeable material (including voids
permeable and impermeable normal to the materials) at a stated
temp to the weight in air of equal density of an equal volume of gas
free distilled water.
Air voids (A.V %): the total volume of small pockets of air between
coated aggregate particles throughout the compacted pavement
mixture. Expressed as percent of the bulk volume of the compacted
paving mixture.
Voids of mineral aggregates (V.M.A%): the volume of intergranular void space between the aggregate particles of a compacted
paving mixture that includes the air voids and the effective asphalt
content, expressed as a percent of the total volume of the sample.
Effective asphalt content (Pbe): the total asphalt content of a
paving mixture minus the portion of asphalt that is lost by absorption
into the aggregate particles.

Here are some equations that will be used in this experiment:


Weight in Air
Gbcm
Weight in Air - Weight in Water
100

Gmp

pfa

gea

pac
gac

100.(Gmp - Gbcm )

Pav

Gmp

(Gbcm * pta)

VMA 100 *
Gbam

P1 P 2 P 3
Gbam P1
GPafa2 GPamf3
Gaca
Gmm

A
ADE

Objectives:
I) The overall objectives of the exp. Is to be familiar with this type of
experiment and to determine an economical blend and gradation of aggregate.
And asphalt that yields a mix having:
1) Sufficient asphalt to ensure a durable pavement.
2) Sufficient mix stability to satisfy the demands of traffic.
3) Sufficient voids in the total compacted mix to allow for a slight amount
of additional compaction under traffic loading without flushing, bleeding,
and loss of stability.
4) Sufficient workability to permit efficient placement of mixture without
segregation.
II) To be familiar with the test procedure and materials.
III) To compare the results with the standard.

Materials and Apparatus Used:


1) Asphalt cement that is produced in the Jordanian petroleum Refinery
Company in Al-Zarqa.
2) Crushed Limestone as aggregates thats comes from stone crusher from
Alhoson Quarries.

Laboratory Work:
A. Aggregate Preparation:

Aggregate is brought from the field and washed with hot water, then dried by
the oven for 24 hours.
The Aggregate is sieved with the sieves shown in Table (A 1).
For each group, 3 samples of aggregate blend were prepared according to
the aggregate distribution illustrated in Table (A 1), each one weight
1200gm.
B. Preparation of Marshall Specimens:

1. Marshall Specimen with (2.5" Height and 4" Diameter) is brought.


2. The asphalt was put in the oven at 150C for not more than 1 hour until it is
viscosity was (170 + 20).
3. The mold of marshal was put in the oven.
4. The specimens of aggregate were put in (150oC) oven for 24 hours.
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5. The aggregate sample was put in a pan and mixed until a homogeneous
aggregate blend yield.
6. Put the aggregate on a heater, a hole was made at the center of the
aggregate.
7. The asphalt added at the hole, according to the weight specified for each
group (Group I (4%), Group II (5%), Group III (6%), Group IV (7%)).
8. The asphalt mixed with the aggregate using a large spoon until the mixture
becomes homogeneous.
9. Put a filter paper at the bottom of the mold (in order to take off the excess
amount of asphalt put on the sample and not covering the aggregate).
10. The mixtures was put in the mold after applying some oil on the interior
surface of the mold, add a filter paper on the bottom of the mold. Put the
mixture inside the mold with mixing and compacting with a spoon (in order
not to cause any segregation).
11. Put the Marshall Hammer on the mold, and starts the compaction:
(35) Blows for light traffic
(EAL < 104).
(50) Blows for medium traffic
(104 < EAL < 106).
(75) Blows for heavy traffic
(EAL > 106).
12. The compaction using Marshall Hammer is by raising the hammer (18"),
then dropping it down by its weight on the specimen. (Weight of Hammer =
18 lb).
13. The mold is revolved up side down and the compaction is repeated.
14. The specimen is taken out and subjected to air flow in order to cool it to
(25oC).
15. Write the number of specimen on it and let it cool at room temperature.
16. The specimen was put in the flow stability machines, and turn on the
machine, which will draw a flow stability curve for the specimen.
C. Testing Marshall Specimens:
1. The samples are weighed in air to the nearest (0.1 gm), and the readings
are put in Column 4 in Part 1.
2. The samples are put in the water for 5 minutes with (25oC), then the
samples are taken out of water rapidly and weighed in air, then the readings
are put in Column 6 in Part 1.
3. The samples are weight after that in water to the nearest (0.1 gm), and then
the readings are put in Column 5 in Part 1.
4. The samples are put in water bath of (60oC) for 30 minutes, which is
equivalent to pavement service for many years.
5. The Stability and Flow Test Machine is cleaned and covered with grease, and
the samples are taken out of the bath and put in the machine.
6. The machine is turned on for every sample, and the readings of Stability and
Flow are taken (which in Chart form).
7. The results are written in Column 11 and 13 in Part 1.
8. The tables are filled by calculations.

Results:
Group
Group
Group
Group

I: (Gsb =2.45 ) > (Gmm =2.117) > (Gmb =2.1).


II: (Gsb = 2.45) > (Gmm =3.01 ) > (Gmb = 2.2).
III: (Gsb = 2.45) > (Gmm =2.28 ) > (Gmb = 2.34).
IV: (Gsb = 2.45) > (Gmm =2.51 ) > (Gmb = 2.28).

% VMA =12.3
Stability = 1217.54
Flow =33
Gmm(avg) =2.48

Discussion:
The optimum asphalt content = 6.26% of total mix weight, Marshall
Method is one of the most used method in designing the mixes, because it
acceptable results and its availability. The mix design is may be considered the
most important subject in the pavement laboratories, because it is may be the
only design subject in the laboratory, and other experiments are tests on the
mix designed.
This experiment has a lot of information and calculations, all of it is to find
the optimum asphalt percent that give the best properties of the mix, where it
was found here to be 6.26% by the weight of the total mix, which is not
acceptable value, where the typical range for the asphalt content is about 4.5
5.5 %, and rarely to be of the range.
From the five charts plotted, it can be seen that the air voids varies, which
ranges about 4.729 13.01 %, while in typical values, it must be in the range 3
5 %, and the asphalt content is usually taken at 4 %, but here the chart did
not reach to 4 %, beside this, the voids in mineral aggregate was also high,
which is around 19.378%, while it is usually be around 15 %, all this indicate
that the voids are too high, this is can be proved by the fact that the samples
were compacted 50 times, 25 at each end, but according to the standards, in
Table (A 2), for medium traffic which is assumed firstly, the number of blows
each end of specimen should be 50, not the total blows, this must be the main
reason for errors and for the large values for air voids and for voids in mineral
aggregate, this will give an errors in calculating the optimum percent of asphalt.
On the other hand, the most initial properties of the materials, like Specific
Gravity of Coarse Aggregate, Fine Aggregate, and Filler, and like Water
Absorption, they have been assumed and not measured, while they should be
measured exactly, these values may give some errors in the results.

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Gsb > Gmm > Gmb was right, which refers that the errors did not affect them
largely, but it largely affect on the percent of void.
The values at Optimum Asphalt Content shown in (Part 6), shows that the
Stability and Voids in mineral aggregate (VMA) achieve the specifications, while
the air voids and flow didnt achieve the specifications due to the errors of the
experiment.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The errors in this experiment can be summarized as the following:


The major source of errors is due to the deficient number of blows, which
give higher voids than it should be.
Mistakes in preparing the aggregate samples.
The using of typical values of aggregate specific gravity and water content.
Errors in devices, which include the balance, the stability testing machine.
Errors in calculation, especially because of using different unit systems.

Conclusion:
It can be concluded that:
1) The Marshall Method is a method used to find the Optimum Asphalt Content.
2) It is very important in any paving project to know the (OAC) which gives the
best properties, by any method of design.
3) If some of the results do not match the specification, some of the materials
properties must be changed and the design must be made again to achieve
the specifications.
4) This test method must be worked in ideal conditions to an accurate result.

Tables:
Table (1): Aggregate Size Distribution
Sieve
Size
1"

"
1 "
2
3 "
8

%
Passing
100

Mid
Passing
100

%
Retained
0

% in
Between

Weight in
Between

90 100

95

71 90

80.5

19.5

56 80

68

32

35 56
23 38
13 27
5 17
4 14
28
0

45.5
30.5
20
11
9
5
0

54.5
69.5
80
89
91
95
100

5
14.5
12.5
22.5
15
10.5
9
2
4
5

60
174
150
270
180
126
108
24
48
60

#4
#8
#20
#50
#80
#200
Pan

Table (2): Asphalt wt in Mixture.


Group No.

Asphalt % by Total
Weight
4
5
6
7

1
2
3
4

Weight of Asphalt,
(gm)
50
63
77
90

Table (3): Maximum Theoritical Specific Gravity


Group
I
II
III
IV

A
500
500
500
500

Gmm

1868.55

2134.55

2.137

1880.4

2127.5

1.997

1880.48

2130.37

1.999

1868.75

2127.63

2.074

Avg = 2.2648
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Table (5): % AV of the mix


Group #
1
2
3
4

% B.C
4
5
6
7

Table (6): % V.M.A of the mix


Group #
% of agg (ps)
1
96%
2
95%
3
94%
4
93%

Gmb
2.2
2.2
2.34
2.28

Gmb
2.300
2.133
2.489
2.029

Gmm
2.137
1.997
1.999
2.074

Gsb
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45

% AV
-3.92
2.9
-2.63
9.16

VMA
13.8
14.7
10.22
13.45

DRAW

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Appendix
(All calculation for groupe 1)

Sample of calculation for table 2

Wt of asphalt =[% of asphalt * wt of agg/(1- % of asphalt)]


= .04*1200/(1-.04)=50 gm

Sample of calculation for table 3

Gmm = [A/(A+D+E)] = [500/(500+1868.55-2134.55)] = 2.137

Sample of calculation for table 4

Gmb = A/(B-C) = 1332.16/(1354.43-753)=2.186


Vol = B-C = -753+1354.43 = 556.5 qcm
Get corr ratio from table 111-1 in the book
Corrected stability = uncorr.stab * corr.ratio

Sample of calculation for table 5

AV% = 100-(Gmb/Gmm) *100 =


= 100-(2.2/2117)*100 = -3.92%

Sample of calculation for table 6

VMA%=100-Ps (Gmb/Gsb)*100%
=100-.96(2.2/2.45)*100%=13.8%

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References:
1. ASTM, D 1559 76 (year1976), pages (437 446).
2. MS 2, chapter 3, pages (17 32), chapter 6, pages (67 80).

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