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Evaluation Form

Jordan University of Science and Technology


Department of Civil Engineering

Course No.: CE 441

Student Name:

Course Name: Pavement Lab


Topic: Extraction and Viscosity
Tests.

Evaluation Elements
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Title Page
Abstract
Introduction
Objectives
Material Used
Laboratory Work
Results and Discussions
Conclusion
Acknowledgement
References
Tables with Titles
Figures with Captions
Appendix
Spelling, Punctuation &
Clarity Sentences
15. Overall Effectiveness &
Formatting
Total

.T.K.N.N

Student No.:
Lab. No.: 8
Due Date:
Section:
Day: .

Points
Value
5
5
5
5
5
5
20
10
-5
5
5
5
10
10
100

Points Received
2
3
4

1. Extraction of Asphalt (ASTM D217276).


2. Viscosity of Asphalt (ASTM D217278).

Introduction:
In most projects, it is needed to know the percent of asphalt content used
in the mixture, to know if it satisfy the theoretical value obtained from
calculations by Marshall method for design, for this reason, the quantitative
extraction of asphalt from bituminous concrete mixture is used, which separate
the asphalt and the aggregate from the mixture, to determine the asphalt
content.
The Engler viscosity of tar products test used for determination of specific
viscosity of tar and their fluid products, which is useful in characterizing the
consistency of tar and tar distillates by measuring their flow properties, which
considered an empirical test.

Abstract:
In most projects, it is needed to know the percent of asphalt content used
in the mixture. The Engler viscosity of tar products test used for determination
of specific viscosity of tar and their fluid products to know if it satisfy the
theoretical value obtained from calculations by Marshall method for design In
the extraction of the asphalt, the concrete bituminous mixture is placed in the
centrifugal machine, and some benzene is added to dissolve the asphalt and
take it out when the centrifugal machine work, only the aggregate will remain,
which gives the percent of aggregate in the mixture and also the asphalt
content, then the asphalt percent is calculated by dividing the dry weight of
aggregate by total weight of mixture minus 100. In the Engler specific viscosity
of tar products, the time is seconds is measured for a fixed volume of liquid
material to flow through an efflux tube under an accurately reproducible head
and at a closely controlled temperature. The Engler specific viscosity is then
calculated by dividing the efflux time by the viscometer calibration factor as
determined by making the same efflux measurement for water.

Objectives
1. To be familiar with the quantitative extraction of asphalt from bituminous
concrete mixture.
2. Determination of the asphalt content in a ready bituminous mixture
sample.
3. Comparing the asphalt content with the specifications.

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4. To be familiar with the Engler viscosity measurement.
5. Determination of the viscosity of a material like tar or one of its products.

Material Used:
Quantitative extraction of asphalt:
Concrete bituminous mixture sample.
Engler viscosity for tar products:
a. Engler viscometer.
b. Oil.
c. Water.

Laboratory Work:
A. Quantitative extraction of asphalt:
1. Put the sample of concrete bituminous mixture in the oven, so it can be
divided into small pieces.
2. Take about 500 g of the sample and place it in the centrifugal machine.
3. Add some benzene to the sample in the machine and wait for about 10
minutes so the asphalt dissolve in benzene.
4. Turn on the machine with slow speed, the benzene will start to get out
taking the asphalt with it, and we still add benzene until the coming out
benzene is pure and has no asphalt dissolved in it.
5. Stop the machine, take the aggregate and put it in the oven to evaporate
the benzene.
6. Make sieve analysis for the aggregate on sieve No. 4 and No. 200 to know
the percentages of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and the filler, to
check their weight with the original. The asphalt weight equals the original
specimen weight minus the total aggregate weight.
7. The asphalt content equal to weight of asphalt over weight of total
specimen.
B. Engler viscosity of tar products:
1. Sustain the temperature at 25C, using water placed in the cup.
2. Use the water as the standard liquid to calibrate the device, fill the cup
with water, open the outlet tube, the water will drop and fill a flask at the
bottom of the device.
3. Measure the time needed to fill the flask with water.
4. Empty the cup and the flask from water, and fill it with or tar or any liquid
wanted to measure its Engler viscosity.
5. Open the outlet, and allow the liquid to flow and fill the flask.
6. Measure the time needed to fill the flask.
7. Engler viscosity equal the time needed to fill the flask with the liquid over
the time needed to fill the flask with water.

Results:
Asphalt content for Sample 1 = 4%, initial AC = 6.0 %.
Asphalt content for Sample 2 = 6.24 %, initial AC = 7.0 %.
Average Engler viscosity for the oil used = 21.23.

Discussion:
The quantitative extraction of asphalt form concrete bituminous mixture is
very important test in the paving projects, to see if the contractor uses the right
asphalt percent in the mixture, for this reason, many samples must be taken
and tested, from different locations at different times.
The viscosity can be defined as the resistance to flow of a fluid, from this, it
can be noticed that this test is used to determine the consistency of a liquid
material (asphalt here), which affect mainly on the uses of the asphalt.
The results show that the asphalt content was more than the initial asphalt
content, for example, for Sample 1, it was 4 %, while the mixture were
prepared on asphalt content 6.0 %, which means that there is some errors in
the experiment, this refers that the errors are repeated in all the groups
specimen, but in different amounts, which is indicated by the percent of errors,
where it increase with increasing the asphalt content (see the appendix),
because larger asphalt content remain larger amount of asphalt in the
aggregate, and when aggregate weighted, some of the asphalt will be
calculated asphalt aggregate, which increase the percent of aggregate and
reduce the percent of asphalt.
The Engler viscosity was about 19.6, which represent the consistency of
the oil is 19.6 times the consistency of the water, which means that the Engler
viscosity is a relative empirical measurement for the consistency with respect to
the water at a certain temperature (25C), while on the other hand, there are
many other formulated viscosity, like absolute viscosity and kinematics
viscosity, and there are many other devices to measure the viscosity, like
CannonManning Vacuum Viscometer, and Asphalt Institute Vacuum Viscometer.
The viscosity requirements change from area to area, usually depending on
the temperature, where high temperature areas need high viscosity asphalt, to
avoid flowing if the temperature rises, while in cold areas, low viscosity asphalt,
to avoid low temperature cracking.

The errors in this experiment can be summarized as the following:


1. The aggregate may sustain some asphalt, and not all of asphalt dissolved
in the benzene.
2. The temperature was not like in the standards, which is 25C.
3. The aggregate where placed in the oven for a short time, while the
evaporation of the benzene is not ensured?
4. Errors in balance, since this experiment depends largely on the weights.

Conclusion:
a. Quantitative extraction of asphalt from concrete bituminous mixture is an
opposite process for the Marshall Mix design, where the first is used to
compare the percent of asphalt in the mixture with the known one, and
the second is used to find the appropriate percent of asphalt.
b. The Engler viscosity is an empirical measure for the consistency of a fluid
material compared relative to water.
c. The quantitative extraction of asphalt is used in the paving projects, and it
must be done quickly, (with in 12 hour), to stop the work if the results is
not acceptable.
d. The viscosity is usually (as penetration), to determine the consistency of
the asphalt, which gives an idea about the right using of it.

References:
1. ASTM, D217276, D1665-83, year 1994, pages (224227).
2. ASTM, D217278, D1665-89, year 1994, pages (228232).

Appendix:
Table 1: Sieve Analysis of Aggregate:

Sample

Weight of coarse
aggregate (g)

Weight of fine
aggregate (g)

Weight of
filler (g)

Total weight of
aggregate (g)

1
2

333.5
326.00

122.5
119.8

24
23

480
468.8

Sample of calculation (Sample 2):

Total weight of aggregate = weight of coarse aggregate + weight of fine


aggregate + weight of filler

Table 2: Calculation of Asphalt Content:


Sample

Weight of
bit mix

Weight of filter
before test (g)

Total weight of
aggregate (g)

Dry weight of
filter after test
(g)
4

500
500

9
9

480
468.8

10
10

1
2

Weight of
asphalt (g)

% of asphalt by
total weight

20
31.2

4%
6.24 %

Sample of calculation (Sample 2):

Total weight of aggregate = weight of aggregate (Table 1) + dry weight of


Filter after test weight of filter before test
Weight of asphalt = 500 total weight of aggregate
Asphalt content = weight of asphalt / total weight of specimen * 100 %
Table 3: Percentages of Errors in Determining Asphalt Content:
Sample
1
2

Asphalt content from


extraction (%)
4%
6.24 %

Initial asphalt
content (%)
6.0
7.0

Percent error
(%)
2%
0.76 %

Table 4: Calculation of Engler viscosity:


Group
1
2
Average

Time to fill 50 ml
flask by water (sec)
18.4
15.7
17.05

Time to fill 50 ml
flask by oil (sec)
361
359
360

Viscosity
19.6
22.86
21.23

Sample of calculation :

Viscosity = time to fill 50 ml flask by oil / time to fill 50 ml flask by water


= 361 / 18.4
= 19.6
Average viscosity = 21.23