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 The e.m.f is induced in the coil, when the there is a change in the flux linking with the coil.
 This e.m.f. exists so long as the change in the flux exists.
 Stationary flux will never induce any e.m.f. in a stationary conductor, even though it is strong
( the e.m.f. is stronger when the magnet is closer to the conductor [see fig.(a) and fig.(b)] & it
is strongest (Em) when the conductor is perpendicular to the magnetic field).

fig.(a).Stronger e.m.f .induced in
comparison of the position in fig.(b)

fig.(b). Lesser e.m.f.induced in
comparison of the position in fig.(a)

G  Galvanometer
AB  Initial position of the magnet (closer to the conductor coil) in which the e.m.f. induced is
stronger than in position CD
CD  new position of magnet moved away from conductor coil causing lesser e.m.f. to induce
than that in position AB.
Flux Direction

Lenz’s Law:
It states that ,
the electromagnetically
induced current
always flow in
such a direction
that the action
of the magnetic
field set up by it
opposes the
very cause
which produces it . Thus,
a minus sign is
given to the
right-hand side
expression (i)

Conductor is perpendicular to the flux
induces strongest flux in the coil
 The magnitude of this induced e.m.f. (and hence the amount in the deflection in the
galvanometer ) depends on the quickness of the movement
 It is also found that if the conductor is moved parallel to the direction of the lines of flux (so
that it cuts none of these lines), then no e.m.f. is induced.

First Law
It states :‘When the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes, an e.m.f. is always induced in it.’
‘Whenever a conductor cuts across magnetic lines of flux, an e.m.f. is induced in that

. .  In time t seconds. we get 𝑑 e = 𝑑𝑡 (𝑁) or e=N 𝑑 𝑑𝑡 volts = −N 𝑑 𝑑𝑡 volts . this coil rotates through an angle  = t.. Final Flux linkages = N2 2−1 𝑁2−𝑁1 ∴ Induced e.’ Example: Suppose a coil has N turns and flux through it changes from an initial value of 1 Wb to the final value of 2 Wb in time t seconds. strength of the field ( i.(d) ..equation (i) CONCEPTS OF ALTERNATING EMF .  In this deflected position...e. we know Total flux linked = turns in the conductor coil × flux linked with coil Thus.equation (ii) 2 where.. e = volt or e = N volts 𝑡 𝑡 Putting the above expression in its differential from.f.  Maximum flux m is linked with the coil when its plane coincides with the X-axis( i. It is given as.f. Maximum flux linked with coil (m) = Bm A . flux (B)) and the speed at which the coil or magnetic field rotates (expressed in radians / seconds ()). Bm  maximum flux density in Wb/m A  area of the coil in m2  The value of the voltage generated ( in the coil rotating in the magnetic field ) depends upon the number of turns in the coil(N).It is angular velocity of the coil rotating in the magnetic field expressed in radians / seconds. is equal to the rate of change of flux linkage.m.. f  frequency in Hertz (Hz)  Maximum flux m is linked with coil when its plane coincides with the X-axis. the component of the flux which is perpendicular to the plane of the coil is  = m cos t Y a m sin  c m cos  m m cos  b  = t X fig. Let time be measured from the X-axis.(c) fig.(c).. coil is perpendicular to the flux.. Statement 1 EQUATIONS OF THE ALTERNATING VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS  Consider a rectangular coil having N turns rotating in a uniform magnetic field with an angular velocity of  radian/second as shown in fig. Angular frequency () = 2f radians / seconds where.e...Second Law It states :‘The magnitude of the induced e... VOLTAGE AND CURRENT  Omega() . Now. Initial flux linkages = N1.m...

(d): sin( aco ) = sin  = side ac /side ao ..e... . Bm  maximum flux density in Wb/m2 A  area of the coil in m2 f  frequency of rotation of the coil in revolutions / second ( Hertz (Hz) ) Substituting this value of Em (= Nm ...(f) ..equation(iii)  When the coil has turned through 90° i. we get e = Em sin  = Em sin t  Similarly.. the e.  = t cos( aco ) = cos  = side oc / side ao .. when  = t) or the instantaneous value of the induced e. when  = 90°. induced in the coil is given by the rate of change of flux-linkages of the coil. cos = 𝑎𝑑𝑗𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒 = side oc / m ∴ side oc = m cos  = m cos t = side ab . hence e has maximum value..from equation(i) (m cos t) volt = – Nm (– sin t) volt = Nm sin t e = Nm sin  volt ....(e)] fig... say Em . when  = t) are (flux linkages.f......m.we get Em = Nm volt . sinusoidal alternating current induced by this e.... from equation(iii) ..m.. Therefore....m. sin = 𝑜𝑝𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒 ℎ𝑦𝑝𝑜𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑢𝑠𝑒 = side ac / m ∴ side ac = m sin  = m sin t = side ob .(e) fig...f..e.. ‘flux-linkages’ of the coil in this deflected position (i.e. is expressed as follows : i = Im sin  = Im sin t PHASE DIFFERENCE  Consider three similar single-turn coils displaced from each other by angles  and  and rotating in a uniform magnetic field with the same angular velocity [ fig.equation(iv) = NBm A volt .. Hence..f..... at this instant (i....  = t ℎ𝑦𝑝𝑜𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑢𝑠𝑒  Hence..Explanation of fig.m.. then sin  = 1.f.... is e=– 𝑑 𝑑𝑡 =–N (N) volt 𝑑 𝑑𝑡 ..from equation (ii) = 2f N Bm A volt where ... from equation (iv)) in equation( iii).. the value of the induced e. when  = t) N = Nm cos t  According to Faraday's Laws of Electromagnetic Induction.

 A lagging alternating quantity is one which reaches its maximum or zero value later than the other quantity.(f).  The three equations for the instantaneous induced e.f. In this case.s are : eA = Em sin t eB = Em sin ( t –  ) eC = Em sin [ t – ( + )]  In fig. it means that phase difference between A and B is  and between B and C is  but between A and C is ( + )  A leading alternating quantity is one which reaches its maximum or zero value earlier as compared with the other quantity.  It is seen that curves B and C are displaced from curve A by angles  and ( +) respectively. Hence. their equations are vA = Vm sin t . rather one after another as shown in fig. but these coils do not reach their maximum or zero values simultaneously. the values of e. vB = Vm sin (t + ) fig.  For example . in fig.m.m. quantity B leads A by an angle .(g) A plus (+) sign when used in connection with phase difference denotes 'lead' whereas a minus (-) sign denotes 'lag' .f.(f).s induced in the three coils.(g). B lags behind A by  and C lags behind A by ( + ). are the same. Hence.