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Scatter Diagrams

Pareto Diagram
Control Charts

– Traditional and New Tools
– Cause and Effect Diagram
– Check Sheet
– Histograms

• Begin Module 1

– Summary

• Module 4

– Seven New Tools

• Module 3

Session 9

Traditional and New Tools
Cause and Effect Diagram
Check Sheet

• Module 2

• Module 1

Session Outline

Rajiv Gupta
BITS Pilani
August 2014
Lecture 9

MMZG 522 Total Quality




C-E (Cause-Effect) Diagram
Stratification Analysis
Check Sheet
Scatter Diagram
Pareto Chart
Control Charts

Seven Traditional or Basic Quality



• Used primarily in reactive mode to improve
• Mostly quantitative --They handle
Quantitative data
• Their format allows visualization of quality
• Used primarily on the shop floor
• Any of the tools can be used with any
other tools.

Traditional Tools


1. Seven Traditional or Basic Quality Tools (e.g.
C-E diagrams, Stratification, Histogram, Pareto
Chart, Control Charts)
2. Seven New Quality Tools (e.g. Relations
Diagram, Affinity Diagram, Tree Diagram,
Matrix Diagram, Arrow Chart, Process Decision
Program Chart)
3. Other: Product/Process Development Tools
(e.g. Benchmarking, QFD, FMEA, Faulty Tree
Analysis, Reliability Analyses, Experiment
Design, CAD, FEA, Prototyping, CAM, etc.)

Tool Grouping

2. 6. • Used primarily for planning and by management (for brainstorming) • Qualitative in nature • More effective when used by multi-functional teams • Visual in nature – help visualize problems. 7. 5. New Quality Tools • Data should be collected accurately and quickly to allow visualization and analysis • Tabular and Pictorial (Graphical) Formats • Creativity plays a major role in the design of a check sheet. Check Sheet C-E Process Chart C-E Diagram (Fish Diagram) 12 11 10 . etc. relationships.7 Cause and Effect Diagram 9 8 Relations Diagram Affinity Diagram Systematic Diagram Matrix Diagram Matrix Data Analysis Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC) Arrow Diagram • Also called Ishikawa or Fishbone Diagram • Drawn to investigate only one “Bad” or “good” effect • Causes broken down into major and minor causes • Excellent for brainstorming and in teams • Team members can vote to obtain most likely causes for problem solving • Two types of C-E Diagrams: Traditional and Process 1. Seven New Quality Tools • Mainly used in proactive manner (to create quality). issues. 4. 3. • Any of the tools can be used with any other tools.

• Sufficient sample size or observations (>30) and number of intervals (5-15) needed for useful analysis/interpretation Histogram Check Sheet .Graphic Check Sheet .Tabular 16 Session 9 • End of module 1 Outputs from three (1. • Not all bar charts are histograms (Note: Bar charts of categorical data are not histograms).3) machines combined 18 17 Histograms with Stratified Data Histogram .2.14 13 15 • Quantitative data consisting of values of a variable from a sample are plotted to obtain distribution • It is a bar chart– but each bar represents frequency of occurrences within an interval represented by the bar.

time of the day.Scatter Diagram –Stratified Data Scatter Diagram – Traditional Tools contd. etc. season. (Great for continuous improvement – keep solving problems that have largest impact to quality). operator/user. location. supplier. day. Pareto Chart • Can be used with other tools • Data separated (identified) by categories for visualization and analyses • Stratification by source (machine. – Scatter Diagrams – Stratification – Pareto Chart – Control Charts • Begin Module 2 Session 9 21 20 19 22 Pareto Chart 24 23 • Bar chart of categorical data arranged from largest to smallest occurrence frequency • Cumulative percentage of occurrence provides– “Vital few and useful many” • Powerful quality improvement tool.) Stratification .

NP. X-bar and S) and Attributes Charts (P.Chart Control Chart – X-Bar Chart 27 26 25 • Visual plot of process output along with control limits • Variables Charts (X-bar and R. U. • Variables– based on successive values of a parameter • Attribute– based on defectives and defects Control Charts – Seven New Tools – Relations Diagram – Affinity Diagram – Event Tree – Systematic Diagram – Matrix Diagram – Process Chart – Arrow Diagram • Begin Module 3 Session 9 • End of module 2 Session 9 Control Chart– P-Chart 30 29 28 .R. C).Control Chart-.

Affinity Diagram Affinity Diagram Relations Diagram 33 32 31 Matrix Diagram Systematic Diagram Event Tree 36 35 34 .

Process Chart • Provides information on a process . Tools.Time Required to complete . Information. priority Matrix Data • End of module 3 Session 9 Tools –More effective when used as a system for improvement Arrow Diagram 42 41 40 .People Involved . etc.Description of Steps .Decisions Made . strength/importance.Material. Process Chart 39 38 37 • Level of or quantitative information about relationships in terms of direction (increase/decrease).Distance Traveled .Sequence/Flow of steps .

the tools ought to be used in conjunction with other tools so that their usefulness is enhanced Summary of Session 9 – Summary • Begin Module 4 Session 9 .43 • End of module 4 Session 9 45 44 • Quality and Management tools have been developed over the years to help analyze and solve problems on the shop floor and elsewhere • The traditional tools tend to be more quantitative and are used in a reactive mode • The seven new tools are more qualitative and can be used in a proactive mode • Ideally.