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Author(s): Yogesvara and John Cort
Source: Journal of South Asian Literature, Vol. 21, No. 2, ESSAYS ON PREMCHAND (Summer,
Fall 1986), pp. 135-141
Published by: Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University
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And therefore otherness. termed aptly by Hank Heifetz as "Indologese. is also valid. But. "Language creates identity. presented as a single oeuvre.e. As a result. that "one is always translating only for one's contemporaries. "great poems. Ingalls..) A second "agenda" contained in this translation project is to attempt to "bring over" Sanskrit poetry into contemporaryAmericanEnglish poetic idiom. This is accentuated by the impersonality of Sanskrit. At every possible socio-linguistic level. each of us. He lived no later than the ninth century C. intellectual understanding. in this case Indian."6 Nor should translation be done for people fifty years past."3 As the translator Stephan Fredmanhas put it.Yogesvara SEVENPOEMSWITHAN INTRODUCTION Translatedfromthe Sanskrit by JohnCort Yogesvara was a Sanskrit poet who was active in the court of the Pala dynasty in Eastern India. For discussions of Yogesvaraand his poetry.120 on Fri. by our eyery linguistic choice. poetry can be taken as "essential autobiography.135 - This content downloaded from 129. history." Most short Sanskrit poems ( subhãsitas . Lai. and ideology to a non-western. But they do not aim at Americanpoetry such as poets of the 1980s write and speak. new (The reverse process. if nothing else. and yery little sense of the character of the individual poets. H. I feel. necessary."5 or at best aim at the poetry of thirty to sixty years ago. literature. insights may and can arise. Manytranslators actually aim at a pseudo-poetry. long poems) are found in anthologies dating from roughly the eleventh century onwards. the character of that poet might then emerge fromthe work. Notes 1. Nothing else is really knownabout himj The following poem? are from an on-going work." in distinction to mahãkãvyas. To appropriate a tern coined by the poet Robert Duncan in another context. but rather by the subject matter of the poems. we will at least gain a different perspective on Sanskrit and Indian poetry as a whole." By applying concepts fromwestern literary theory. if all the scattered poems of a single author are pulled together into a a single text. and also by the rigid rules of Sanskrit poetics. While presumablymost translators from Sanskrit into American are conversant with the "source" language-Sanskrit poetry and poetics-painfully few have more than the vaguest notion of the "target" language. as are most modernanthologies. features somewhatrare in Sanskrit and other premodernIndian literature. I take seriously the commentby the poet/translator/critic P. in fact." i. "A Sanskrit Poetryof Village and Field: Yogeávaraand his Fellow .7.125. Creative writing may be done for a hundredyears hence. see the following: Daniel H.E. He is best knownfor his realistic depictions of nature and peasant life. to compile a translated "Complete Poems of Yogesvara. a father-tongue to all classical poets composingin it.2 These anthologies are organized not by author. not translation. and. is in the act of creating an identity that separates us from others. "wellspokens. of course. we get a strong sense of certain themes running through the body of poetry. 22 May 2015 17:03:27 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

H.136 - This content downloaded from 129. 74 (1954).D.A Descripveshvaranand tive Catalogueof Poets quotedin SanskritAnthologiesand Inscriptions .Yishveshvaranand Vedic ResearchInstitute. 352. Yol. An of SanskritCourtPoetry HarvardOriental Series No.D. LudwigSternbach. 44 (Cambridge. ography 4." Journalof the American TheAdyarLibrary H. Suresh ChandraBanerii (Calcutta: FirmaK. Sridharadasa. 64.. ed. 53." in Brahmavidya: Bulletin.MA:Harvard UniversityPress.Y. "Yoqeávaraand his FavouritePoets. ed. Yogesvara's poemsare foundin the followinganthologies. II (Wiesbaden:Otto Harrassowitz. diss. 1983). Gokhale.7. Anthology MA: HarvardUniversityPress. 2."Yidyakara." unpublishedPh.HarvardOriental Series No. Lai.D. Gokhale. herein SUK. D. V.MI: SumacPress.The Truthand Life of MythAnEssay in Essential Autobi(Fremont."Introduction.. 42 (Cambridge.Saduktikarnamrta9 ed.Y. Stephan Fredman. D. p.68). Sûktimuktavalï . TheMahabharata of Vyasa(NewDelhi: Yikas. 1974).' 42 (Cambridge. pp. See HenrySaul Heifetz. Maha-subhasitaIndological Series No. 3. Kosambiand V. herein SM. L.The Subhasitaratnakosa . 6. . 5. See RobertDuncan.Prasannasahityaratnakara . 275-278. Berkeley. P. Jalhana. 20. pp. 119-131. Universityof California. of Subhasitaratnakosa . Gaekwad'sOriental Series No. Nandana. the first two containingthe vast bulk of his extant poems:Yidyakara." Translations: Experiments in Reading/a ( O.1983. RaghavanFelicitation Volume)(1967.Oriental Society. herein SRK. . MA:HarvardUniversityPress. Ingalls.The Subhasitaratnakosa ed. LudwigSternbach."Not Understanding.P. Poets. Daniel H. Daniel H. p. Ingalls. D.120 on Fri. Mukhopadhyay.ed. 1980). 1938). appendedto Kosambiand Gokhale1 s ed. 31-32 (Dr. Kosambiand Y.ARS3. 1957). I (Hoshiarpur:Vishsamgraha. Kosambi.1980). 22 May 2015 17:03:27 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 185-201. 82 (Baroda: Oriental Institute. tr.125. Yol. 1973). EmbarKrishnamacharya.HarvardOriental Series No. "Issues of Literary Translation fromSanskrit and Tamil. 1957). xcii-xciii. 1965). 1965).

the earth is scorched bare. Hope is obscured by the thick smoke. ^B^^^ft JmfBY JL Mñ WiEnMwMwk ###fASEHW WÈËËÊW^Mm Wim•^ ig ^P&^Wm ^t^ ^f All the great trees with their f1owers.120 on Fri. forest In whatwas once a mi*9hty all that remainare a fewsolitary anthills. 22 May 2015 17:03:27 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the guardian deity goes untended. here in the clear water eyes hunting for fish & there of the pond looking here & there stepping slowly stepping one foot suspended in mid-air head turned sideways again hopefully at a falling #/w2p' wÖffST SRK 1164 / SUK 2030 2. buds& leaves are reducedto ashes by the relentless blaze.7.5 . SRK1114 / SUK1272 / SM118.1.137 - This content downloaded from 129. The gentle deer & the birds are dispersed.125. 1. THE HERON. THE FOREST FIRE.

leaps across rivers climbsdowninto chasms battles the mountains smudgesthe sky slithers along the earth's surface alights on thè bellies of forests slides inside hollowtrees picks up plants & throwsthemdown whatdoesn't it do drivenon by the force of the wind : the forest fire SUK 1271 / SM 118. 22 May 2015 17:03:27 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .120 on Fri. 2.7.138 - This content downloaded from 129. THEFOREST FIRE.7 .3.125.

as usual.chip.125.che wiss." . olit. wiss.oli t. to moultand bathe in the pond." . -"For hours. When compelledto rise."I hear a song-sparrow singingfromthe bushes on the shore. nowbrilliant glossy green. I watchedthe ducks cunninglytack and veer and hold the middleof the pond." and all the duckshave left. Therestands another in the meadow just like a stake." Thewoodducksare in anguish . showingdifferentlusters as it turned on the unrippledelement in various lights." The great bitterns and song sparrowslanguish . nowa rich bronze. birdwatcher). or the point of a stumpor root.120 on Fri. che char. Stein Feick: friend. 22 May 2015 17:03:27 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . chip. theywouldcircle roundand round and over the pondat his perchon sometree by the shore." there's not a kingfisherto be found -"kingfishers dart away fromthe coves" and all the loons have fled. makingthe woodsring with his wild laughter before I had risen. nowduskyviolet. in fall days.4.7. iC *^ and lookingwarily about them. nowthe reflections that sleep in the ruby's grain. The great blue heronshave flownfar off withan undulatingmotion ^^ M wBHKWMwmm undulatingin twodirections. wiss.. and whenI thoughttheyhad goneoff long since theywouldsettle downby a slanting flight on to a distant part whichwas left free."In the fall the loon came."Theregoes a great bittern ploddinghomeover the meadows at evening. . olit. chip. ACIDRAINPOEM(for mycousin.139 - This content downloaded from 129."Theduckwas all jewels combined." the greenbitterns are distressed --"Westole noiselessly downthe stream and the small greenbittern wouldsail away on sluggishwings fromsomerecess of the shore.

" WaidenPond is ravagedby time.140 - This content downloaded from 129. 22 May 2015 17:03:27 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . theysuddenlyspied mylight. with texts quotedfromHenryD.125. whenon the surface. perfectlystill. Standingat mydoor. Thoreau'sWaiden and Notes on NewEnglandBirds . "a fishhawk dimples the glassy surface of the pond and bringsup a fish.7. basic text fromSRK208. when. I could hear the rushof their wings. and. It dove and swama fewrods underwater. probablya grebeor dobchick. and with hushedclamor wheeled and settled In the pond." and the ospreyshave all migrated.120 on Fri." no sandpiperscomehere anymore." TheAmerican bittern 1s despondent -"The stake-driverstood In the shallowwater near a tussock. I was startled by the honking of geese flyinglow over the woods. kept turningroundand roundwarily and noddingIts head the while.The Canadageese and the divers have disappeared -"As 1t grewdarker. -"the peetweets'teter1 along 1t stonyshores all summer. with Its long bill pointedupwards In the samedirection with Its bodyand neck so as to perfectlyresemble a stake aslant.drivingtowardsmyhouse." -"Saw a small diver.

. end to talking enough of skillful foreplay starting with the touch of a hand ending as her skirt slips off bedding down clasped together they shudder eyes looking this way & that a momentlike Ahalya and Indra that union .141 - This content downloaded from 129. ah! SRK 814 / SM 301. 22 May 2015 17:03:27 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .120 on Fri.5. Slavering mouth w^e °^en teeth bared throat tense fromfolding his breath the dog he Mff Back arched face raised j^%âèè^Jsl tail erect jS^ËÏÏoSliit if one fearful eye jgp^Fw fixed on the next room jj 18L «IL ~ i** ^C? ears perked the cat she he j umpson her.125.10 . DOMESTICSCENE.7. SRK 1163 / SUK 2018 6. THE POETAS ANTHROPOLOGIST-VOYEUR. . SRK 1191 / SUK 2002 7. Praising the forest-dwellinggoddessDurga wholives in cave & crag withofferingsof life sacrificing blood to the protectressat the tree the barbariansdance withyoungmaidens halting the wild music of horns& lutes only to drinkthe strongwine at the end of the day.