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AC Power Measurement and Power

Factor Correction

the electric grid. causes the current supplied to the load to lag the applied voltage. The real power demanded by a load is the power consumed by the load in performing useful work. reactive. you will learn about power factor correction. 60 Hz voltage source. This type of power is usually measured in volt-amperes reactive (VAR). you can reduce the reactive power required of the voltage source which will in turn reduce to the total current required of the power source and increased the total load power factor. This power factor is the ratio of real power to apparent power. As mentioned in class. This increased current leads to larger losses in transmission due to the resistance of the transmission lines (recall Lab 3 where we learned about voltage drop in an extension cable). by placing a capacitor in parallel with the fan. energy is stored in the magnetic field required for the motor’s operation. an inductive load. you will use a small cooling fan to represent an inductive load. As you will see in this lab. larger cables with less resistance are required (we will discuss conductor sizing later in class). In an induction motor. For example.EELE 354 Lab Assignment 7 1 Lab Overview: In Lab 6. The apparent power is the vector sum of these two and is measured in volt-amperes (VA). during times when the instantaneous current has an opposite sign than that of the source voltage. and apparent power requirements of this load when connected to a 120 V ac. we will learn about the implications of a reactive load on the power requirements. It is generally measured in Watts (W). Additionally. and returned to the power source. In this lab. inductive loads require larger and more expensive components in generation and transmission systems in order to accommodate the larger currents. The utility is concerned about this total apparent power because even though its reactive power component is not consumed by the load. in fact it is returned. e. it causes an increase in the magnitude of the current required by the load. . to avoid excessive losses due to increased current in power transmission. e. In this lab. usually below 0.g.g.9. Due to this. This power flow operation was discussed in lecture. You will observe and measure the real. Thus. utilities will often charge premium rates to industrial and commercial consumers (residential consumers are generally too small to worry about) who have a low power factor. The reactive power is power that is required by the load for operation. but is returned to the power source following storage in the form of energy (recall that power is the time rate of energy transfer). an induction motor. we learned about the implications of reactive circuit components (capacitors and inductors) on the relationship between the current and voltage through the circuit. This is because the inductive load requires reactive power for operation.

• Observe and measure the effects of power factor correction through the use of a capacitor bank. and apparent power requirements of a typical inductive load. and their analysis. draw the schematic diagram for a cooling fan (AC motor) connected to the 120 V ac. 60-Hz single-phase supply through a power analyzer. . Part I: Below. Pre-lab Assignment: Read through the entire lab assignment.EELE 354 Lab Assignment 7 2 Objectives: The objectives of this laboratory assignment are: • Observe and measure the real. reactive. Table 1-1E of your text book gives you a symbol for an AC motor. • Further familiarize yourself with AC circuits and machines.

EELE 354 Lab Assignment 7 3 Part II: Draw the schematic diagram for the same circuit as Part I. . except also show the presence of a capacitor in parallel with the motor. we will initially use a current limiting resistor in series with the capacitor so ensure you include that resistor in your diagram. As in Lab 6.

Energize your circuit and turn the fan on to the high-power setting. P F = cos(φ) where φ is the angle between current and voltage. PL and Papp are used for the inductive reactive power and apparent power. record the supply voltage magnitude. High speed phasor diagram Low speed phasor diagram . Q. Supply Voltage |Vin | Circuit Current |I| Real Power P Reactive Power Q Apparent Power S Power Factor PF High speed Low speed 4. draw the phasor diagram for the circuit voltage and current under both speeds. the apparent power supplied by the source. P . Once your schematic diagram from Part I of the pre-lab is approved. De-energize the circuit and in the spaces below. label the angle between phasors. |Vin |. the reactive power required by the load. Your diagrams should use the supply voltage phasor as a reference by plotting it on the positive horizontal axis. Set the fan speed to low and repeat step 3. Note: In your book. In the table below. the variables. the real power consumed by the load. in industry. Additionally. You will need to calculate this angle from the equation. respectively. P F . S. |I|. However. and the resulting power factor. 3. 5. construct the circuit. Have your instructor approve your circuit. Q and S are far more commonly used so ensure you know their meaning. the total circuit current magnitude. 2.4 EELE 354 Lab Assignment 7 Lab Experiment Part I: Power Factor 1.

The angle of the apparent power phasor. the reactive power phasor. QC = VAR.5 EELE 354 Lab Assignment 7 6. C. the capacitive reactive power is equal to that of the inductive reactive power. but with an opposite angle (due to inductance current lagging and capacitance current leading the voltage). and the resulting apparent power phasor. To correct the power factor of the fan to be around 100% (unity) when operating at high speed. Set QC (reactive power of capacitor) equal to that of the AC motor. Calculate this ideal capacitance value by solving the following equations for C. This is accomplished by adding a capacitor with a reactance equal in magnitude to that of the circuit’s inductance. should be labeled. XC = Ω. Solve for capacitive reactance. a. QC = Q b. which is the same as the angle between current and voltage. That is. QC = |Vin |2 XC XC = 1 2πf C c. Solve for capacitance. XC . Draw the power phasor diagram for the circuit at both speeds. Q. This diagram should show the real power phasor (as the reference on the positive horizontal axis). High speed phasor diagram Low speed phasor diagram 7. C= F . we can add an appropriately sized capacitor to the circuit in parallel with the motor.

short the resistor you have in series with the capacitor and record all data as you did in steps 4 and 5 into the table below. along with a series connected current limiting resistor. High speed phasor diagram Low speed phasor diagram . These diagrams should show the phasor voltage as reference along with the circuit current phasor and the angle between the two. Using the data above. Insert this capacitor into your circuit.6 EELE 354 Lab Assignment 7 Lab Experiment Part II: Power Factor Correction 8. re-draw your current and voltage phasor diagrams showing the effect of connecting the capacitor in parallel with the motor. then energize it in front of your instructor. 9. in parallel with the fan. Have your lab instructor approve your circuit. Supply Voltage |Vin | Circuit Current |I| Real Power P Reactive Power Q Apparent Power S Power Factor PF High speed with capacitor Low speed with capacitor 10. After a few seconds. choose the one that is closest in value to what you calculated in step 7. From the capacitors at your lab bench.

EELE 354 Lab Assignment 7 7 11. Compare the fan data without and with the capacitor connected. Low speed phasor diagram High speed phasor diagram 12. Did the addition of the capacitor increase or decrease the current magnitude supplied by the source? Did it increase or decrease the apparent power? Explain. Re-draw your power phasor diagrams below. Name and initial of lab partners: Lab Partner 1: Lab Partner 2: Lab Partner 3: .

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