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Appendix I: Glossary

Lean production constitutes a language, much of which is Japanese. In my work, I have found a
fairly even split between people who like the Japanese terms and others who prefer their English
equivalents. I have developed the following glossary to accommodate both groups.
Japanese words tend to be visual and metaphorical. Often there are no English equivalents. I
have tried to provide the nearest equivalent English term, as well as, the most vivid metaphor to
convey the meaning as closely as possible.
4 Ms:
Man/woman, machine, material, and method.
Affinity diagram:
A tool for gathering and grouping ideas; one of the new seven quality tools; used in
hoshin planning.
A line stop; typically a cord that a worker can pull to stop the assembly line when he or
she detects a defect; an example of jidoka.
An arrangement of people, machines, materials, and methods such that processing steps
are adjacent and in sequential order so that parts can be processed one at a time (or in
some cases in a consistent small batch that is maintained through the process sequence).
The purpose of a cell is to achieve and maintain efficient continuous flow.
Continuous flow:
In its purest form continuous flow means that items are processed and moved directly to
the next process one piece at a time. Each processing step completes its work just before
the next process needs the item, and the transfer batch size is one. Also known as onepiece flow and "make one, move one."
Training hall.
Fishbone diagram:
A problem-solving and brainstorming tool; also known as a Cause and Effect diagram;
one of the Seven Quality Tools.
Five S:
A system of workplace standardization and organization. The five Ss are sort, set in order,
shine, standardize, and sustain.
Five Why Analysis:

GTS: Grasp the situation. Usually means the shop floor and other areas where work is done. the heart of PDCA. Ji sh u k en : Voluntary study groups. association suppliers might join to share experiences and thus deepen their understanding of critical concepts. Gemba: The real place or the specific place. e. Hansei: Reflection." Hoshin planning: See Hoshin kanri:. Jidoka : Automation with a human mind. Genchi genbutsu: Go see.A problem-solving technique that entails continually asking why until the root cause is found. Hoshin kanri: A strategic planning system developed in Japan and North America over the past thirty years. Jidoka means developing processes with both high capability (few defects made) and containment (defects contained in the zone). K ai . direction. Heijunka: Production leveling. Metaphorical meanings include "ship in a storm going in the right direction" and "shining needle or compass. Hoshin: A statement of objectives. goals. part of both hoshin planning and problem solving. Also known as strategic policy deployment.g.. go to the real place and see what is actually happening. and/or policy.

Edwards Deming. fault tree. Muri: Strain. and information on transportation and storage. There are two types: production and withdrawal kanbans. do. usually includes supplier and customer names. temperament. Kanba n: A small sign or signboard. overburden. Muda: Waste. PDCA: The plan. Nemawashi: Literally means "to prepare a tree for transplanting. Manageme nt by objectives (MBO): The precursor to hoshin planning. based on experience.ze n: A small incremental improvement. Process Decision Program Charts (PDPC). Mental model: One's assumptions about how the world works. either physical or mental. Pareto chart: A problem solving tool comprising a bar chart showing possible contributing factors in descending order. Mura: Unevenness. one of the Seven Quality Tools. a central element of the just-in-time system. act cycle developed by Walter Shewhart in the 1930s and refined by W." refers to the formal and informal method of gaining consensus prior to the implementation of a hoshin or plan. Kaizen activity should involve everyone regardless of position. check. interrelationship digraph. the invisible glasses that filter our experience and determine what we see. an instruction to produce or supply something. usually a card. matrix. tree diagram. The Practice of Management. They include the affinity diagram. and Gantt chart. The new seven Problem-solving tools developed in Japan and North America in the 1970s. introduced by Peter Drucker in his 1954 book. and upbringing. .

Also called a supermarket. creates the muda of overproduction. checksheet. the customer "withdraws" the item and we "plug the gap" created thereby. and trackable. Standard: The best way we know at this moment. Pull: To produce an item only when the customer asks for it. Sensei: Teacher. one of the new Seven Quality Tools. Store: A controlled inventory of items that is used to schedule production at an upstream process. one who has gone before. Pareto chart. reasonable. Tree diagram: A tool used for mapping tasks for implementation. Push: To produce an item irrespective of actual demand. simple image of what should be happening. a clear. Supermarket: See Store:. achievable. Refers to goals and targets. Takt: The pace of production synchronized with the rate of sales. histogram. control chart. used in hoshin planning. and scatter diagram. They include the run chart. measurable. standards in the lean system change as we discover better ways of working. Total productiv .Poka-yoke: An inexpensive robust device that eliminates the possibility of a defect by alerting the operator that an error has occurred. Typically. The Seven Qua Problem solving tools developed in Japan and North America over the past century. Usually located near the upstream process to make customer requirements visible. Strategy Deplo Hoshin Kanri. SMART: Simple.

sharing of common issues and countermeasures. Value Stream: The series of steps required to bring a product or service to the customer. . Value Stream M A diagram. and applying problem solving with the goal of achieving zero breakdowns. TPM usually entails implementing the 5S system. Yokoten: Information sharing across the plant. measuring the six big losses. typically through small-group activities. prioritizing problems. Work-in-proce Items between machines waiting to be processed.An integrated set of activities aimed at maximizing equipment effectiveness by involving everyone in all departments at all levels. also known as material and information flow diagram. usually hand drawn that shows the series of steps required to bring a product of service to a customer.