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INTRODUCTION

:
Environment can be defined as the sum total of
materials and forces surrounding the living organism.
Environment regulated the life of the organisms including
human beings. Man being the most intelligent creature,
interacts with the environment more vigorously than does
any other organism. There is no end of human needs. With
the growth of human civilization, there has been an
exponential increase in the demands for materials. As a
result, man has started exploiting nature mercilessly to meet
the demands of his comfort and to feed the mouths for
increased

population.

Through

deterioration

of

environmental condition is brought about by extreme events
like natural catastrophes and calamities, man-made hazards,
physical pollution and social, man has a major role in it.
Economic development at present is directly linked with
environmental degradation. The chief cause of depletion of
world’s forest cover is conversion of forest lands into
agriculture lands. Every year near 8 to 12 million hectres of
world’s forest cover is depleted. Similarly of world’s forest
cover

is depleted.

Similarly

due

to

urbanization

and

industrial development, coastal wetlands are destroyed.
Thus, rapid growth of population, rapid industrialization and
green

revolution

are

responsible

for

degradation

of

environment.
To feed the ever growing human population, efforts are
being made to increase the food production and that led to
“Green Revolution”. The ammunitions of green revolution
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are the chemical fertilizers and pesticides which have been
used indiscriminately to provide more nutrients to crops and
to control pests respectively. No doubt, these chemicals
have increased the food production manifold but side by
side have given rise to many health and ecological
problems. Agrochemicals constitute one of the major causes
of soil and water pollution.
With the growth of human population and urbanisation,
number of automobiles and other vehicles has increased.
More vehicles mean more air pollution & noise pollution. The
causative

agents

of

ozone

layer

depletion

are

chlorofluroccarbons which we use as refrigerants and
propellants. Automobiles and industries are responsible for
increased CO2 in air leading to green house effect and global
warming we pollute the soil by dumping garbage.
POLLUTION:
Pollution is defined as an undesirable change in the
physical, chemical & biological characterstics of air, water &
soil that may harmfully affect the life or create a potential
hazard for living organism.
Degradation of environment with the introduction of
man-made extraneous materials to air, water or land is also
called ‘Pollution’. The extraneous agents which cause
pollution are called as “Pollutants.” The pollutants may be
material or energy which cause pollution when added to the
environment

in

quantities

and

at

a

rate

which

are

determental to the life of the organisms. Thus, a ‘Pollutant’
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radioactivity. Water Pollution 3. In this study we will discuss about water pollution of Khordha. The first three of these are more effective to the environment. etc. What is water pollution When toxic substances enter lakes.is defined as ‘any material (solid. The facilities to treat waste water are not adequate in any city in India. Soil Pollution 4. and other water bodies.’ Basing on different type of pollutants the pollution is of following types: 1. affecting aquatic ecosystems. Air Pollution 2. which ultimately ends up in our households. and other water bodies. streams. Presently. The most polluting of them are the city sewage and industrial waste discharged into the rivers. Such water. Noise Pollution. they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. This results in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the deteriorates. Due to this. Pollutants can also seep down and affect the groundwater deposits. rivers. ) that produces harmful effects when added to the environment. Water pollution has many sources. rivers. is often highly 3 . only about 10% of the waste water generated is treated. oceans. sound. pollutants enter groundwater. the rest is discharged as it is into our water bodies. liquid or gas) or energy ( heat.

Also referred to as sanitary sewage. 4 . Agricultural run-off. is another major water pollutant as it contains fertilizers and pesticides. Domestic sewage refers to waste water that is discarded from households.contaminated and carries disease-causing microbes. or the water from the fields that drains into rivers. such water contains a wide variety of dissolved and suspended.

Overview of the Khordha District Location of Khordha: The erstwhile Puri District was divided to form three new districts in April 1993 and as a result Khordha District was formed taking Khordha and Bhubaneswar sub-divisions of Puri district. on the southeast by Chilika Lake and Puri District.  Population : 2251673  Male Population : 1167137  Female Population : 1. This district lies between north latitudes 19 0 40’ to 200 27’ and east longitudes 84 0 56’ to 860 05’ covering an area of about 2813 Sq.  Location : 190 40’ to 200 27’ North 840 56’ to 860 05’ East  District Headquarter : Khordha Town  Geographical Area : 2813 Sq.536  Sex ratio : 929  Number of Block : 10  Number of GPs : 168  Number of Revenue Villages 5 : 1567 . on the west and southwest by Nayagarh District and Ganjam District. 56 Hect. Kms. Kms.084. It is bounded in the north and northest by Cuttack District.  Forest Cover : 50936.

Rainfall 6 . Km. winter. such as (a) coastal sand dunes. of reserve forest and 209. Kms. The period from June to September is the rainy season and the district gets it from the southwest monsoon. Baed on the physiographic set up.e. (c) Lateritic upland and (d) Hilly terrain. The wind speed is fairly strong during summer and monsoon months and the direction is between southwest and south. of demarcated protected forestland. The rainfall distribution is equal during the monsoon period. (b) alluvial plain. Forest Khordha district is having 298. temperature goes upto 41-470 C in some parts of the district. Climates and Rainfall: Climate The climate of the district is characterized by a tropical monsoon having three district seasons in a year i. summer and rainy season. the district may be broadly divided into four natural divisions.91 Sq. Km.87 Sq. Number of Tehsils : 7 Natural Resources Land: The district of Khordha has Geographical area of 2813 Sq. The relative humidity varies from 48 to 85% at Bhubaneswar. The summer is from March to May and during the month of May.

Kushabhadra and Daya having southerly. passed over the district during their southwest movement and cause heavy rains in the catchments area of the rivers in the district. Bhargavi. Socio-economic Features: The economic condition of the district is ordinarily affected because of the continual visitation of natural calamities like flood. The important distributaries and sub-distributaries of the river Mahanadi traversing the area are Kuakhai. which are mostly the tributaries and distributaries of Mahanadi River and a few other streams discharging into the Chilika Lake.00 mm. The rainfall is uniform in all over the district. About 65% of the population in the district live in rural areas and depend largely on agriculture for their livelihood. which controls the socio-economy of the district. cyclone and drought. The streams which drain the southern part of the district and fall directly into Chilika Lake are Sulia. which originate in the Bay of Bengal during monsoon.The normal rainfall of the district is 1443. River Systems and Dams The district is drained by number of streams. causing devastation in the fertile region as well as loss of lives and properties in some parts of this district every year. Kharia and Kusumi which flows towards east. Almost all the 7 . southeasterly and south-westerly courses. Storms and depression. heat wave. The tributaries of the river Mahanadi originating in the district are Rana and Kalijiri having almost northerly course.

Kuakhai: River Kuakhai originating as a branch of Mahanadi enters Bhubaneswar Block area from the north near Jhinkardiha and Marichia village of Dadha GP and flow touching the eastern boundaries of Kalyanpur. Excess water over flowing Mancheswar escape over river Kuakhai 8 . i.streams in the district are effluent in nature and dying up during summer months but causing frequent floods in the rainy season. During flood the excess water from Kuakhai River submerged Jhinkardiha. It even affects Mancheswar Bhoisahi if the flood is very severe. The District is mainly covered by the following rivers: Sl. Basuaghai and Sisupal GP and passes amidst Mancheswar. Barimunda. The low lying areas adjoining the Chilika Lake are inundated by the lake during monsoon as rivers discharge large volumes of water into it. Marichia and some parts of Gandarpur village. Name of Rivers Areas Covered 1 Kuakhai Bhubaneswar Block 2 Bhargavi Balianta & Baliopatna Block 3 Budunai Bhubaneswar Block 4 Daya Bhubaneswar Block 5 Kushabhadra Balianta Block 6 Malaguni Khordha Block 7 Rana Begunia & Khordha Block 8 Kusumi Tangi Block No.

Rokata dn Krushnaranapur villages. Kusabhadra: Kusabhadra leaves the river Kuakhai at Balianta and flows in the South-Western direction for 46 miles till it enters the Bay of Bengal near Ramachandi temple. 37 miles from its take off place. Raghunatpur. The river affects a part of Balianta and Balipatana blocks during flood. Kalarahanga dna Barimunda GPs and finally merges into river Kuakhai near Jaripatna. 15 miles East of Puri. Daya: The river Daya takes off from river Kuakhai at Saradeipur and runs towards a few miles and then makes a sharp turn west ward for four miles and after that continues its course outwards.completely submerges the paddy field of Mancheswar and Barimunda GPs and maroons Singada. ii. iii. 9 . the rest of the length emptying itself into the north eastern corner of the Chilika lake. Budunai: In originates from the forest and hilly tracks of Candaka and flows through Daruthenga GP near Alasua. Bhargavi : The river Bhargavi passes through some village of Balianta Block. The mouth of Kusabhadra below Ramachandi is free form lid. v. iv. Communication is cut off during heavy rains and flood. Excess water flowing through Budunai flows over Nandanakanan-Jaripada road.

Kusumi: This river affects some villages of Tangi block during flood. An area of 27 Sq. vii.Malaguni: It runs through Khordha Tahasil.The river bed is shallow resulting in low discharge at the time of heavy flow. The river Dhanua with its tributary brings a large volume of water to Kusabhadra. vi. viii. 10 . flood relief operations and post flood arrangements. Rana: The river Rana rises in Khordha sub-division and eventually joins the river Mahanadi after flowing through Banki Tahasil in the district at Cuttack. Kms. This is more or less a hill stream and badly affects some portions of Khordha. Chilika and Tangi blocks during flood. (some portions of Begunia and Khordha blocks) is inundated by the backwater of this river when Mahanadi is flooded. Thus floods have become endemic in the district and call for effective pre-flood measures.

Oil spills. Industrial wastes. 11 . (ix) Temperature. Fertilizers. Two-third of the surface of the earth is covered with water. Groundwater. The sources of water are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Sea. cleaning. pesticides & insecticides. About 97% of the total water present on earth is salt water and remaining 3% is freshwater. About 85 to 90% of the weight of the living body is water. Animal & human excreta. Metals (like mercury. (viii) Open earth mining. Rain. WATER POLLUTANTS: The followings are the major water pollutants: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Sewage & other organic wastes. arsenic. etc. etc. (x) Radioactivity. cadmium. Water is indispensable in our daily life as we use it for various purposes like cooking. drinking. the elixir of life and also the medium of life activity. washing clothes. Acid rain.WATER POLLUTION & Its control Water is the universal solvent.). lead. & Surface water.

In rural areas this figure is even higher. No. Jemadei 7600 05 03 12 0 6. of Ponds the Locality 1. of other sources Municip ality . B. Sriram Nagar 12000 05 04 07 0 3. DATA COLLECTED FROM TEN DIFFERENT LOCALITY IN TABULAR FORM Sl. of Tube wells No. Nationally. 53% of the population relies on ground water as a source of drinking water.A.D.2) 11600 12 02 04 2 5. Gurujang 40000 20 15 30 3 12 No. Eighty one percent of community water is dependent on ground water. many local areas have experienced significant ground water contamination. Ground water is found in natural rock formations. No. the Nation’s ground water quality is good to excellent. overall. Kms. of Dug wells No. Palla (Khurda . Bhaliabadi 22000 15 10 17 2 8. Narayan Nagar 25000 10 02 03 2 4. Mukunda Prasad 23500 07 08 15 0 7. Colony 15000 09 03 06 0 2. Although the 1992 Section 305 (b) State Water Quality Reports indicate that. Name of Population Area in Sq. Nabinabag 25800 3 2 04 0 9. Some examples are leaking underground storage tanks and municipal landfills.Khordha town and Water Pollution GROUND WATER Ninety-five percent of all fresh water on earth is ground water. These formations called aquifers are a vital natural resource with many uses.

A.D.Supply TESTING THE SAMPLE OF WATER FROM DIFFERENT LOCALITY & THEIR NATURE IN TABULAR FORM Parameters Locality No. 4. 13 . Nabinabag & 5. Gurujang.1 7. Mukunda Prasad.. Monitoring Sites 1 2 3 4 5 PH 7.6 6.9 SS (Mg/1) 120 20 160 100 140 TDS (Mg/1) 180 200 200 200 400 BOD (Mg/1) 100 160 120 60 140 COD (Mg/1) 130 208 160 120 208 CL (Mg/1) 36 50 66 34 74 1 to 5 indicates that:1. B.5 7. Sriram Nagar. Colony.4 6. 3. 2.

The Chief Chemical fertilizers include phosphophates & nitrates. They facilitate luxuriant growth of bacteria when dumped into water. pathogenic. Domestic waste & Sewage: The main source of sewage is urban dwellings. micro-organisms which soaps.SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION 1. PCBs are bio-accumulative and bio- nondegradable. 2. chemical fertilizers and biocides. They are now known to cause cancer in animals. As of a consequence whole biosphere is being polluted. Agrochemicals: production poisonous huge To increase amounts agrochemicals of are the agricultural different being kinds used. waste Domestic wastes & sewages induce the growth of microorganisms. lakes. PCBs are used to make number of products starting from printing ink to electrical capacitor. These bacteria decompose the waster utilizing the oxygen present in water and thus cause depletion of oxygen concentration in water. These chemicals fall into categories i.e. Lead poisoning severely affects the kidney. Sewage wastes are directly discharged into rivers. PCBs: Another dangerous pollutant turning up in waters throughout the world is polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs). reservoirs etc. The wastes include human excreta. 14 . 3. Another heavy metal known to cause various ailments in human beings is lead. are detergents. liver & central nervous system.

Aldrin. chemicals dyes. suspended solids & heavy metals (Ph. Cr. lakes. Chalrdone. Methoxychlor. Oil Spills: The oil which spills out during transportation on sea or during offshore drilling pollutes the water. 6. Hg. Thermal Pollution: The rise in temperature of water bodies is detrimental to the life of aquatic animals. their organs & organ systems become paralysed. oil. grease. BHC. electricity generation plants.). Pesticides & Biocides: Commonly used biocides are DDT. plastic materials.4. Apart from this. High temperature and low oxygen concentration make the water inhospitable for the aquatic animals. CO. phenols. Heptachlor. Andrine. Cu. These effluents carry many organic & inorganic chemicals like acids. etc. 7. rivers or seas. alkalis. Oil being lighter than water. The low oxygen concentration of oil-covered water affects lives of aquatic animals. etc. Cd. The water used for cooling purposes in nuclear reactors. All these chemicals & biocides sprayed in crop fields. cyandies. Copper Sulphate. 5. Industrial wastes & effluents: Industries are using inland water bodies as an effluent dumping ground. covers the surface of water & thus prevents water from contact with air resulting in graded depletion of dissolved oxygen. 15 . when aquatic birds & other animals come in contact with spilled oil. steel plants & oil refineries becomes hot & this heated water is generally discharged into ponds. ultimately find their way into water system through leakage or agricultural runoff.

waste water.8. etc. etc. 16 . arsenic. 9. lead. fumes. sludges. discharged dusts. contain metals like mercury. cadmium. Radioactivity : Radioactive wastes discharged by the nuclear plants pollute the seas. Metals: The industrial wastes. Radioactive substances of these wastes also spread elsewhere from seas & can cause cancer & damage to the genetic material of the living organisms. These metals get increasingly deposited in bodies of organisms at higher trophic levels and the phenomenon is called biomagnification.

As a result. The phenomenon of depletion of concentration of water as a consequence of increase in nutrient load is called eutrophication.EFFECTS OF WATER POLLUTION: 1. Ecological Magnification: Polluted water contains many unnatural toxic substances like metals & pesticides which remain stable in the environment without being degraded. The dissolved oxygen of the water is consumed by the decomposers and also by other aquatic organisms during their respiration. These substances find their way into the body of living organisms through food chain. When the algae & other organisms die. The body of the organism neither can degrade them into harmless simple components nor can excrete them easily. These processes result in the depletion of oxygen concentration of these water bodies & thus create problems for the fishes. gradually they accumulate in the tissues of plants & animals & pass from one tropic level to the other in the food chain to reach man finally. The concentration of these chemicals or substances is very high in the organisms of higher trophic levels of the food chain. the nutrient load of these water bodies gradually increase which facilitates algal bloom in them. Water bodies with algal bloom appear totally green. they are decomposed by these decomposers. As a result. Increasing accumulation of the stable toxic substances in the tissues of 17 . 2. Eutrophication: The domestic sewage & run-off water from agricultural fields release inorganic & organic nutrients & fertilizers into different water bodies.

Mercury DISORDERS . arsenic. blurred vision. Effects of Agrochemicals: There are many pesticides which are no biodegradable and once introduced. numbness of lips. Effects of Metals: Magnification heavy metals released to the environment through industrial wastes occurs in every stage of transfer in the food chain. 3. alkalies. 18 . The addition of these harmful substances changes the pH of water and effects adversely the distribution & activities of aquatic plants & animals. 4. The disorders caused by these metals in humans are as follows: NAME OF THE METAL 1.organisms at different trophic levels of food chain is referred to as ‘ecological magnification’. dyes & many other toxic chemicals are present in the industrial effluents which are released to the different water bodies. remain stable in the environment for a very long time.Disorders peripheral of central nervous and system. lead cadmium. Metals like mercury. 5. These agrochemicals find way into the bodies of the organisms through food chain & get magnified in higher trophic levels. Effect of Industrial Discharges: A variety of harmful substances lice acids. nickel & chromium are highly toxic in the body of human beings.

Respiratory & skin cancer. 6. 4. pulmonary diseases. The dinoflagellate blooms make the tidal water appear red in colour.Nervous disorders. 6. substances which cause death of marine fauna. Red Tide: When coastal waters become enriched with nutrients of the discharged sewage. hence the name ‘red tide’. muscles. Arsenic . 5. blooms of dinoglagellate occur in them.limbs.Disorders of central nervous system & vision. nerval failure. blood poisojning. 2.Neural. prot & skeletal einuria & glycosuria. Nickel . THE SOURCES CAUSING WATER POLLUTION Sources Numbers Paper Industry : 3 Sewage : 28 Oil Tanks : 5 19 . cancer.Respiratory disorders. Chromium . anaemia & encephalopathy. Cadmium . 7.Pulmonary disorders. etc. nervous disorders. Tin . dermatitis. Lead . These dinoflagellate produce toxic. pneumoconiotis. 3.

8. sewage. The industrial discharges should be released to the water bodies only after their neutralization & proper treatment. Methods like adsorption. Scientific methods should be adopted to handle and dispose the garbage. 4. Regular checks & supervisions should be undertaken to maintain the quality of drinking water. Public awareness should be created regarding causes & effects of water pollution. Large shallow oxidation ponds can be constructed to store the domestic sewage and green algae & bacteria will gradually grow in such ponds thereby purifying such waters. 20 . ion exchange. The germs of the water bodies including the sewage should be killed time to time using lime and bleaching powder. Water pollution can be controlled by enacting stringent laws to punish the people who pollute the water. 9. 3. should employed to remove or alter the pollutants. Instead of releasing to the water bodies. etc. reverse osmosis. 7. 6. excreta & industrial wastes. the effluent water can be used ofr growing algae and aquatic plants to produce biomass for use in biogas plants. 5.CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION: 1. electro dialysis. 2.

21 . These drains discharge both domestic and industrial wastewater from densely populated old city areas.64 t/day and that of solids is 127 t/day. Also. the old sewerage system is prone to frequent choking of sewerage lines leading to overflow bad of sewage sanitary maintenance into roads conditions. The major contributor to the water pollution for BOD Load is Nabinabag drain followed by Mukundaprasad. and renovation and creating Lack of periodic of old sewerage system is yet another problem.CONCLUSION: i. The total organic load (BOD) discharged through these drains is 100. iii. In absence of sewerage system. At present only the main road of the town is sewered. Several areas in the town are not covered by sewerage system and these areas are severely affected due to stagnation of sewage on the roads and open plots adjoining the building blocks. Open drains carrying sewage across the city pose severe threat to health in addition to causing nuisance of bad odour and over flow during monsoon period. ii. iv. both domestic and These drains discharge industrial wastewater from densely populated old city areas. In most of the places sewage is discharged in to open drains without any treatment. people are using septic tanks and soak pits.

But due the discharges from city the water quality deteriorated although not alarming. poor polluted drains and river. The existing water quality in river Kuakhai is ‘acceptable’. system. chloride. TC and FC counts recorded in all these water bodies indicate their polluted nature. Bhaliabadi and Sriramnagar market and high iron content in almost all tube wells. overflowing sewage are highly deterrent to the tourism activity and for the health of the local people. Nabinabag. viii. has The present water quality in River Kuakhai can be categorized under ‘ C ’ class and falls under the ‘Acceptable’ category of the Water Quality Criteria. lack water of pollution sewerage levels. The high levels of BOD. in view of the socioeconomic considerations sentiments. I found that the environment level goes on decreasing. However. vii. After the detail study of environment of Khurda Town. The ground water quality suggests that the water quality of both dug wells and tube wells are not much polluted excepting the lower pH recorded at Gurujanga. vi. Over the year the trends shows that the water quality has deteriorated ‘excellent’ category to the from the ‘desirable’ category at the upstream of Bhubaneswar. we have to create awareness among the people & take 22 . So.v. nitrate. bathing in added with these religious public ponds is likely to continue for time to come. The existing sanitation. The water quality in all most all the lakes and ponds is not suitable for bathing.

precaution to control different type of pollution to save the environment. 23 . Otherwise it will spoil & as the result we will also suffer as well as we will responsible for the difficulties of our future generation.

.we simply need to extend water to those without it. Given this dire situation. the creation of an advocacy group is long overdue.SAVE WATER – SAVE LIFE “Each year between two and five million people worldwide die from lack of safe water and sanitation. Water Advocates and other nonprofits can make enormous strides in helping solve this worldwide crisis by informing the 24 .We know what the problem is and we have the knowledge and resources to save millions of lives .

public and ensuring that funding is available for more projects. 25 .